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The History and Tradition - It's Behind You Dot Com In the United Kingdom, the word "Pantomime" means a form of entertainment, generally performed during the Christmas season. Most cities and towns throughout the UK have a form of Pantomime at this time of year. The origins of British Pantomime or "Panto" as it is known date back to the middle ages, taking on board the traditions of the Italian "Commedia dell’ Arte, the Italian night scenes and British Music hall to produce an intrinsic art form that constantly adapted to survive up to the present day.
Pantomime has been attempted abroad, usually with a small amount of success. Not surprisingly it has proved popular in countries such as Canada, Australia and South Africa- recently a production of "Babes in the wood" ran at the Rainbow Seven Arts Theatre in Harare, Zimbabwe! In America this very British art form has fared less favourably, although in 1868 a production of "Humpty Dumpty" ran for over 1,200 performances at the Olympic Theatre, New York, making it the most successful Pantomime in American history.
The Subjects Pantomime, as we know it today is a show predominantly aimed at children, based on a popular fairy tale or folk legend. The most popular subjects being "Cinderella", followed by "Aladdin", "Dick Whittington" and "Snow White". Other popular titles are "Jack & the Beanstalk", "Babes in the Wood",( usually combining the legend of Robin Hood) and "Sleeping Beauty". Rising in popularity is "Peter Pan", although purists would argue that this is not strictly a pantomime, but a children’s story, based on J.
M Barrie’s play. "Peter Pan" first performed at the Duke of York’s Theatre, London in 1904 transferred successfully to America shortly afterwards. Today the story has had elements of Pantomime introduced, and is one of the highly popular Christmas shows around the British Isles. Pantomime has become a thriving business in this country. Large theatres vie with each other for the subjects and "star" names that will attract full houses, and the pantomime can often run for six to eight weeks, providing much needed revenue to box offices up and down the country.
Twenty years ago the average run of a pantomime could be from the week before Christmas up until the end of February, but today few theatres can sustain such a length of run. The exceptions recently being the Hippodrome Theatre, Birmingham, Mayflower Theatre, Southampton, and the Grand Theatre, Wolverhampton. We have fact sheets on many of the major subjects which are used on The Magic of Theatre Roadshow.
The Impresarios Pantomime giants, such as Qdos, present as many as thirty pantomimes in Great Britain, and several others abroad. During its long existence Pantomime has witnessed other panto impresarios, such as Augustus Harris, "Father of modern Pantomime" at the Drury Lane Theatre in the 1870’s. Harris, the manager of Drury Lane introduced the first stars of the popular Music Hall into his productions, and created the lavish productions that popularised the genre, forcing managements not just in London, but around the country to ensure that every town had at least one, if not two Pantomimes running every Christmas season.
Francis Laidler took on the mantle "King of Pantomimes" in the 1930’s, producing shows at the Alhambra Theatre, Bradford, which were then presented all over the country. The subjects on offer in the 1930’s and 1940’s included those now fallen from popularity. Titles like "Goody Two Shoes", "Humpty Dumpty" and "Red Riding Hood" have almost completely vanished today., while in recent times Pantomime has seen the gradual disappearance of titles like "Puss in boots", "Mother Goose" and "Robinson Crusoe".
And who can forget the Littlers! In the 1950’s and 1960’s the Pantomime crown rested upon the head of Derek Salberg, who created pantomimes from the Alexandra Theatre, Birmingham in the style and tradition that made them justifiably famous, along with producing managements such as Howard and Wyndham, and Emile Littler. In recent times companies such as Triumph and the impresario Paul Elliott have been the guiding force behind provincial pantomimes.
The cost of presenting a modern pantomime could be estimated at anything between �150,000 and over half a million pounds. These productions will be expected to tour for a number of years, and recoup their costs. This however is not an innovation. In 1827 the pantomimes staged at Covent Garden and Drury Lane cost up to �1,000 each. You will find additional details on the impresarios that have shaped pantomime in our NEW section - THE IMPRESARIOS.
Tradition Pantomime has combined many elements of theatre throughout its existence, and by adapting it has survived. The element of "novelty" has always been to the forefront, as has its ability to encompass modern trends and topicality, within its structured framework. People talk about "traditional" pantomime, but to remain popular this form of theatre has had to keep its eye firmly on modern trends, and by weaving these into its format, remains one of the most popular forms of entertainment in this country.
Elements that a pantomime should have, to be described as "Traditional" begin with a strong story line. The fable or fairy tale has to be well told, incorporating the all important elements of good battling against evil, and emerging triumphant. In this respect, the concept varies little from the medieval morality plays, performed on village greens. To this day "tradition" says that the Pantomime villain should be the first to enter, from the "dark side", stage left, followed by his adversary the good fairy from stage right.
This echoes the tradition in medieval times when the entrances to heaven and hell were placed on these sides. We have a fact sheet on Superstitions and Tradition which is used on The Magic of Theatre Roadshow. Commedia Dell'Arte The element of song and dance in Pantomime are very important. The influences of the Italian "Commedia dell’Arte" can be seen here. This form of entertainment traveled through Italy to France, where it became very popular.
It consisted of a number of stock characters performing comic situations, with a highly visual content. The actors generally improvised their way through a plot involving characters such as Arlecchino, or Harlequin and his true love, Columbina or Columbine. Other stock characters were the over protective father, Pantaloon, who refused to allow the heroic Harlequin to seek his daughter’s affections.
In various versions Pantaloon has a servant, Pulchinello, later to be known as Clown, and a soldier, an unsuitable suitor who seeks the hand of Columbine. Comic chases and tricks were employed to full effect. Although the character of "Pulchinello" has vanished from the Pantomime today, he still exists in this country as "Mr. Punch", the anti-heroic puppet, who along with his wife Judy can still be seen in seaside towns and parks entertaining children today.
Italian Night Scenes The difficulty with Commedia dell’Arte transferring from France to Great Britain was that, in the main, the actors did not speak English. The scenes from their continental shows had now to be mimed, and more emphasis was put on to singing and dancing. These shows evolved into what were known as "Italian Night Scenes", and became highly popular in this country, particularly at Drury Lane.
The comic chases and "business" that emerged from these productions eventually became known as "Slapstick", still a very important element in modern Pantomimes. Slapstick "Slapstick" takes its name from a device used in these early entertainments, and most especially from "Harlequinades", scenes that were later to develop from the "Night Scenes". Harlequin was considered to be a magical creation.
He carried with him a sword, made of wood which alternated between being a weapon and a magic wand. This sword or bat had a hinged flap, which created a very loud "slapping" noise when used, generally to give a more theatrical effect when used to slap fellow actors. To this day a pantomime comic will insist on using the talents of a drummer in the orchestra pit to "point" his comic stage business of slaps, falls or trips.
The slapstick may also have had a secondary purpose. Harlequin, in these semi improvised scenes would be in control of the situation. He would know when the scenery should be changed, and it is believed he would "Clap" his slapstick to indicate that this should happen, in the form of an audible cue. This may well be the basis of the theatrical superstition that one should never clap backstage, for fear of bad luck, Since bringing heavy scenery down upon your head could be bad luck indeed! Harlequinade By the early eighteenth century, the first use of the word "Pantomime" emerges.
A "ballet-pantomime" was created, "The loves of Mars and Venus" in 1717, followed by "Harlequin Sorcerer", produced by John Rich, who under his stage name "Lun" played Harlequin. Rich was responsible for creating the first "Harlequinade. Harlequinades were produced all year round at his Lincoln Inn Fields Theatre, and these became so popular that David Garrick at Drury Lane felt obliged to mount his own pantomime, the difference being that his Harlequin spoke the lines, with less emphasis on mime.
By 1773 the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane presented the first pantomime story that has a direct descendant today, "Jack the Giant Killer". The Harlequinades continued to be played as short pieces put on after the main drama of the evening was concluded, as a sort of antidote to the tragedy. With time these Harlequinades grew longer, and by 1781 with the creation of "Robinson Crusoe", the characters of Clown, Harlequin and Pantaloon were firmly established in their desert Island environment.
"Aladdin and his wonderful Lamp" followed in 1788, followed by "Babes in the wood" and finally in 1804 "Cinderella" was created on stage. Enter Grimaldi The most famous of the pantomime clowns was Joseph Grimaldi, who made his first appearance in 1800, and such was his eminence that to this day clowns are called "Joeys" in his memory. His influence on these early pantomimes was immense. The public clamoured to see his performances at Sadlers Wells and Drury Lane, and left the Theatre singing the comic choruses of the songs he introduced.
Pantomime had its first real star, and by this time the elements of comedy songs and slapstick were firmly rooted, as they have remained to this present day. Grimaldi also pioneered the next important element that a "Traditional" pantomime should have, the art of cross dressing- the Pantomime Dame. Amongst his roles were Queen Rondabellyana in "Harlequin and the red dwarf", and Dame Cecily Suet in "Harlequin Whittington".
The Theatrical tradition of men playing women can be traced back to the early days of theatre, when it was deemed not appropriate for women to enter the theatrical profession. Boys played all the female roles in Shakespeare’s plays, and even during the Restoration, when actresses were established on the stage, often middle aged actors played the roles of older or comedic ladies, since the new breed of actress either did not possess the years, or the inclination to play such unglamorous roles.
We have a fact sheet on Grimaldi which is used on The Magic of Theatre Roadshow. Enter The Dame The Pantomime Dame, usually the hero’s mother, such as Widow Twankey in "Aladdin" or "Dame Trott" in Jack and the Beanstalk was a creation that emerged from the early Music Halls of the Victorian era. The public warmed to seeing their favourite comedian playing the role of Jack’s mother, or the King’s cook and bottlewasher.
Often the Dame’s costumes would be used to good comic effect by parodying the fashions of the day, in much the same way as the modern Dame or Ugly Sister does at the moment. The Ugly Sisters were first seen played by women in Rossini’s opera, "La Cenerentola" in London, but were swiftly transformed into men playing the roles in 1860, at the Royal Strand Theatre, London. The Ugly Sisters differ from the Dame in that they have to tread the thin tightrope between being hugely comic characters, and yet still remain the villains of the piece.
This author, having trod that tightrope for twenty years is all too aware of having to keep the balance between comedy, which to achieve needs a degree of warmth and sympathy from the audience, and then being able to turn on the villainy when bullying the unfortunate Cinderella. The Panto Dame, on the other hand should exude warmth and comedy, even pathos, but is never required to do any "dirty Deeds".
The exception to this being the Dame role of "Mother Goose". We have a fact sheet on Pantomime Dames which is used on The Magic of Theatre Roadshow. Dan Leno Mother Goose was created again at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane in 1902. The role was created for Dan Leno, one of the most popular comedians of the day. He had already achieved fame through playing Dame roles in Pantomime, into which he injected the stage business and comic songs that had made him the idol of the Music Halls.
The Role of "Mother Goose" gave Leno the opportunity to play the comic old lady who, through friendship with the goose "Priscilla" achieves wealth. However, money cannot buy beauty, and tempted by the Demon King, the Dame is persuaded to sell Priscilla to the Demon in exchange for Youth and beauty. The scene where the Dame rejects the goose is what makes it unique. The Dame, having been warm and loveable, is now seen to be cruel and selfish.
The task for the actor concerned is to regain not just Priscilla, but the forgiveness of the audience by the end of the pantomime. Dan Leno became the biggest star in an era that was to draw many stars from Music Hall in Great Britain, and establish the trend that remains today of using well known personalities to "Top the Bill" in Pantomimes. Garrick in the Eighteenth century had contributed to the lavish and spectacular elements that can be found in modern day pantomime, and Augustus Harris continued to build on this concept during the 16 years he produced the Drury Lane spectacular pantomimes.
He teamed up Dan Leno with Herbert Campbell in 1888, and created a comic partnership that had no rival. We have a fact sheet on Dan Leno which is used on The Magic of Theatre Roadshow. The Principal Boy The other element of "Traditional" pantomime is on the decline today, namely the "Principal boy" role, played by a girl. Women had for a long time played the "breeches role" in theatre, as far back as the early 1800’s.
By the middle of the nineteenth century the vogue for ladies to take on the heroic roles of "Jack" or "Dick Whittington" or "Aladdin" was beginning, and with the rise of Music Hall it became the rule. Quite simply, the Victorian male, living in a society where even the legs of the parlour piano were covered for modesty’s sake , craved the vision of a well turned calf, or shapely ankle. Whilst ladies were corseted, crinolined or bustled on the street, artistic license allowed ladies upon the stage to wear costumes that revealed shapely legs in tights on condition that they were playing a male role! The "Principal Boy" held sway in Pantomime through the first and second world wars, creating stars like Dorothy Ward, one of the stalwarts of British Pantomime, and Evelyn Laye, Hy Hazel, Noel Gorden, and Pat Kirkwood.
By the 1950’s the emergence of men playing the role began with Norman Wisdom, and the influx of "pop" stars such as (Sir) Cliff Richard and Marty Wilde , a trend that has waned as ladies once again returned to the role, such notables as Barbara Windsor, Cilla Black and Anita Harris taking the reins4. Today the trend seems to be reversing in favour of men playing the parts, but, as has been mentioned, Pantomime constantly adapts in favour of "The flavour of the day", and we may well see the Pantomime Hero return to the safe keeping of those glamorous ladies yet again.
We have a fact sheet on Principal Boys which is used on The Magic of Theatre Roadshow. The Chorus & Juveniles Seldom featured, and yet indispensable, Pantomime could not survive without its chorus of dancers, and indeed its troupes of juveniles or “Babes” as they are known. Today, for reasons of economy, the average chorus in a provincial pantomime can number anything between six or eight dancers.
Some productions can boast as many as ten or twelve, but that is the exception. Some have as few as two or four professional dancers, supplemented by more adult juveniles. Famous troupes include The Tiller Girls and The Sunbeams. We have a fact sheet on Chorus & Juveniles which is used on The Magic of Theatre Roadshow. The Future "Pantomimes are not what they were" "Pantomime is no longer what it used to be.
They have had their day" "Pantomime seems at present to hold its own, I do not see how it can continue to do so" The above quotes might be mistaken for recent press cuttings. In fact they date from 1831, 1846 and 1882 respectively. "Traditional" pantomime does exist. It still breaks box office records all over the country. If it remained "Traditional" in the sense that it never changed, it would long have passed into theatrical lore.
It remains an intrinsic jewel in our crown, and it has to carry with it an important task. A visit to a pantomime may be a child’s first experience of live theatre. If that experience is magical enough, it can leave a lasting impression. In a world where children are surrounded by computer games and videos, DVD's and the all pervasive influences of television, a visit to a pantomime could be a catalyst.
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In Parmigianino's Madonna with the Long Neck (1534–40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, highly stylized poses, and lack of clear perspective. Mannerism, also known as Late Renaissance, is a style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520 and lasted until about end of the 16th century in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it.
Northern Mannerism continued into the early 17th century. Stylistically, Mannerism encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals associated with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo. Where High Renaissance art emphasizes proportion, balance, and ideal beauty, Mannerism exaggerates such qualities, often resulting in compositions that are asymmetrical or unnaturally elegant.
 The style is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities. It favors compositional tension and instability rather than the balance and clarity of earlier Renaissance painting. Mannerism in literature and music is notable for its highly florid style and intellectual sophistication. The definition of Mannerism and the phases within it continue to be a subject of debate among art historians.
For example, some scholars have applied the label to certain early modern forms of literature (especially poetry) and music of the 16th and 17th centuries. The term is also used to refer to some late Gothic painters working in northern Europe from about 1500 to 1530, especially the Antwerp Mannerists—a group unrelated to the Italian movement. Mannerism also has been applied by analogy to the Silver Age of Latin literature.
 Nomenclature Mannerism role-model: Laocoön and His Sons, an ancient sculpture, rediscovered in 1506; now in the Vatican. The artists of Mannerism greatly admired this piece of sculpture. The word mannerism derives from the Italian maniera, meaning "style" or "manner". Like the English word "style", maniera can either indicate a specific type of style (a beautiful style, an abrasive style) or indicate an absolute that needs no qualification (someone "has style").
 In the second edition of his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (1568), Giorgio Vasari used maniera in three different contexts: to discuss an artist's manner or method of working; to describe a personal or group style, such as the term maniera greca to refer to the Byzantine style or simply to the maniera of Michelangelo; and to affirm a positive judgment of artistic quality.
 Vasari was also a Mannerist artist, and he described the period in which he worked as "la maniera moderna", or the "modern style". James V. Mirollo describes how "bella maniera" poets attempted to surpass in virtuosity the sonnets of Petrarch. This notion of "bella maniera" suggests that artists thus inspired looked to copying and bettering their predecessors, rather than confronting nature directly.
In essence, "bella maniera" utilized the best from a number of source materials, synthesizing it into something new. As a stylistic label, "Mannerism" is not easily defined. It was used by Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt and popularized by German art historians in the early 20th century to categorize the seemingly uncategorizable art of the Italian 16th century — art that was no longer found to exhibit the harmonious and rational approaches associated with the High Renaissance.
“High Renaissance” connoted a period distinguished by harmony, grandeur and the revival of classical antiquity. The term Mannerist was redefined in 1967 by John Shearman following the exhibition of Mannerist paintings organised by Fritz Grossmann at Manchester City Art Gallery in 1965. The label “Mannerism” was used during the 16th century to comment on social behaviour and to convey a refined virtuoso quality or to signify a certain technique.
However, for later writers, such as the 17th-century Gian Pietro Bellori, "la maniera" was a derogatory term for the perceived decline of art after Raphael, especially in the 1530s and 1540s. From the late 19th century on, art historians have commonly used the term to describe art that follows Renaissance classicism and precedes the Baroque. Yet historians differ as to whether Mannerism is a style, a movement, or a period; and while the term remains controversial it is still commonly used to identify European art and culture of the 16th century.
 Origin and development Ignudi from Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling The Libyan Sibyl from Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling By the end of the High Renaissance, young artists experienced a crisis: it seemed that everything that could be achieved was already achieved. No more difficulties, technical or otherwise, remained to be solved. The detailed knowledge of anatomy, light, physiognomy and the way in which humans register emotion in expression and gesture, the innovative use of the human form in figurative composition, the use of the subtle gradation of tone, all had reached near perfection.
The young artists needed to find a new goal, and they sought new approaches. At this point Mannerism started to emerge. The new style developed between 1510 and 1520 either in Florence, or in Rome, or in both cities simultaneously. Origins and role models This period has been described as a "natural extension" of the art of Andrea del Sarto, Michelangelo, and Raphael. Michelangelo developed his own style at an early age, a deeply original one which was greatly admired at first, then often copied and imitated by other artists of the era.
 One of the qualities most admired by his contemporaries was his terribilità, a sense of awe-inspiring grandeur, and subsequent artists attempted to imitate it. Other artists learned Michelangelo's impassioned and highly personal style by copying the works of the master, a standard way that students learned to paint and sculpt. His Sistine Chapel ceiling provided examples for them to follow, in particular his figures of ignudi and of the Libyan Sibyl, his vestibule to the Laurentian Library, the figures on his Medici tombs, and above all his Last Judgment.
The later Michelangelo was one of the great role models of Mannerism. Young artists broke in to his house and stole drawings from him. In his book Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, Giorgio Vasari noted that Michelangelo stated once: "Those who are followers can never pass by whom they follow". The competitive spirit The competitive spirit was cultivated by patrons who encouraged sponsored artists to emphasize virtuosic technique.
It drove artists to look for new approaches and dramatically illuminated scenes, elaborate clothes and compositions, elongated proportions, highly stylized poses, and a lack of clear perspective. Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo were each given a commission by Gonfaloniere Piero Soderini to decorate a wall in the Hall of Five Hundred in Florence. These two artists were set to paint side by side and compete against each other, fueling the incentive to be as innovative as possible.
Copy after lost original, Michelangelo's Battaglia di Cascina, by Bastiano da Sangallo Copy after lost original, Leonardo da Vinci's Battaglia di Anghiari, by Rubens Later on in Rome, Raphael was commissioned to paint “The Transfiguration” by Cardinal Giulio de' Medici who had been appointed as archbishop of Narbonne in the south of France. At this time Raphael was also busy painting the Stanze, creating various altarpieces, painting versions of his Madonna and Child and acting as the principal architect in Rome after the death of Bramante.
This left him little time to do “The Transfiguration”. Therefore, the cardinal commissioned Sebastiano del Piombo, a great Venetian colourist and a friend of Michelangelo, to paint “The Raising of Lazarus”. This drove Raphael to complete the commission. Raphael’s Lo Spasimo di Sicilia depicts an event in Christian history when Christ falls while carrying the cross, sees his mother in distress and is helped up by Simon of Cyrene.
The composition is linked by the diagonals of the soldiers’ spears and the wooden cross. However, Christ cannot be singled out immediately among the gathering figures in the foreground, whereas Simon stands out quite prominently. The spectator’s eyes look down the composition to the drama and charge of the narrative. Early mannerism Jacopo Pontormo, Entombment, 1528; Santa Felicità, Florence The early Mannerists in Florence—especially the students of Andrea del Sarto: Jacopo da Pontormo and Rosso Fiorentino—are notable for elongated forms, precariously balanced poses, a collapsed perspective, irrational settings, and theatrical lighting.
Parmigianino (a student of Correggio) and Giulio Romano (Raphael’s head assistant) were moving in similarly stylized aesthetic directions in Rome. These artists had matured under the influence of the High Renaissance, and their style has been characterized as a reaction to or exaggerated extension of it. Instead of studying nature directly, younger artists began studying Hellenistic sculpture and paintings of masters past.
Therefore, this style is often identified as "anti-classical”, yet at the time it was considered a natural progression from the High Renaissance. The earliest experimental phase of Mannerism, known for its "anti-classical" forms, lasted until about 1540 or 1550. Marcia B. Hall, professor of art history at Temple University, notes in her book After Raphael that Raphael's premature death marked the beginning of Mannerism in Rome.
In past analyses, it has been noted that mannerism arose in the early 16th century contemporaneously with a number of other social, scientific, religious and political movements such as the Copernican model, the Sack of Rome, and the Protestant Reformation's increasing challenge to the power of the Catholic Church. Because of this, the style's elongated forms and distorted forms were once interpreted as a reaction to the idealized compositions prevalent in High Renaissance art.
 This explanation for the radical stylistic shift c. 1520 has fallen out of scholarly favor, though early Mannerist art is still sharply contrasted with High Renaissance conventions; the accessibility and balance achieved by Raphael's School of Athens no longer seemed to interest young artists. High maniera The second period of Mannerism is commonly differentiated from the earlier, so-called "anti-classical" phase.
Subsequent mannerists stressed intellectual conceits and artistic virtuosity, features that have led later critics to accuse them of working in an unnatural and affected "manner" (maniera). Maniera artists looked to their older contemporary Michelangelo as their principal model; theirs was an art imitating art, rather than an art imitating nature. Art historian Sydney Joseph Freedberg argues that the intellectualizing aspect of maniera art involves expecting its audience to notice and appreciate this visual reference—a familiar figure in an unfamiliar setting enclosed between "unseen, but felt, quotation marks".
 The height of artifice is the Maniera painter's penchant for deliberately misappropriating a quotation. Agnolo Bronzino and Giorgio Vasari exemplify this strain of Maniera that lasted from about 1530 to 1580. Based largely at courts and in intellectual circles around Europe, Maniera art couples exaggerated elegance with exquisite attention to surface and detail: porcelain-skinned figures recline in an even, tempered light, acknowledging the viewer with a cool glance, if they make eye contact at all.
The Maniera subject rarely displays much emotion, and for this reason works exemplifying this trend are often called 'cold' or 'aloof.' This is typical of the so-called "stylish style" or Maniera in its maturity. Spread of mannerism English Mannerism: Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, 1546, a rare English Mannerist portrait by a Flemish immigrant The cities Rome, Florence, and Mantua were Mannerist centers in Italy.
Venetian painting pursued a different course, represented by Titian in his long career. A number of the earliest Mannerist artists who had been working in Rome during the 1520s fled the city after the Sack of Rome in 1527. As they spread out across the continent in search of employment, their style was disseminated throughout Italy and Northern Europe. The result was the first international artistic style since the Gothic.
 Other parts of Northern Europe did not have the advantage of such direct contact with Italian artists, but the Mannerist style made its presence felt through prints and illustrated books. European rulers, among others, purchased Italian works, while northern European artists continued to travel to Italy, helping to spread the Mannerist style. Individual Italian artists working in the North gave birth to a movement known as the Northern Mannerism.
Francis I of France, for example, was presented with Bronzino's Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time. The style waned in Italy after 1580, as a new generation of artists, including the Carracci brothers, Caravaggio and Cigoli, revived naturalism. Walter Friedlaender identified this period as "anti-mannerism", just as the early mannerists were "anti-classical" in their reaction away from the aesthetic values of the High Renaissance.
 Outside of Italy, however, Mannerism continued into the 17th century. In France, where Rosso traveled to work for the court at Fontainebleau, it is known as the "Henry II style" and had a particular impact on architecture. Other important continental centers of Northern Mannerism include the court of Rudolf II in Prague, as well as Haarlem and Antwerp. Mannerism as a stylistic category is less frequently applied to English visual and decorative arts, where native labels such as "Elizabethan" and "Jacobean" are more commonly applied.
Seventeenth-century Artisan Mannerism is one exception, applied to architecture that relies on pattern books rather than on existing precedents in Continental Europe. Of particular note is the Flemish influence at Fontainebleau that combined the eroticism of the French style with an early version of the vanitas tradition that would dominate seventeenth-century Dutch and Flemish painting. Prevalent at this time was the "pittore vago," a description of painters from the north who entered the workshops in France and Italy to create a truly international style.
Sculpture The Statue of David, completed by Michelangelo in 1504, is one of the most renowned works of the Renaissance, role model for many other early Italian Mannerist sculptures. As in painting, early Italian Mannerist sculpture was very largely an attempt to find an original style that would top the achievement of the High Renaissance, which in sculpture essentially meant Michelangelo, and much of the struggle to achieve this was played out in commissions to fill other places in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, next to Michelangelo's David.
Baccio Bandinelli took over the project of Hercules and Cacus from the master himself, but it was little more popular then than it is now, and maliciously compared by Benvenuto Cellini to "a sack of melons", though it had a long-lasting effect in apparently introducing relief panels on the pedestal of statues. Like other works of his and other Mannerists it removes far more of the original block than Michelangelo would have done.
 Cellini's bronze Perseus with the head of Medusa is certainly a masterpiece, designed with eight angles of view, another Mannerist characteristic, and artificially stylized in comparison with the Davids of Michelangelo and Donatello. Originally a goldsmith, his famous gold and enamel Salt Cellar (1543) was his first sculpture, and shows his talent at its best. Small bronze figures for collector's cabinets, often mythological subjects with nudes, were a popular Renaissance form at which Giambologna, originally Flemish but based in Florence, excelled in the later part of the century.
He also created life-size sculptures, of which two entered the collection in the Piazza della Signoria. He and his followers devised elegant elongated examples of the figura serpentinata, often of two intertwined figures, that were interesting from all angles. Stucco overdoor at Fontainebleau, probably designed by Primaticcio, who painted the oval inset, 1530s or 1540s Benvenuto Cellini, Perseus with the head of Medusa, 1545–1554 Giambologna, Samson Slaying a Philistine, about 1562 Giambologna, Rape of the Sabine Women, 1583, Florence, Italy, 13' 6" high, marble Adriaen de Vries, Mercury and Psyche Northern Mannerist life-size bronze, made in 1593 for Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Venus, c. 125; Marble, Roman; British Museum Early theorists Pietro Francavilla, Apollo Victorious over the Python, 1591. The Walters Art Museum Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari's opinions about the art of painting emerge in the praise he bestows on fellow artists in his multi-volume Lives of the Artists: he believed that excellence in painting demanded refinement, richness of invention (invenzione), expressed through virtuoso technique (maniera), and wit and study that appeared in the finished work, all criteria that emphasized the artist's intellect and the patron's sensibility.
The artist was now no longer just a trained member of a local Guild of St Luke. Now he took his place at court alongside scholars, poets, and humanists, in a climate that fostered an appreciation for elegance and complexity. The coat-of-arms of Vasari's Medici patrons appears at the top of his portrait, quite as if it were the artist's own. The framing of the woodcut image of Vasari's Lives of the Artists would be called "Jacobean" in an English-speaking milieu.
In it, Michelangelo's Medici tombs inspire the anti-architectural "architectural" features at the top, the papery pierced frame, the satyr nudes at the base. In the vignette of Florence at the base, papery or vellum-like material is cut, stretched, and scrolled into a cartouche (cartoccia). The design is self-conscious, overcharged with rich, artificially "natural" detail, juxtaposed with physically improbable and jarring shifts in scale.
As a mere frame it is extravagant: Mannerist, in short. Gian Paolo Lomazzo Another literary figure from the period is Gian Paolo Lomazzo, who produced two works—one practical and one metaphysical—that helped define the Mannerist artist's self-conscious relation to his art. His Trattato dell'arte della pittura, scoltura et architettura (Milan, 1584) is in part a guide to contemporary concepts of decorum, which the Renaissance inherited in part from Antiquity but Mannerism elaborated upon.
Lomazzo's systematic codification of aesthetics, which typifies the more formalized and academic approaches typical of the later 16th century, emphasized a consonance between the functions of interiors and the kinds of painted and sculpted decors that would be suitable. Iconography, often convoluted and abstruse, is a more prominent element in the Mannerist styles. His less practical and more metaphysical Idea del tempio della pittura (The ideal temple of painting, Milan, 1590) offers a description along the lines of the "four temperaments" theory of human nature and personality, defining the role of individuality in judgment and artistic invention.
Some Mannerist artists High Mannerism: Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time by Bronzino, c. 1545; National Gallery, London. Joachim Wtewael Perseus and Andromeda, 1616, Louvre, the composition displaying a Vanité of bones and seashells in the foreground and an elaborate academic nude with a palette borrowing from the forefront for Andromeda's cheeks. The Dragon seems of sino-oriental influence.
Jacopo da Pontormo Jacopo da Pontormo's Joseph in Egypt features what would in the Renaissance have been considered incongruous colors and an incoherent handling of time and space. Rosso Fiorentino and the School of Fontainebleau Rosso Fiorentino, who had been a fellow pupil of Pontormo in the studio of Andrea del Sarto, in 1530 brought Florentine mannerism to Fontainebleau, where he became one of the founders of French 16th-century Mannerism, popularly known as the "School of Fontainebleau".
The examples of a rich and hectic decorative style at Fontainebleau further disseminated the Italian style through the medium of engravings, to Antwerp and from there throughout Northern Europe from London to Poland. Mannerist design was extended to luxury goods like silver and carved furniture. A sense of tense, controlled emotion expressed in elaborate symbolism and allegory, and an ideal of female beauty characterized by elongated proportions are features of this style.
Agnolo Bronzino Mannerist portraits by Agnolo Bronzino are distinguished by a serene elegance and meticulous attention to detail. As a result, Bronzino's sitters have been said to project an aloofness and marked emotional distance from the viewer. There is also a virtuosic concentration on capturing the precise pattern and sheen of rich textiles. Alessandro Allori Alessandro Allori's (1535–1607) Susanna and the Elders (below) is distinguished by latent eroticism and consciously brilliant still life detail, in a crowded, contorted composition.
Tintoretto Tintoretto's Last Supper (below) focuses on light and motion, bringing the image to dramatic life. Unlike more traditional views of the Last Supper, Tintoretto depicts Heaven opening up into the room, and the angels looking on in awe, in line with the old Catholic maxim that "If the angels were capable of envy, they would envy the Eucharist." El Greco El Greco attempted to express religious emotion with exaggerated traits.
After the realistic depiction of the human form and the mastery of perspective achieved in high Renaissance Classicism, some artists started to deliberately distort proportions in disjointed, irrational space for emotional and artistic effect. El Greco still is a deeply original artist. El Greco has been characterized by modern scholars as an artist so individual that he belongs to no conventional school.
 Key aspects of Mannerism in El Greco include the jarring "acid" palette, elongated and tortured anatomy, irrational perspective and light, and obscure and troubling iconography. Benvenuto Cellini Benvenuto Cellini created the Cellini Salt Cellar of gold and enamel in 1540 featuring Poseidon and Amphitrite (water and earth) placed in uncomfortable positions and with elongated proportions.
It is considered a masterpiece of Mannerist sculpture. Joachim Wtewael Joachim Wtewael (1566–1638) continued to paint in a Northern Mannerist style until the end of his life, ignoring the arrival of the Baroque, and making him perhaps the last significant Mannerist artist still to be working. His subjects included large scenes with still life in the manner of Pieter Aertsen, and mythological scenes, many small cabinet paintings beautifully executed on copper, and most featuring nudity.
Giuseppe Arcimboldo Giuseppe Arcimboldo (also spelled Arcimboldi) is known for his portraits contrived from a still life composition Jacopo Pontormo Joseph in Egypt, 1515–18; Oil on wood; 96 x 109 cm; National Gallery, London Rosso Fiorentino, Francois I Gallery, Château de Fontainebleau, France Juno in a niche, engraving by Jacopo Caraglio, probably from a drawing of 1526 by Rosso Fiorentino Giuseppe Arcimboldo, The Librarian, 1562, Skokloster Castle.
Tintoretto, Last Supper Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Autumn, 1573, oil on canvas, Louvre Museum, Paris Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Vertumnus the god of seasons, 1591, Skokloster Castle Bronzino, Portrait of Bia de'Medici Alessandro Allori, Susanna and the elders El Greco, Baptism Mannerist architecture Mannerist architecture was characterized by visual trickery and unexpected elements that challenged the renaissance norms.
 Flemish artists, many of whom had traveled to Italy and were influenced by Mannerist developments there, were responsible for the spread of Mannerist trends into Europe north of the Alps, including into the realm of architecture.  During the period, architects experimented with using architectural forms to emphasize solid and spatial relationships. The Renaissance ideal of harmony gave way to freer and more imaginative rhythms.
The best known architect associated with the Mannerist style, and a pioneer at the Laurentian Library, was Michelangelo (1475–1564). He is credited with inventing the giant order, a large pilaster that stretches from the bottom to the top of a façade. He used this in his design for the Campidoglio in Rome. Prior to the 20th century, the term Mannerism had negative connotations, but it is now used to describe the historical period in more general non-judgmental terms.
 Mannerist architecture has also been used to describe a trend in the 1960s and 1970s that involved breaking the norms of modernist architecture while at the same time recognizing their existence. Defining mannerist in this context, architect and author Robert Venturi wrote "Mannerism for architecture of our time that acknowledges conventional order rather than original expression but breaks the conventional order to accommodate complexity and contradiction and thereby engages ambiguity unambiguously.
"  Renaissance examples An example of mannerist architecture is the Villa Farnese at Caprarola. in the rugged country side outside of Rome. The proliferation of engravers during the 16th century spread Mannerist styles more quickly than any previous styles. Dense with ornament of "Roman" detailing, the display doorway at Colditz Castle exemplifies this northern style, characteristically applied as an isolated "set piece" against unpretentious vernacular walling.
From the late 1560s onwards, many buildings in Valletta, the new capital city of Malta, were designed by the architect Girolamo Cassar in the Mannerist style. Such buildings include St. John's Co-Cathedral, the Grandmaster's Palace and the seven original auberges. Many of Cassar's buildings were modified over the years, especially in the Baroque period. However, a few buildings, such as Auberge d'Aragon and the exterior of St.
John's Co-Cathedral, still retain most of Cassar's original Mannerist design. One of the best examples of Mannerist architecture - Palazzo Te in Mantova, designed by Giulio Romano Giulio Romano, Pallazo Ducale in Mantova Own house of Giulio Romano in Mantova Baldassare Peruzzi, Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne in Rome Michelangelo, vestibule of Laurentian Library St.
John's Co-Cathedral in Valletta, Malta Town Hall in Zamość, Poland, designed by Bernardo Morando. Mannerist architecture in Gdańsk, Poland. Mannerism in literature and music See also: Metaphysical poets In English literature, Mannerism is commonly identified with the qualities of the "Metaphysical" poets of whom the most famous is John Donne. The witty sally of a Baroque writer, John Dryden, against the verse of Donne in the previous generation, affords a concise contrast between Baroque and Mannerist aims in the arts: He affects the metaphysics, not only in his satires but in his amorous verses, where nature only should reign; and perplexes the minds of the fair sex with nicespeculations of philosophy when he should engage their hearts and entertain them with the softnesses of love.
:15 (italics added) The rich musical possibilities in the poetry of the late 16th and early 17th centuries provided an attractive basis for the madrigal, which quickly rose to prominence as the pre-eminent musical form in Italian musical culture, as discussed by Tim Carter: The madrigal, particularly in its aristocratic guise, was obviously a vehicle for the ‘stylish style’ of Mannerism, with poets and musicians revelling in witty conceits and other visual, verbal and musical tricks to delight the connoisseur.
 The word Mannerism has also been used to describe the style of highly florid and contrapuntally complex polyphonic music made in France in the late 14th century. This period is now usually referred to as the ars subtilior. Mannerism and theatre The Early Commedia dell'Arte (1550–1621): The Mannerist Context by Paul Castagno discusses Mannerism's effect on the contemporary professional theatre.
 Castagno's was the first study to define a theatrical form as Mannerist, employing the vocabulary of Mannerism and maniera to discuss the typification, exaggerated, and effetto meraviglioso of the comici dell'arte. See Part II of the above book for a full discussion of Mannerist characteristics in the commedia dell'arte. The study is largely iconographic, presenting a pictorial evidence that many of the artists who painted or printed commedia images were in fact, coming from the workshops of the day, heavily ensconced in the maniera tradition.
The preciosity in Jacques Callot's minute engravings seem to belie a much larger scale of action. Callot's Balli di Sfessania (literally, dance of the buttocks) celebrates the commedia's blatant eroticism, with protruding phalli, spears posed with the anticipation of a comic ream, and grossly exaggerated masks that mix the bestial with human. The eroticism of the innamorate (lovers) including the baring of breasts, or excessive veiling, was quite in vogue in the paintings and engravings from the second school at Fontainebleau, particularly those that detect a Franco-Flemish influence.
Castagno demonstrates iconographic linkages between genre painting and the figures of the commedia dell'arte that demonstrate how this theatrical form was embedded within the cultural traditions of the late cinquecento. Commedia dell'arte, disegno interno, and the discordia concors Important corollaries exist between the disegno interno, which substituted for the disegno esterno (external design) in mannerist painting.
This notion of projecting a deeply subjective view as superseding nature or established principles (perspective, for example), in essence, the emphasis away from the object to its subject, now emphasizing execution, displays of virtuosity, or unique techniques. This inner vision is at the heart of commedia performance. For example, in the moment of improvisation the actor expresses his virtuosity without heed to formal boundaries, decorum, unity, or text.
Arlecchino became emblematic of the mannerist discordia concors (the union of opposites), at one moment he would be gentle and kind, then, on a dime, become a thief violently acting out with his batte. Arlecchino could be graceful in movement, only in the next beat, to clumsily trip over his feet. Freed from the external rules, the actor celebrated the evanescence of the moment; much the way Cellini would dazzle his patrons by draping his sculptures, unveiling them with lighting effects and a sense of the marvelous.
The presentation of the object became as important as the object itself. Neo-Mannerism According to art critic Jerry Saltz, "Neo-Mannerism" (new Mannerism) is among several clichés that are "squeezing the life out of the art world". Neo-Mannerism describes art of the 21st century that is turned out by students whose academic teachers "have scared [them] into being pleasingly meek, imitative, and ordinary".
 See also Counter-Mannerism Mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland Timeline of Italian artists to 1800 Notes ^ A World history of architecture and Mannerism: the painting and style of the Late Renaissance ^ Freedberg 1971, 483. ^ a b c d Gombrich 1995,. ^ "Mannerism: Bronzino (1503–1572) and his Contemporaries". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 2013-05-19. ^ a b c d e f Art and Illusion, E.
H. Gombrich, ISBN 9780691070001 ^ "the-mannerist-style". www.artsconnected.org. ^ John Shearman, “Maniera as an Aesthetic Ideal”, in Cheney 2004, 37. ^ Cheney 1997, 17. ^ Briganti 1961, 6. ^ a b Mirollo 1984, ^ Shearman 1967. ^ Grossmann 1965. ^ Smyth 1962, 1–2. ^ Cheney, "Preface", xxv–xxxii, and Manfred Wundram, "Mannerism," Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [accessed 23 April 2008].
^ Friedländer 1965, ^ a b Freedberg 1993, 175–77. ^ a b Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects ^ Friedländer 1965,. ^ Manfred Wundram, "Mannerism," Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [accessed 23 April 2008]. ^ Freedberg 1965. ^ Shearman 1967, p. 19 ^ Briganti 1961, 32–33 ^ Briganti 1961, 13. ^ Friedländer 1957,. ^ Summerson 1983, 157–72. ^ Olson, 179–182 ^ Olson, 183–187 ^ Olson, 182–183 ^ Olson, 194–202 ^ "National Gallery of Art – El Greco".
Nga.gov. Retrieved 2013-05-19. ^ "Metropolitan Museum of Art El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos) (1541–1614)". Metmuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-05-19. ^ "Style Guide: Mannerism". Victoria and Albert. Retrieved 11 January 2015. ^ Wundram, Manfred (1996). Dictionary of Art. Grove. p. 281. ^ https://books.google.ca/books?id=vSfOCwAAQBAJ&pg=PT2&dq=michelangelo+pioneered+mannerist+style&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=michelangelo%20pioneered%20mannerist%20style&f=false, p=Foreward ^ Mark Jarzombek, "Pilaster Play" (PDF), Thresholds, 28 (Winter 2005): 34–41 ^ Arnold Hauser.
Mannerism: The Crisis of the Renaissance and the Origins of Modern Art. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press,1965). ^ a b Venturi, Robert. "Architecture as Signs and Systems" (PDF). Retrieved 11 January 2015. ^ Coffin David, The Villa in the Life of Renaissance Rome, Princeton University Press, 1979: 281–85 ^ Ellul, Michael (2004). "In search of Girolamo Cassar: An unpublished manuscript at the State Archives of Lucca" (PDF).
Melita Historica. XIV (1): 37. ISSN 1021-6952. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2016. ^ 'Nice' in the sense of 'finely reasoned.' ^ Gardner, Helen (1957). Metaphysical Poets. Oxford University Press, London. Retrieved 2014-08-15. ^ Carter 1991, 128. ^ Apel 1946–47, 20. ^ Castagno 1992,. ^ Castagno 1994,. ^ a b Saltz, Jerry (10 October 2013). "Jerry Saltz on Art's Insidious New Cliché: Neo-Mannerism".
Vulture. Retrieved 2014-08-16. References Apel, Willi. 1946–47. "The French Secular Music of the Late Fourteenth Century". Acta Musicologica 18: 17–29. Briganti, Giuliano. 1962. Italian Mannerism, translated from the Italian by Margaret Kunzle. London: Thames and Hudson; Princeton: Van Nostrand; Leipzig: VEB Edition. (Originally published in Italian, as La maniera italiana, La pittura italiana 10.
Rome: Editori Riuniti, 1961). Carter, Tim. 1991. Music in Late Renaissance and Early Baroque Italy. London: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-9313-4053-5 Castagno, Paul C. 1994. The Early Commedia Dell'arte (1550–1621): The Mannerist Context. New York: P. Lang. ISBN 0-8204-1794-7. Cheney, Liana de Girolami (ed.). 2004. Readings in Italian Mannerism, second printing, with a foreword by Craig Hugh Smyth. New York: Peter Lang.
ISBN 0-8204-7063-5. (Previous edition, without the forward by Smyth, New York: Peter Lang, 1997. ISBN 0-8204-2483-8). Freedberg, Sidney J. 1965. "Observations on the Painting of the Maniera". Reprinted in Cheney 2004, 116–23. Freedberg, Sidney J. 1971. Painting in Italy, 1500–1600, first edition. The Pelican History of Art. Harmondsworth and Baltimore: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-056035-1 Freedberg, Sidney J.
1993. Painting in Italy, 1500–1600, 3rd edition, New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05586-2 (cloth) ISBN 0-300-05587-0 (pbk) Friedländer, Walter. 1965. Mannerism and Anti-Mannerism in Italian Painting. New York: Schocken. LOC 578295 (First edition, New York: Columbia University Press, 1958.) Gombrich, E[rnst] H[ans]. 1995. The Story of Art, sixteenth edition. London: Phaidon Press.
ISBN 0-7148-3247-2. Mirollo, James V. 1984. Mannerism and Renaissance Poetry: Concept, Mode, Inner Design. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03227-7. Shearman, John K. G. 1967. Mannerism. Style and Civilization. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Reprinted, London and New York: Penguin, 1990. ISBN 0-14-013759-9 Olson, Roberta J.M., Italian Renaissance Sculpture, 1992, Thames & Hudson (World of Art), ISBN 9780500202531 Smyth, Craig Hugh.
1992. Mannerism and Maniera, with an introduction by Elizabeth Cropper. Vienna: IRSA. ISBN 3-900731-33-0. Summerson, John. 1983. Architecture in Britain 1530–1830, 7th revised and enlarged (3rd integrated) edition. The Pelican History of Art. Harmondsworth and New York: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-056003-3 (cased) ISBN 0-14-056103-X (pbk) [Reprinted with corrections, 1986; 8th edition, Harmondsworth and New York: Penguin, 1991.
] Further reading Gardner, Helen Louise. 1972. The Metaphysical Poets, Selected and Edited, revised edition. Introduction. Harmondsworth, England; New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-042038-X. Grossmann F. 1965. Between Renaissance and Baroque: European Art: 1520–1600. Manchester City Art Gallery Hall, Marcia B . 2001. After Raphael: Painting in Central Italy in the Sixteenth Century, Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 0-521-48397-2. Pinelli, Antonio. 1993. La bella maniera: artisti del Cinquecento tra regola e licenza. Turin: Piccola biblioteca Einaudi. ISBN 88-06-13137-0 Sypher, Wylie. 1955. Four Stages of Renaissance Style: Transformations in Art and Literature, 1400–1700. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. A classic analysis of Renaissance, Mannerism, Baroque, and Late Baroque. Würtenberger, Franzsepp. 1963.
Mannerism: The European Style of the Sixteenth Century. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston (Originally published in German, as Der Manierismus; der europäische Stil des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts. Vienna: A. Schroll, 1962). External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mannerism. "Mannerism: Bronzino (1503–1572) and his Contemporaries", on the Metropolitan Museum of Art's website v t e Art movements Medieval Early Christian Migration Period Anglo-Saxon Visigothic Pre-Romanesque Insular Viking Byzantine Merovingian Carolingian Ottonian Romanesque Norman-Sicilian Gothic (International Gothic) Renaissance Italian Renaissance Early Netherlandish German Renaissance Antwerp Mannerists Danube school High Renaissance Romanism Mannerism Fontainebleau Northern Mannerism Flemish Baroque 17th century Baroque Caravaggisti Classicism Dutch Golden Age 18th century Rococo Neoclassicism Romanticism 19th century Naïve Nazarene Realism / Realism Historicism Biedermeier Gründerzeit Barbizon school Pre-Raphaelites Academic Aestheticism Decadent Macchiaioli Art Nouveau Peredvizhniki Impressionism Post-Impressionism Neo-impressionism Divisionism Pointillism Cloisonnism Les Nabis Synthetism Kalighat painting Symbolism Hudson River School 20th century Arts and Crafts Fauvism Die Brücke Cubism Expressionism Neue Künstlervereinigung München Futurism Metaphysical art Rayonism Der Blaue Reiter Orphism Synchromism Vorticism Suprematism Ashcan Dada De Stijl Purism Bauhaus Kinetic art New Objectivity Neues Sehen Surrealism Neo-Fauvism Precisionism Scuola Romana Art Deco International Typographic Style Social realism Abstract expressionism Vienna School of Fantastic Realism Color Field Lyrical abstraction Tachisme COBRA Action painting New media art Letterist International Pop art Situationist International Lettrism Neo-Dada Op art Nouveau réalisme Conceptual art Land art Systems art Video art Minimalism Fluxus Photorealism Performance art Installation art Endurance art Outsider art Neo-expressionism Lowbrow Young British Artists Amazonian pop art 21st century Art intervention Hyperrealism Neo-futurism Stuckism Sound art Superstroke Superflat Relational art Related articles List of art movements Feminist art movement (in the US) Modern art Modernism Late modernism Postmodern art Avant-garde Retrieved from "https://en.
Title: Where Did Commedia Dell Arte Begin