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Baroque Religious Art (1600-1700) Following Martin Luther's Reformation (c.1517), and the emergence of the new forms of Protestant Reformation Art, - the Vatican launched a vigorous campaign of Catholic Counter-Reformation art, designed to win back its wayward congregations in Europe. Painting, as well as painterly techniques such as Caravaggism, was a key element of this religious propaganda campaign.
The church wanted to communicate its message directly to the faithful and demanded from its artists an uncompromising clarity. To comply with this, paintings had to be, above all, realistic, and Caravaggio's brand of unsophisticated realism was absolutely tailor-made for the Counter-Reformation campaign. By stripping away the intellectual and stylistic pretensions of late Mannerism - a style which had become appreciated only by an educated minority, he gave to painting the instant inspirational impact demanded by the church of Rome.
Examples of his religious realism include: The Calling of St Matthew (1600), The Martyrdom of St Matthew (1600), Supper at Emmaus (1601), The Crucifixion of St Peter (1601), Conversion of St Paul on the way to Damascus (1601), Death of the Virgin (1601-6) and The Entombment of Christ (1601-3). Another type of art favoured by the Catholic Counter-Reformation was quadratura church fresco painting, designed to inspire congregations with illusionistic devices.
See for example: Apotheosis of St Ignatius (1694) by Andrea Pozzo. In Spain, the devout Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664), strongly influenced by Spanish Quietism, produced holy paintings for numerous monasteries and Religious Orders (Carthusians, Capuchins, Dominicans, Jeronymites, among others), as well as Cathedrals and other ecclesiastical authorities. Among his noted works are Christ on the Cross (1627), Apotheosis of St.
Thomas Aquinas (1631), and Adoration of the Shepherds (1638). The great Diego Velazquez (1599–1660), while famous as a virtuoso portraitist, also produced a number of holy paintings like The Immaculate Conception (1618), Joseph's Coat (1630) and Christ Crucified (1632). Spanish Baroque religious sculpture is well represented by the Seville artist Juan Martinez Montanes (1568-1649), who was dubbed the God of Wood for his carving skills, sculpted mainly wooden crucifixes and religious figures.
His best known works include The Merciful Christ (1603, Seville Cathedral) and the Santiponce Altarpiece (1613); and also by the explosive Alonso Cano (1601-1667), known as the "Spanish Michelangelo", whose masterpiece is The Immaculate Conception (1655, Granada Cathedral). In Flanders, the greatest exponent of 17th century religious Flemish painting was Rubens (1577-1640), the undisputed leader of the Flemish Baroque school, following in the footsteps of earlier religious artists like Robert Campin, Hugo van der Goes and Hans Memling.
In Italy, home of the Roman Catholic Church, painters like Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665), and Claude Lorrain (1600–1682) received numerous religious commissions. The greatest exponents of Italian religious sculpture were the incomparable Bernini (1598-1680) - see his Ecstasy of St.Teresa (1645–52), created for the Cornaro Chapel of the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome - and his great rival Alessandro Algardi (1598-1654), both of whom were given numerous Papal commissions.
The Catholic Baroque style gave rise to an emotional style of architecture, exploiting to the full the melodramatic potential of the urban landscape. This is exemplified above all by Saint Peter's Square (1656-67) and its approaches, in front of St Peter's Basilica in Rome. Protestantism had its own religious art. 17th Century Dutch painting features some outstanding Old Testament works by Rembrandt.
In addition, Dutch Realists like Harmen van Steenwyck (1612-56), Jan Davidsz de Heem (1606-83), Pieter Claesz (1597-1660), Willem Kalf (1622-93) and Willem Claesz Heda (1594-1681), introduced a genre called Vanitas painting (based on Ecclesiastes 12:8 "Vanity of vanities saith the preacher, all is vanity"), whose principal theme was the ephemeral nature of life and the absurdity of human vanities.
See also the church interior paintings of Emanuel de Witte (1615-92) and Pieter Jansz Saenredam (1597-1665). It was during the period roughly 1650 to 1750 that the nature of the European art market began to change. Up until 1650, most art had been public art aimed at the masses - mostly in the form of architecture and sculpture, and most of it religious. By 1750, this type of public art had been superceded by portable easel art - mostly paintings for commercial customers.
The era of large-scale spending by Church authorities was over. Decline of Religious Art (1700 onwards)The 18th century was the era of absolute monarchs, whose despotic rule was based on the so-called 'Divine Right of Kings' appointed by God. However, these monarchs, like Louis XIV, Louis XV, the Russian Romanovs, and the Austrian Habsburgs, were too concerned with exalting their own secular status and propping up their creaking empires to invest money in religious painting, sculpture or architecture.
Furthermore, except in the Iberian Peninsular, where Spanish piety never slackened, the power of the Roman Catholic Church had been severely weakened by the destruction of its monasteries during the previous two centuries. This combination of secular and ecclesiastical weakness meant that - with odd exceptions, such as the Catholic commissions awarded to Giambattista Tiepolo (1696-1770) in Bavaria and Venice - there was a significant reduction during the 18th century in the amount of money devoted to religious art.
Moreover, this period saw a huge increase in demand on behalf of merchants and land-owners, for portraiture and topographical landscapes. As it was, the period ended with the French Revolution, which heralded a change in sentiment across Europe. Henceforth, art would celebrate people rather than deities. The 19th century produced even less religious art. Although the Industrial Revolution created significant surplus wealth for both nations and individuals, it wasn't invested in Christian art.
Instead it went into the development of social and public services. The only regular commissions offered by Church authorities were for free-standing sculpture to commemorate deceased Bishops and other clerics. And while a few painters continued to paint Biblical scenes, the demand for religious compositions slumped - a trend which continued into the 20th century. But see A Burial in Ornans (1850) by the realist painter Gustave Courbet, and the strange symbolist works of the Belgian painter James Ensor (1860-1949), notably Christ's Entry Into Brussels.
20th Century Religious ArtA feature of modern Christian art in the West has been the temple architecture of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). Its development - from the simple church-like design of the Kirtland Temple (constructed 1830s), to the intricate Gothic styles of the early Utah temples, to the mass-produced modern temples of today - chronicles the evolution of modern religious architecture itself.
The most recent postmodernist churches include the Community of Christ Temple in Independence, Missouri; Unity Temple, the Unitarian Universalist in Chicago designed by Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959); the Pietro Belluschi-designed Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption (San Francisco); and the Jose Rafael Moneo-designed Catholic Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels (Los Angeles). Sadly, the 20th century has also witnessed enormous destruction: many beautiful churches and other religious works of art were destroyed by the Communist regimes of Eastern Europe.
As far as sacred painting is concerned, 20th century painters have, with a few exceptions, ignored it, preferring to cater for the more secular modernist and contemporary art collector. Exceptional modern religious paintings include: Christ on the Cross (1936) by Georges Rouault (1871-1958); Ecce Homo (1925) by Lovis Corinth (1958-1925); Christ at Emmaus (1963) by Patrick Caulfield (1936-2005); Crucifixion 3.
85 (1985) by Antonio Saura (1930-98); and the strange abstract work St John (1988) by Gerhard Richter (b.1932). Meantime, postmodernist religious sculpture is surely exemplified by Virgin Mother (2005) by Damien Hirst (b.1965), which stands in the Plaza of Lever House, New York City. Themes of Christian Art Painters and sculptors have been commissioned by Popes, religious and secular authorities to illustrate a very wide range of scenes from the Bible.
The choice of scenes may be determined by religious politics, as well as the type of art form and media involved. One of the most famous themes of religious sculpture, for example, is David and Goliath: witness the three Davids sculpted by Donatello (1386-1466), Andrea del Verrocchio (1435-1488), and Michelangelo (1475-1564). Leonardo handled the difficult theme of the Immaculate Conception in his beautiful Virgin of the Rocks (1484-6, Louvre, Paris).
Occaisonally, artists specialized in certain biblical themes: for instance the female Baroque painter Artemisia Gentileschi (1593–1656) painted 'Judith Beheading Holofernes several times. Popular Art-Subjects From The New Testament Gospels - Annunciation- Adoration of the Magi- Ascension of Jesus- Assumption of the Virgin Mary- Coronation of the Virgin- Crucifixioneg. The Crucifixion by Tintoretto- Descent from the Cross- Kiss of Judas- The Lamentation- The Last Supper- The Last Judgment- Madonna and Child - Maesta- Mocking of Christ- Nativity of Jesus- Noli me tangere- The Parableseg.
Return of the Prodigal Son by Rembrandt.- Pietà- The Raising of the Cross- Transfigurationeg. The Transfiguration by Raphael. Popular Art-Subjects From The Old Testament Gospels - Adam and Eve- Cain and Abel- David and Goliath- Bathsheba with David's Letter- Genesis- John the Baptist - Judith and Holofernes- The Prophets- Sacrifice of Isaac- Flight of the Jews Into Egypt- Scenes from the Life of Moses- Wedding Feast at Cana Non-Christian Religious Art In this brief overview, phrases like Hindu art, Buddhist art and Islamic art, are no more than umbrella terms for arts and decorative crafts created within the territories occupied by the culture concerned.
Architecture and sculpture (often combined) are the two most visually arresting art forms. See, for instance, the 11th century Kandariya Mahadeva Temple (1017-29) in India, the 12th century Angkor Wat Khmer Temple (1115-45) in Cambodia, and the famous 17th century Taj Mahal (1632-54) - all of which are outstanding examples of non-Christian religious architecture. Other art forms include relief sculpture, body-painting, bronze-casting, calligraphy, carpet-weaving, ceramics, costume decoration, drapery, drawing, embroidery, face-painting, friezes, furniture making, gemstone carving, goldsmithing, illumination of manuscripts, ivory carving, jewellery-making, lacquer-painted bookbinding, lustre-ware, metalworking, mosaics, painting, pottery, tapestry art, textile design, wood carving, among others.
Art Involving Ancestor Worship This type of religion embaces a variety of different practices and beliefs regarding the spirits of deceased relatives. Societies whose arts and culture were closely connected with the celebration of religious ancestor worship, include several from the ancient civilization of the Mediterranean area - see, for instance, Aegean Art (2600-1100 BCE) - as well as Asian art from Japan, China, Korea, SE Asia and the Indian subcontinent.
Ancestor worship was particularly widespread in ancient China. For a close look at the Chinese cultures involved, see the following resources: - Chinese Neolithic Art (7500-2000 BCE)- Xia Dynasty Culture (2100-1600 BCE)- Shang Dynasty Art (1600-1050 BCE)- Zhou Dynasty Art (1050-221 BCE)- Qin Dynasty Art (221-206 BCE)- Han Dynasty Art (206 BCE - 220 CE) Hindu ArtHinduism, dating from the 2nd Millennium BCE, is the main religion in India, with about 850 million followers and some 64 types of traditional art.
Hindu painting, for instance, is exemplified by early and medieval works from Ajanta, Bagh, Ellora and Sittanavasal, while Hindu sculpture is marked not by a sense of plastic fullness but rather by a linear character with an emphasis on outline, as in the Shiva statuette [left]. Hindu architecture embraces temples like the Akshardham in Delhi, Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, Chennakesava Temple at Belur, the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura, Brihadeeswara Temple, Thanjavur, and Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam.
Further Reading About Hindu ArtFor a brief survey of Indian art, see: India: Painting & Sculpture.For more specific articles, see the following:- Classical Indian Painting (Up to 1150 CE)- Post-Classical Indian Painting (14th-16th Century)- Mughal Painting (16th-19th Century)- Rajput Painting (16th-19th Century)- Indian Sculpture (3300 BCE - 1850) Buddhist ArtBuddhism, founded by Siddhartha Gautama around 600 BCE, has about 380 million adherents spread across India, central and southern Asia and Japan.
Buddhist architecture is mainly devoted to temples, monasteries and shrines, including stupas, dagobas and pagodas, across Asia. But Buddhist iconography used in arts like sculpture, varies according to region: in Southeast Asia (Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia), Theravada traditions encourage images of Buddha in mediating or reclining positions; in central Asia (China, Korea, Japan, Tibet, Bhutan, Vietnam, Afghanistan), Mahayana traditions have led to a wider range of representations, including different Buddhas, saints, bodhisattvas and other deities.
For more, see Chinese Buddhist Sculpture (c.100-present). Buddhist 3-D art is illustrated by the sandstone sculptures of Mathura, India. (For more, see: Japanese Art, and Chinese Art.) Note: Chinese Buddhist art - notably painting, sculpture, and building design - proliferated during the Eastern Jin (317-420), the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-581), the Sui empire (589-618), most of the Tang (618-906) and the Song (906-1279) eras.
For more, see the following resources: - Arts of the Six Dynasties Period (220-589)- Sui Dynasty Art (589-618)- Tang Dynasty Art (618-906)- Song Dynasty Art (906-1279)- Yuan Dynasty Art (1271-1368) In Korea, where Buddhism arrived from China around 370 CE, Buddhist culture remained strong for longer: for details, see Korean Art (c.3,000 BCE onwards). In India, the relationship between Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam has been extremely complex.
Hindu art was influenced by the younger Buddhist art, until Buddhism faded around 950 CE century partly as a result of the growing influence of Islam (and Islamic art) in parallel with Hinduism. Because of this influence, Hindu architects adapted their designs to accomodate the traditions of the new religion, as illustrated in the design and construction of Taj Mahal, and Gol Gumbaz. But note also the recent clash of religious ideologies which occurred in Afghanistan, when Taliban muslims destroyed the monumental stone sculptures known as The Buddhas of Bamyan.
For more about the evolution of Buddhist arts and culture in East Asia, see: Chinese Art Timeline (c.18,000 BCE - present). Islamic ArtIslam, founded by the prophet Muhammad in the 7th century CE, has around 1.5 billion followers. Like its fellow faiths, Islamic art is a mixture of many cultures. Although it reflects the Muslim creed concerning the absolute power of The One God (Allah), it combines elements from Greek and early Christian art, as well as the great Middle Eastern cultures of Egypt, Byzantium, and ancient Persia, along with the eastern heritage of India and China.
Even so, the influence of the Arabs, who conquered the ancient Islamic world, is paramount. It has propagated the Koran (Qur'an), the Arabic form of writing, the Kufic and Naskhi scripts of traditional Islamic calligraphy, an infinite variety of abstract ornament, and an entire system of linear abstraction (Arabesques) that is peculiar to all forms of Islamic Art. This abstract designwork balances the Islamic ban on figurative reproduction.
Other notable Islamic arts and crafts include: ceramic art notably lustre-ware, stone-carving, textile silk art, and wall painting. Book illumination was an Iranian specialty, as exemplified by the Manafi al-Hayawan (Usefulness of Animals) manuscript (1297), and the Jami al-tawarikh by Rashid al-Din. Enamelled glass and metalwork were also highly prized, take for example the exquisite metal basin of Mamluk silverwork known as the "Baptistere de Saint Louis" (Syria, 1290-1310).
Islamic architecture is especially famous for religious structures such as: The Dome of the Rock (Jerusalem, built by Abd al-Malik, 691); the Great Mosque of Damascus (finished 715); the Alhambra Palace (Granada, c.1333-91); the Great Mosque of Samarkand (begun 1400); The Ottoman mosque of Sultan Ahmet I ("the Blue Mosque") (Istanbul, 1603-17); the domed mosque of Shaykh Lutfullah (1603-18), built by Safavid architects in Isfahan; Mughal architecture includes the palace complex of Fatehpur Sikri (c.
1575) built during the reign of Akbar, as well as the sublime Taj Mahal (1630-53), built by Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favourite wife Mumtaz Mahal. Native Religious ArtTribal art (aka Primitive Native art), meaning arts and crafts produced by indigenous natives from tribal societies in Africa, the South Pacific and Indonesia, Australia, the Americas and Alaska, typically is much more sacred or religion-oriented than Western art.
This is because tribal religions were all-pervasive. Thus tribal pictorial imagery (paintings), sculpture (stone or wood-carving) or 3-D models (masks) embodied the vital forces believed to exist in all living matter. Sometimes these images represented the spirits of the dead, the vital essence of tribal ancestry. Unfortunately many such artworks have perished or been bartered away with white explorers.
What remains is mainly stonework (sculpture, temples), some earthworks, or various forms of rock art. Even so, some extraordinary finds of native religious art have been made, including: (1) prehistoric paintings in the Laas Gaa'l caves at Hargeisa in Somalia, which contained drawings of men and women worshipping cattle and performing religious rituals; (2) paintings at Ukhahlamba-Drakensberg, South Africa, portraying animals and humans which, according to experts, represent religious beliefs.
For more details of primitive religious art, see: Tribal Art.
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Vote count: 6 I'll admit it, I'm too lazy to look at the source code. Does anyone know? asked Jul 16 '10 at 18:14Esteban Araya 1 Answer Vote count: 10 accepted Never mind, I found the answer at MSDN: You can use the Unity container to generate instances of any object that has a public constructor (in other words, objects that you can create using the new operator), without registering a mapping for that type with the container.
When you call the Resolve method and specify the default instance of a type that is not registered, the container simply calls the constructor for that type and returns the result. answered Jul 16 '10 at 18:17Esteban Araya
Title: Types Of Unity In Art