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Civilian rationing: A shopkeeper cancels the coupons in a British housewife's ration book in 1943 Rationing was introduced temporarily by the British government several times during the 20th century, during and immediately after a war. At the start of the Second World War in 1939, the United Kingdom was importing 20,000,000 long tons of food per year, including about 70% of its cheese and sugar, nearly 80% of fruits and about 70% of cereals and fats.
The UK also imported more than half of its meat, and relied on imported feed to support its domestic meat production. The civilian population of the country was about 50 million. It was one of the principal strategies of the Germans in the Battle of the Atlantic to attack shipping bound for Britain, restricting British industry and potentially starving the nation into submission. To deal with sometimes extreme shortages, the Ministry of Food instituted a system of rationing.
To buy most rationed items, each person had to register at chosen shops, and was provided with a ration book containing coupons. The shopkeeper was provided with enough food for registered customers. Purchasers had to take ration books with them when shopping, so that the relevant coupon or coupons could be cancelled. First World War Main article: History of the United Kingdom during the First World War See also: UK population over time A First World War government leaflet detailing the consequences of breaking the rationing laws.
In line with its business as usual policy during the First World War, the government was initially reluctant to try to control the food markets. It fought off attempts to introduce minimum prices in cereal production, though relenting in the area of control of essential imports (sugar, meat, and grains). When it did introduce changes, they were limited. In 1916, it became illegal to consume more than two courses while lunching in a public eating place or more than three for dinner; fines were introduced for members of the public found feeding the pigeons or stray animals.
 In January 1917, Germany started unrestricted submarine warfare to try to starve Britain into submission. To meet this threat, voluntary rationing was introduced in February 1917. Bread was subsidised from September that year; prompted by local authorities taking matters into their own hands, compulsory rationing was introduced in stages between December 1917 and February 1918 as Britain's supply of wheat decreased to just six weeks' worth.
 To help the process, ration books were introduced in July 1918 for butter, margarine, lard, meat, and sugar. For the most part, rationing benefited the health of the country. During the war, average energy intake decreased by only 3%, but protein intake by 6%. The general strike The government made preparations to ration food in 1925, in advance of an expected general strike, and appointed Food Control Officers for each region.
In the event, the Trades Unions of the London docks organized blockades by crowds, but convoys of lorries under military escort took the heart out of the strike, so that the measures did not have to be implemented. Second World War See also: Minister of Food (United Kingdom) Child's ration book, used during the Second World War. After the Second World War began in September 1939 the first commodity to be controlled was petrol.
On 8 January 1940 bacon, butter and sugar were rationed. This was followed by successive ration schemes for meat, tea, jam, biscuits, breakfast cereals, cheese, eggs, lard, milk, and canned and dried fruit. In June 1942 the Combined Food Board was set up to coordinate the world supply of food to the Allies, with special attention to flows from the U.S. and Canada to Britain. Almost all foods apart from vegetables and bread were rationed by August 1942.
Strict rationing inevitably created a black market. Almost all controlled items were rationed by weight but meat was rationed by price. Fresh vegetables and fruit were not rationed but supplies were limited. Some types of imported fruit all but disappeared. Lemons and bananas became unobtainable for most of the war; oranges continued to be sold but greengrocers customarily reserved them for children and pregnant women, who could prove their status by producing their distinctive ration books.
Other domestically grown fruit such as apples still appeared from time to time, but again the sellers imposed their own restrictions so that customers were often not allowed to buy, for example, more than one apple each. Many people grew their own vegetables, greatly encouraged by the highly successful "Dig for Victory" motivational campaign. In 1942 numerous children between five and seven years old had become used to wartime restrictions.
When questioned about bananas, many did not believe such items existed.Game meat such as rabbit and pigeon were not rationed but were not always available. A popular music-hall song, written 20 years previously but sung ironically, was "Yes! We Have No Bananas". During the food rationing, British biologists ate laboratory rat. Poster for the "Dig for Victory" campaign, encouraging Britons to supplement their rations by cultivating gardens and allotments.
Most controversial was bread; it was not rationed until after the war ended, but the "national loaf" of wholemeal bread replaced the ordinary white variety, to the distaste of most housewives who found it mushy, grey and easy to blame for digestion problems. In May 1942, an order was passed that meals served in hotels and restaurants must not cost over 5 shillings per customer, must not be of more than three courses, and at most one course could contain meat, fish or poultry.
This was partly in response to increasing public concerns that "luxury" off-ration foodstuffs were being unfairly obtained by those who could afford to dine regularly in restaurants. Fish was not rationed, but prices increased considerably as the war progressed. The government initially allowed this, since it realised that fishermen would need to be able to collect a premium for their catch if they were at risk of enemy attack while at sea, but prices were controlled from 1941.
 Like other non-rationed items, fish was rarely freely available, as supplies dropped to 30% of pre-war levels, and long queues built up at fishmongers and fish and chip shops. The quality of wartime chips was often felt to be below standard, because of the low-quality fat available. As the war progressed rationing was extended to other commodities such as clothing. Clothing was rationed on a points system.
When it was introduced, on 1 June 1941, no clothing coupons had been issued, and at first the unused margarine coupons in ration books were valid for clothing. Initially the allowance was for about one new outfit per year; as the war progressed the points were reduced, until buying a coat used almost a year's clothing coupons. On 1 July 1942 the basic civilian petrol ration was abolished; this had been announced on 13 March 1942.
 (Ivor Novello was a British public figure sent to prison for four weeks for misusing petrol coupons.) After that, vehicle fuel was only available to official users, such as the emergency services, bus companies and farmers. The priority users of fuel were always, of course, the armed forces. Fuel supplied to approved users was dyed, and use of this fuel for non-essential purposes was an offence.
Certain foodstuffs that the 1940s British consumer would find unusual, for example whale meat and canned snoek fish from South Africa, were not rationed. Despite this they did not prove popular. In addition to rationing, the government equalized the food supply through subsidies on items consumed by the poor and the working class. In 1942–43, £145 million was spent on food subsidies, including £35 million on bread, flour and oatmeal, £23 million on meat and the same on potatoes, £11 million on milk, and £13 million on eggs.
 Public catering Main article: British Restaurant A British Restaurant in London, 1943 Restaurants were initially exempt from rationing but this was resented, as people with more money could supplement their food rations by eating out frequently. The Ministry of Food in May 1942 issued new restrictions on restaurants: Meals were limited to three courses; only one component dish could contain fish or game or poultry (but not more than one of these) In general no meals could be served between 11:00 p.
m. (midnight in London) and 5:00 a.m. without a special licence The maximum price of a meal was 5 shillings, with extra charges allowed for cabaret shows and luxury hotels. About 2,000 new wartime establishments called British Restaurants were run by local authorities in schools and church halls. Here a plain three-course meal cost only 9d and no ration coupons were required. They evolved from the London County Council's Londoners' Meals Service, which began as an emergency system for feeding people who had been blitzed out of their homes.
They were open to all and mostly served office and industrial workers. Health effects See also: UK population change In December 1939 Elsie Widdowson and Robert McCance of the University of Cambridge tested whether the United Kingdom could survive with only domestic food production if U-boats ended all imports. Using 1938 food production data, they fed themselves and other volunteers one egg, one pound of meat and four ounces of fish a week; one quarter pint (0.
14 litre) of milk a day; four ounces of margarine; and unlimited amounts of potatoes, vegetables and wholemeal bread. Two weeks of intensive outdoor exercise simulated the strenuous wartime physical work Britons would likely have to perform. The scientists found that the subjects' health and performance remained very good after three months; the only negative results were the increased time needed for meals to consume the necessary calories from bread and potatoes, and what they described as a "remarkable" increase in flatulence from the large amount of starch in the diet.
The scientists also noted that their faeces had increased by 250% in volume. The results—kept secret until after the war—gave the government confidence that, if necessary, food could be distributed equally to all, including high-value war workers, without causing widespread health problems. Britons' actual wartime diet was never as severe as in the Cambridge study because imports from the United States avoided the U-boats, but rationing improved the health of British people; infant mortality declined and life expectancy rose, excluding deaths caused by hostilities.
This was because it ensured that everyone had access to a varied diet with enough vitamins. Standard rationing during the Second World War The standard rations during the Second World War were as follows. Quantities are per week unless otherwise stated. Food rations Item Maximum level Minimum level April 1945 Bacon and ham 8 oz (227 g) 4 oz (113 g) 4 oz (113 g) Sugar 16 oz (454 g) 8 oz (227 g) 8 oz (227 g) Loose tea 4 oz (113 g) 2 oz (57 g) 2 oz (57 g) Meat 1 s.
2d. 1s 1s. 2d. (equivalent to £2.31 in 2016)[a 1] Cheese 8 oz (227 g) 1 oz (28 g) 2 oz (57 g) Vegetarians were allowed an extra 3 oz (85 g) cheese Preserves 1 lb (0.45 kg) per month 2 lb (0.91 kg) marmalade 8 oz (227 g) per month 2 lb (0.91 kg) marmaladeor 1 lb (0.45 kg) preserveor 1 lb (0.45 kg) sugar Butter 8 oz (227 g) 2 oz (57 g) 2 oz (57 g) Margarine 12 oz (340 g) 4 oz (113 g) 4 oz (113 g) Lard 3 oz (85 g) 2 oz (57 g) 2 oz (57 g) Sweets 16 oz (454 g) per month 8 oz (227 g) per month 12 oz (340 g) per month Army and Merchant Navy rations Item Army Rations Home Service Scale Seamen on weekly articles Men Women Meat 5 lb 4 oz (2.
4 kg) 2 lb 10 oz (1.2 kg) 2 lb 3 oz (0.99 kg) Bacon and ham (uncooked, free of bone) 8 oz (230 g) 9 oz (260 g) 8 oz (230 g) Butter and margarine 13 1⁄4 oz (380 g) (in any proportions of butter and margarine) 10 1⁄2 oz (300 g) (margarine only) 10 1⁄2 oz (300 g) (not more than 3 1⁄2 oz (99 g) butter) Cheese 4 oz (110 g) 4 oz (110 g) 4 oz (110 g) Cooking fats 2 oz (57 g) (may be taken in the form of margarine) - - Sugar 1 lb 14 oz (850 g) 14 oz (400 g) 14 oz (400 g) Tea 4 oz (110 g) 2 oz (57 g) 2 oz (57 g)) Preserves 8 oz (230 g) jam 2 oz (57 g) syrup (10 1⁄2 oz (300 g) for boys and young soldiers battalions) (jam, marmalade or syrup) 7 oz (200 g) jam, marmalade or syrup) 10 1⁄2 oz (300 g) (jam, marmalade, syrup)  1s 2d bought about 1 lb 3 oz (540 g) of meat.
Offal and sausages were only rationed from 1942 to 1944. When sausages were not rationed, the meat needed to make them was so scarce that they often contained a high proportion of bread. Eggs were rationed and "allocated to ordinary consumers as available"; in 1944 thirty allocations of one egg each were made. Children and some invalids were allowed three a week; expectant mothers two on each allocation.
1 egg per week or 1 packet (makes 12 ersatz eggs) of egg powder per month (vegetarians were allowed two eggs) plus, 24 points for four weeks for tinned and dried food. Arrangements were made for vegetarians so that other goods were substituted for their rations of meat. Milk was supplied at 3 imp pt (1.7 l) each week with priority for expectant mothers and children under 5; 3.5 imp pt (2.
0 l) for those under 18; children unable to attend school 5 imp pt (2.8 l), certain invalids up to 14 imp pt (8.0 l). Each consumer received one tin of milk powder (equivalent to 8 imperial pints or 4.5 litres) every eight weeks. Special civilian rations Persons falling within the following descriptions were allowed 8 oz (230 g) of cheese a week in place of the general ration of 3 oz (85 g): vegetarians (meat and bacon coupons must be surrendered) underground mine workers agricultural workers holding unemployment insurance books or cards bearing stamps marked "Agriculture" county roadmen forestry workers (including fellers and hauliers) land drainage workers (including Catchment Board workers) members of the Auxiliary Force of the Women's Land Army railway train crews (including crews of shunting engines but not including dining car staffs) railway signalmen and permanent way men who have not access to canteen facilities certain types of agricultural industry workers (workers employed on threshing machines, tractor workers who are not included in the Agricultural Unemployment Insurance Stamp Scheme, hay pressers and trussers).
Weekly supplementary allowances of rationed foods for invalids Disease Food supplementary allowance Quantity Coupons to be surrendered Diabetes Butter and margarine 12 oz (340 g) (not more than 4 oz (110 g) butter) Sugar Diabetes Meat 2s. 4d., adult 1s, 2d., child under six Sugar Diabetes—vegetarians only Cheese 8 oz (230 g) Sugar Hypoglycaemia Sugar 16 oz (450 g) - Steatorrhoea Meat 4s.
8d. adult, 2s. 4d. child under six Butter and margarine Nephritis with gross albuminuria and gross oedema, also nephrosis Meat 3s. 6d. adult, 1s. 9d. child under six Non-food rations Clothing There were 66 points for clothing per year; in 1942 it was cut to 48, in 1943 to 36, and in 1945 to 24. In 1945, an overcoat (wool and fully lined) was 18 coupons; a man's suit, 26–29 (according to lining); men's shoes, 9; women's shoes, 7; woollen dresses, 11.
Children aged 14–16 got 20 more coupons. Clothing rationing points could be used for wool, cotton and household textiles. People had extra points for work clothes, such as overalls for factory work. No points were required for second-hand clothing or fur coats, but their prices were fixed. Before rationing lace and frills were popular on knickers but these were soon banned so that material could be saved.
From March to May 1942 austerity measures were introduced which restricted the number of buttons, pockets and pleats (among other things) on clothes. Clothes rationing ended on 15 March 1949. Soap All types of soap were rationed. Coupons were allotted by weight or (if liquid) by quantity. In 1945, the ration gave four coupons each month; babies and some workers and invalids were allowed more. A coupon would yield: 4 oz (113 g) bar hard soap 3 oz (85 g) bar toilet soap 1⁄2 oz (14 g) No.
1 liquid soap 6 oz (170 g) soft soap 3 oz (85 g) soap flakes 6 oz (170 g) powdered soap Fuel The Fuel and Lighting (Coal) Order 1941 came into force in January 1942. Central heating was prohibited "in the summer months". Domestic coal was rationed to 15 long hundredweight (1,680 lb; 762.0 kg) for those in London and the south of England; 20 long hundredweight (2,240 lb; 1,016 kg) for the rest (the southern part of England having generally a milder climate).
 Some kinds of coal such as anthracite were not rationed, and in the coal-mining areas were eagerly gathered as they were in the Great Depression (see The Road to Wigan Pier). Paper Newspapers were limited from September 1939, at first to 60% of their pre-war consumption of newsprint. Paper supply came under the No 48 Paper Control Order, 4 September 1942 and was controlled by the Ministry of Production.
By 1945 newspapers were limited to 25% of their pre-war consumption. Wrapping paper for most goods was prohibited. The paper shortage often made it more difficult than usual for authors to get work published. In 1944, George Orwell wrote: In Mr Stanley Unwin's recent pamphlet Publishing in Peace and War, some interesting facts are given about the quantities of paper allotted by the Government for various purposes.
Here are the present figures: Newspapers 250,000 tons H. M. Stationery Office 100,000 tons Periodicals (nearly) 50,000 tons Books 22,000 tons A particularly interesting detail is that out of the 100,000 tons allotted to the Stationery Office, the War Office gets no less than 25,000 tons, or more than the whole of the book trade put together. ... At the same time paper for books is so short that even the most hackneyed "classic" is liable to be out of print, many schools are short of textbooks, new writers get no chance to start and even established writers have to expect a gap of a year or two years between finishing a book and seeing it published.
— George Orwell, As I Please, Tribune, 20 October 1944 Other products Whether rationed or not, many consumer goods became difficult to obtain because of the shortage of components. Examples included razor blades, baby bottles, alarm clocks, frying pans and pots. Balloons and sugar for cakes for birthday parties were partially or completely unavailable. Many fathers saved bits of wood to build toys for Christmas presents, and Christmas trees were almost impossible to obtain due to timber rationing.
 Post-Second World War On 8 May 1945, the Second World War ended in Europe, but rationing continued. Some aspects of rationing became stricter for some years after the war. At the time this was presented as needed to feed people in European areas under British control, whose economies had been devastated by the fighting. This was partly true, but with many British men still mobilised in the armed forces, an austere economic climate, and a centrally-planned economy under the post-war Labour government, resources were not available to expand food production and food imports.
Frequent strikes by some workers (most critically dock workers) made things worse. A common ration book fraud was the ration books of the dead being kept and used by the living. Political reaction In the late 1940s the Conservative Party exploited and incited growing public anger at rationing, scarcity, controls, austerity and government bureaucracy. They used the dissatisfaction with the socialistic and egalitarian policies of the Labour Party to rally middle-class supporters and build a political comeback that won the 1951 general election.
Their appeal was especially effective to housewives, who faced more difficult shopping conditions after the war than during it. Timeline 27 May 1945: Bacon ration cut from 4 to 3 ounces/week. Cooking fat ration cut from 2 to 1 ounces/week. Soap ration cut by an eighth, except for babies and young children. The referenced newspaper article predicted that households would be grossly hampered in making food items that included pastry.
1 June 1945: The basic petrol ration for civilians was restored. 19 July 1945: In order to preserve the egalitarian nature of rationing, gift food parcels from overseas weighing more than 5 lb (2.3 kg) would be deducted from the recipient's ration. Summer 1946: Continual rain ruined Britain's wheat crop. Bread rationing started. January–March 1947: Winter of 1946–1947 in the United Kingdom: long hard frost and deep snow.
Frost destroyed a huge amount of stored potatoes. Potato rationing started. Mid-1947: A transport and dock strike, which among other effects caused much loss of imported meat left to rot on the docks, until the Army broke the strike. The basic petrol ration was stopped. 1 June 1948: The Motor Spirit (Regulation) Act 1948 was passed,ordering a red dye to be to put into some petrol, and that red petrol was only allowed to be used in commercial vehicles.
A private car driver could lose his driving licence for a year if red petrol was found in his car. A petrol station could be shut down if it sold red petrol to a private car driver. See List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 1940–1959: 1948. June 1948: The basic petrol ration was restored, at a third of its previous size. 1948: Bread came off ration. May 1949: Clothes rationing ended.
According to one author, this was because attempts to enforce it were defeated by continual massive illegality (black market, unofficial trade in loose clothing coupons (many forged), bulk thefts of unissued clothes ration books). 23 February 1950: The 1950 general election is fought largely on the issue of rationing. The Conservative Party campaigned on a manifesto of ending rationing as quickly as possible.
 The Labour Party argued for the continuation of rationing indefinitely. Labour was returned, but with its majority badly slashed to 5 seats. 26 May 1950: Petrol rationing ended. 25 October 1951: United Kingdom general election, 1951. The Conservatives came back into power. February 1953: Confectionery rationing ended. September 1953: Sugar rationing ended. 4 July 1954: Meat and all other food rationing ended in Britain.
 Although rationing formally ended in 1954, cheese production remained depressed for decades afterwards. During rationing, most milk in Britain was used to make one kind of cheese, nicknamed Government Cheddar (not to be confused with the government cheese issued by the US welfare system). This wiped out nearly all other cheese production in the country, and some indigenous varieties of cheese almost disappeared.
 Later government controls on milk prices through the Milk Marketing Board continued to discourage production of other varieties of cheese until well into the 1980s, and it was only in the mid-1990s (following the effective abolition of the MMB) that the revival of the British cheese industry began in earnest. Suez Crisis Petrol rationing was briefly reintroduced in late 1956 during the Suez Crisis but ended again on 14 May 1957.
 Advertising of petrol on the recently introduced ITV was banned for a period. 1970s oil crises Petrol coupons were issued for a short time as preparation for the possibility of petrol rationing during the 1973 oil crisis. The rationing never came about, in large part because increasing North Sea oil production allowed the UK to offset much of the lost imports. By the time of the 1979 energy crisis, the United Kingdom had become a net exporter of oil, so on that occasion the government did not even have to consider petrol rationing.
See also British cuisine List of renewable resources produced and traded by the United Kingdom Ration stamp Utility furniture Woolton pie References ^ Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina (2002), Austerity in Britain: Rationing, Controls and Consumption, 1939–1955, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-925102-5 ^ a b c d e Kynaston, David (2007), Austerity Britain, 1945–1951, Bloomsbury, ISBN 978-0-7475-7985-4 ^ Macrory, Ian (2010).
Annual Abstract of Statistics (PDF) (2010 ed.). Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 31 January 2016. ^ Hurwitz,, Samuel J. (2013). State Intervention in Great Britain: Study of Economic Control and Social Response, 1914–1919. pp. 12–29. ISBN 978-1-136-93186-4. ^ Ian Beckett, The Home Front 1914–1918: How Britain Survived the Great War (2006) p 381 ^ John Morrow, The Great War: An Imperial History (2005) p 202 ^ Alan Warwick Palmer and Veronica Palmer, The chronology of British history (1992) pp 355–356 ^ Beckett, The Home Front 1914–1918 pp.
380–382 ^ Hancock, William Keith; Gowing, Margaret (1975). British War Economy. History of the Second World War. 1 (rev. ed.). Her Majesty's Stationery Office. p. 52. OCLC 874487495. ^ Reagan, Geoffrey. Military Anecdotes (1992) pp. 19 & 20. Guinness Publishing ISBN 0-85112-519-0 ^ Jared M. Diamond (January 2006). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail Or Succeed. Penguin. pp. 105–. ISBN 978-0-14-303655-5.
^ David E. Lorey (2003). Global Environmental Challenges of the Twenty-first Century: Resources, Consumption, and Sustainable Solutions. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 210–. ISBN 978-0-8420-5049-4. ^ David G. McComb (1 September 1997). Annual Editions: World History. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-697-39293-0. ^ Peacock, Kent Alan (1996). Living with the earth : an introduction to environmental philosophy.
Harcourt Brace Canada. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7747-3377-9. ^ Spears, Deanne (2003). Improving Reading Skills: Contemporary Readings for College Students. McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 978-0-07-283070-5. ^ Sovereignty, Colonialism and the Indigenous Nations: A Reader. Carolina Academic Press. 2005. p. 772. ISBN 978-0-89089-333-3. ^ Calder, Angus (1992). The people’s war: Britain 1939–45 (New ed.).
Pimlico. pp. 276–77. ISBN 978-0-7126-5284-1. ^ "British food control". Army News. Darwin, Australia: Trove. 14 May 1942. ^ a b Fisheries in War Time: Report on the Sea Fisheries of England and Wales by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries for the Years 1939–1944 Inclusive. H. M. Stationery Office. 1946. ^ a b c d e Nicol, Patricia (2010). Sucking Eggs. London: Vintage Books. ISBN 9780099521129.
^ Patten, Marguerite (2005). Feeding the Nation. Hamlyn. ISBN 978-0-600-61472-2. ^ Keesing's Contemporary Archives. IV–V. June 1943. p. 5,805. ^ Keesing's Contemporary Archives. IV. June 1942. p. 5,224. ^ Home Front Handbook, p. 78. ^ a b Creaton, Heather J. (1998). "5. Fair Shares: Rationing and Shortages". Sources for the History of London 1939–45: Rationing. British Records Association.
pp. 85–86. ISBN 978-0-900222-12-2. Retrieved 31 January 2016. ^ a b Dawes, Laura (24 September 2013). "Fighting fit: how dietitians tested if Britain would be starved into defeat". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 September 2013. ^ "Wartime Rationing helped the British get healthier than they had ever been". 21 June 2004. Retrieved 20 January 2013. ^ Home Front Handbook, pp. 46–47. ^ a b Courtney, Tina (April 1992).
"Veggies at war". The Vegetarian. Vegetarian Society. Retrieved 19 July 2009. ^ Home Front Handbook, p. 46. ^ a b "RATIONED FOODSTUFFS". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). 374. UK Parliament: House of Commons. 30 September 1941. col. 473–5W. Retrieved 31 January 2016. ^ Home Front Handbook, p. 47. ^ Home Front Handbook, pp. 47–48. ^ a b c d Home Front Handbook, p. 48. ^ Home Front Handbook, pp.
50–51. ^ Orwell, George (20 October 1944). "As I Please". Tribune. ^ Unwin, Stanley (1944). Publishing in Peace and War. George Allen and Unwin. OCLC 9407037. ^ Mackay, Robert (2002). Half the Battle: Civilian Morale in Britain during the Second World War. Manchester University Press. pp. 112–113. ISBN 0-7190-5893-7. ^ Webley, Nicholas (2003). A Taste of Wartime Britain. Thorogood. p. 36.
ISBN 1-85418-213-7. ^ Ina Zweiniger-Bargileowska, "Rationing, austerity and the Conservative party recovery after 1945", Historical Journal (1994) 37#1 pp. 173–97 ^ The Daily Telegraph 23 May 1945, reprinted on page 34 of Daily Telegraph Saturday 23 May 2015 ^ "22 Police Journal 1949 Motor Spirit (Regulation) Act, 1948, The". ^ "1950: UK drivers cheer end of fuel rations". BBC News. 26 May 1950.
Retrieved 27 March 2009. ^ "1954: Housewives celebrate end of rationing". BBC. Retrieved August 23, 2017. ^ a b "Government Cheddar Cheese". CooksInfo.com. Retrieved 13 July 2011. ^ Potter, Mich (9 October 2007). "Cool Britannia rules the whey". Toronto Star. Retrieved 13 July 2011. ^ "1957: Cheers as petrol rationing ended". BBC. 14 May 1957. Retrieved 2009-03-27. Further reading Beckett, Ian F.
W. The Home Front 1914–1918: How Britain Survived the Great War (2006). Hammond, R. J. Food and agriculture in Britain, 1939–45: Aspects of wartime control (Food, agriculture, and World War II) (Stanford U.P. 1954); summary of his three volume official history entitled Food (1951–53) Home Front Handbook. Imperial War Museum (Ministry of Information). 2005 . ISBN 1-904897-11-8. Sitwell, William (2016).
Eggs or Anarchy? The Remarkable Story of the Man Tasked with the Impossible: To Feed a Nation at War. London: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4711-5105-7. Smith, Daniel (2011). The Spade as Mighty as the Sword: The Story of World War Two's Dig for Victory Campaign. Aurum Press. ISBN 978-1-84513-617-8. Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina. Austerity in Britain: Rationing, Controls & Consumption, 1939–1955 (2000) 286p.
online Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina. "Rationing, austerity and the Conservative party recovery after 1945", Historical Journal (1994) 37#1 pp 173–97 in JSTOR External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rationing in the United Kingdom. History in Focus: War – Rationing in Second World War London World War Information about clothes rationing Information about clothes rationing Notes ^ Using the retail price index of equivalent worth in 1945.
Source: measuringworth.com v t e Agriculture in the United Kingdom Economy of the United Kingdom Agriculture Companies ADAS (company) Arla Foods UK Bernard Matthews Farms Dairy Crest Faccenda Group Farmcare Frontier Agriculture Genus Müller Wiseman Dairies NFU Mutual Norbrook Group Openfield Vestey Group Conservation Grazing marsh Hedgerow removal Rare Breeds Survival Trust Government and regulation Agricultural Land Classification Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board Potato Council Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency British Cattle Movement Service The Country Code Crown Estate Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (Northern Ireland) Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Institute for Animal Health Legislation Meat and Livestock Commission Natural England Rights of way in Scotland Rural Development Council Rural Payments Agency Scottish Government Enterprise and Environment Directorate Single Payment Scheme History Agricultural Revolution British timber trade Celtic field Common land Corn Laws Diggers Dutch barn Enclosure Haughley Experiment Highland Clearances Highland Potato Famine Lowland Clearances Napier Commission Rationing Run rig Rural Reconstruction Association Scottish Agricultural Revolution Swing Riots Victory garden Women's Land Army Foot-and-mouth 1967 2001 2007 Nations and regions England Agriculture in London Cuisine Cornwall Devon Fishing Scotland Animal breeds Shetland Crofting Scottish Crofting Foundation Cuisine Factor Fishing Royal Highland Show Wales Cuisine Royal Welsh Show Tŷ unnos Non-governmental organisations Unions Farmers' Union of Wales National Farmers' Union of England and Wales National Farmers' Union of Scotland Ulster Farmers' Union Young Farmers' Clubs of Ulster British Egg Industry Council British Poultry Council Country Land and Business Association Fresh Start Initiative Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences James Hutton Institute Museums Museum of English Rural Life National Museum of Rural Life National Non-Food Crops Centre Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre Rothamsted Research Royal Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland Soil Association Tenant Farmers Association Universities and colleges CAFRE Royal Agricultural University Scotland's Rural College Sectors Beekeeping June Gap Fell farming Forestry Other Countryfile Eglu Farmers Weekly Farming Today Hurdles Category v t e English cuisine Roman times Dishes Sausages Middle Ages Exemplars The Forme of Cury (c.
1390) Dishes Apple pie Bacon Banbury cake Cheesecake Custard Game pie Gingerbread Kippers Mince pie Mortis Pasty Pease pudding Pie Pottage 16th century Exemplars Thomas Dawson (The Good Huswifes Jewell, 1585) Dishes Black pudding Fruit fool Pancake Scones Syllabub Trifle (without jelly) 17th century Exemplars Elinor Fettiplace (Receipt Book, 1604) Gervase Markham (The English Huswife, 1615) Robert May (The Accomplisht Cook, 1660) Hannah Woolley (The Queen-like Closet or Rich Cabinet 1670) Kenelm Digby (The Closet Opened 1699) Dishes Battalia pie Currant bun Queen of Puddings Sponge cake Sussex pond pudding Sweet and sour Tea 18th century Exemplars Mary Kettilby (A Collection of above Three Hundred Receipts 1714) John Nott (The Cooks and Confectioners Dictionary, 1723) Eliza Smith (The Compleat Housewife 1727) Hannah Glasse (The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy 1747) Elizabeth Raffald (The Experienced English Housekeeper 1769) Richard Briggs (The English Art of Cookery 1788) William Augustus Henderson (The Housekeeper's Instructor 1791) Dishes Bread and butter pudding Christmas pudding Chutney Cottage or Shepherd's pie Eccles cake Jellied eels Jugged hare Ketchup Marmalade Parkin Piccalilli Pork pie Roast beef Sandwich Scouse Suet pudding Toad in the hole Trifle (with jelly) Welsh rabbit Yorkshire pudding 19th century Exemplars Mrs Rundell (A New System of Domestic Cookery 1806) Eliza Acton (Modern Cookery for Private Families 1845) Charles Elmé Francatelli (The Modern Cook 1846) Isabella Beeton (Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management 1861) Dishes Bubble and squeak Cauliflower cheese Cobbler Devilled kidneys Faggots Fish and chips Full English breakfast HP Sauce Ice cream cone Lancashire hotpot Potted shrimps Sausage roll Steak and kidney pudding Battenberg cake Eton mess Eve's pudding Jam roly-poly Lardy cake Madeira cake Summer pudding Worcestershire sauce 20th century Exemplars Elizabeth David (A Book of Mediterranean Food 1950) Constance Spry Marguerite Patten Jane Grigson Delia Smith Rick Stein Nigel Slater Keith Floyd Marco Pierre White Fergus Henderson Gordon Ramsay Gary Rhodes Dishes Bakewell tart Beef Wellington Carrot cake Chicken tikka masala Crumble Knickerbocker glory Ploughman's lunch Salad cream 21st century Exemplars Michel Roux Jr.
(Le Gavroche) Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall (River Cottage) Antony Worrall Thompson Heston Blumenthal (The Fat Duck) Mary Berry Clarissa Dickson Wright (A History of English Food 2011) Related Food in England (1954) List of English dishes List of English cheeses List of puddings Rationing in the United Kingdom Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rationing_in_the_United_Kingdom&oldid=823846996"
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