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Surrealist and Organic Abstraction In parallel with the development of geometric-style concretism, during the 1920s and 1930s, exponents of Surrealism began to produce a range of fantasy-like, quasi-naturalistic images. The leading exemplars of this style of Biomorphic/Organic Abstraction were Jean Arp and Joan Miro, neither of whom - as their many preparatory sketches confirm - relied on the technique of automatism.
Their fellow Surrealist Salvador Dali (1904-89) also produced some extraordinary paintings like The Persistence of Memory (1931, MoMA, NY) and Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (1936, Philadelphia Museum of Art). Jean Arp was also an active sculptor who specialized in Organic Abstraction, as did the English sculptors Henry Moore (1898-1986) and Barbara Hepworth (1903-1975). (See: Modern British Sculpture 1930-70.
) A number of European abstract artists later sought sanctuary in America, where they encountered and influenced a new generation of indigenous abstract painters. These influential emigrants included painters like Hans Hofmann (1880-1966), Max Ernst (1891-1976), Andre Masson (1896-1987), Arshile Gorky (1904-48), Yves Tangy (1900-55) and others. As it happened, despite the controversy surrounding New York's Armory Show in 1913, the city was developing a keen interest in abstraction.
The Museum of Modern Art was founded in 1929, and the Museum of Non-Objective Painting (later renamed the Samuel R Guggenheim Museum), in 1939. Note: For two collectors of abstract painting and sculpture of the first half of the 20th century, see: Solomon Guggenheim (1861-1949) and Peggy Guggenheim (1898-1979). Note: For avant-garde abstraction in Britain (c.1939-75) please see: St Ives School. Abstract Expressionism - More Colour, No More Geometry Although post-war European artists maintained their interest in abstract art through the Salon des Realites Nouvelles in Paris, by 1945 the centre of modern art had shifted to New York, where the avant-garde was represented by the New York School of Abstract Expressionism.
Arising out of the Great Depression and World War II, this movement, never associated with a coherent program as such, was led by Jackson Pollock (1912-56), Mark Rothko (1903-70), Willem De Kooning (1904-97), Clyfford Still (1904-80), Barnett Newman (1905-70) and Adolph Gottlieb (1903-74). The next generation included painters such as Robert Motherwell. The name of the movement was coined by Robert Coates, art critic of the New Yorker.
Offshoots include Pollock's 'Action Painting' and Rothko's 'Colour Field Painting', and the curious 'Abstract Impressionism' of Philip Guston (1913-80). Abstract Expressionist Painting remains a vague term - often confusingly applied to artists who are neither truly abstract, nor expressionist - which describes a form of abstract painting (non-figurative, non-naturalistic) in which colour takes precedence over shape; the latter being no longer geometric.
Early works in this style typically filled large scale canvases, whose size was designed to overwhelm spectators and draw them into another world. The preoccupation of abstract expressionists with visual effects, especially the impact of colour, was a reflection of their main goal - to involve and explore basic human emotions. Thus an abstract expressionist painting is best felt intuitively rather than understood: the question posed being typically: 'what does it make you feel?' - rather than, 'what is it saying?' It must be emphasized that this was a wide movement, encompassing differing styles, including (as mentioned) works that were either semi- or non-abstract, as well as those characterized by the way paint was applied, such as Jackson Pollock's paintings (dripped and poured), and Willem de Kooning's works (gestural brushwork).
For two interesting early works that illustrate the differing styles of these two artists, see: Seated Woman (1944, Metropolitan Museum of Art) by Willem de Kooning and Pasiphae (1943, Metropolitan) by Jackson Pollock. The fact that it was the first major art movement born in the USA, gave it added weight and significance: at least in the minds of critics. Later, Abstract Expressionism spawned a number of individual styles under the umbrella of Post-painterly abstraction, an anti-gesturalist trend.
These individual styles included: Hard-Edge Painting, Colour Stain Painting, Washington Colour Movement, American Lyrical Abstraction, and Shaped Canvas. Abstract Expressionism also provoked avant-garde responses from several other artists including Cy Twombly (1928-2011), whose calligraphic scribbling is part-drawing, part-graffiti; and the Californian abstract sculptor Mark Di Suvero (b.1933) noted for his large scale iron/steel sculptures.
Europe: Art Informel, Tachisme & Cobra Group Gesturalism In Europe, a new art movement known as Art Informel emerged during the late 1940s. Seen as the European version of abstract expressionism, it was in reality an umbrella movement with a number of sub-variants. These mini-movements included: (1) Tachisme, a style of abstract painting marked by splotches and dabs of colour, was promoted as the French answer to American Abstract Expressionism.
A key influence was the avant-garde American artist Mark Tobey (1890-1976), whose all-over calligraphic painting style anticipated that of Pollock. Important members included Jean Fautrier (1898-1964), Georges Mathieu (1921-2012), Pierre Soulages (b.1919), and the Portuguese artist Maria Helena Vieira da Silva (1908-92) as well as the American abstract expressionist Sam Francis (1923-94). (2) The avant-garde Cobra Group, which practised the gestural or "action painting" style of American Abstract Expressionism.
It was founded by painters, sculptors and graphic artists from the Danish group Host, the Dutch group Reflex, and the Belgian Revolutionary Surrealist Group, including: Asger Jorn (1914-73), the Belgian writer Christian Dotremont (1922-79), Pierre Alechinsky (b.1927), Karel Appel (1921-2006) and Constant (C.A. Nieuwenhuys) (1920-2005). Pol Bury (1922-2005) was also a member, but in 1953 he quit painting to explore kinetic sculpture.
(3) Lyrical Abstraction, a quieter, more harmonious style of Art Informel. Leading members included: Wols (Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze) (1913-51), Hans Hartung (1904-89), Jean-Michel Atlan (1913-60), Pierre Soulages (b.1919), Georges Mathieu (1921-2012), and Jean-Paul Riopelle (1923-2002). Other sub-groups included Forces Nouvelles, and Art Non Figuratif. Op-Art: The New Geometric Abstraction One of the most distinct styles of geometric abstract painting to emerge from the modernist era, was the Op-Art movement (an abbreviation of 'optical art') whose hallmark was the engagement of the eye, by means of complex, often monochromatic, geometric patterns, to cause it to see colours and shapes that were not actually there.
Leading members included the Hungarian painter and graphic designer Victor Vasarely (1908-97), and the English painter Bridget Riley (b.1931). The movement disappeared by the early 1970s. Postmodernist Abstraction Since the start of postmodernism (since the mid-60s) contemporary art has tended to fragment into smaller, more local schools. This is because the prevailing philosophy among contemporary art movements has been to distrust the grand styles of the early 20th century.
An exception is the Minimalism school, a back-to-basics style of geometric abstraction exemplified by postmodernist artists like sculptors Donald Judd (1928-94), Sol LeWitt (1928-2007), Robert Morris (b.1931), Walter de Maria (b.1935), and Carl Andre (b.1935). Another important minimalist sculptor is Richard Serra (b.1939) whose abstract works include Tilted Arc (1981, Federal Plaza, New York) and The Matter of Time (2004, Guggenheim Bilbao).
Noted abstract painters associated with Minimalism include Ad Reinhardt (1913-67), Frank Stella (b.1936), whose large scale paintings involve interlocking clusters of shape and colours; Sean Scully (b.1945) the Irish-American painter whose rectangular shapes of colour seem to imitate the monumental forms of prehistoric structures; as well as Jo Baer (b.1929), Ellsworth Kelly (b.1923), Robert Mangold (b.
1937), Brice Marden (b.1938), Agnes Martin (1912-2004), and Robert Ryman (b.1930). In part a reaction against the austerity of minimalism, Neo-Expressionism was mainly a figurative movement which emerged from the early 1980s onwards. However, it also included a number of outstanding abstract painters such as the Englishman Winner Howard Hodgkin (b.1932), as well as the German artists Georg Baselitz (b.
1938), Anselm Kiefer (b.1945), and others. Among several other internationally acclaimed abstract artists who achieved recognition during the 1980s and 1990s, is the British sculptor Anish Kapoor (b.1954), noted for large-scale works in rough hewn stone, cast metal and stainless steel. Both Hodgkin and Kapoor are Turner Prize Winners. Collections of Abstract Art Non-representational art can be seen in most of the best art museums around the world.
Notable collections are held by the following institutions • Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York.• Samuel R Guggenheim Museum, New York.• Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY.• Tate Gallery, London.• Georges Pompidou Centre, Paris.• Guggenheim Bilbao.• Guggenheim Venice.• Kunstmuseum, Basel.
Unique Critical Artwork Concepts have progressed extensive distinctive eras, using the changing artists' perceptions of processing, examining, and responding to various artwork sorts. Their creative expressions happen to be explored by their development, efficiency, and participation in arts. Each historical period has offered novel contribution of historical and cultural contexts for developing the key Arts Fundamentals in the suitable time period. Visible Arts enable artists assimilate the main element Arts Concepts of Symmetry, Shade, Pattern, Contrast and the distinctions in between 1 or maybe more elements inside the composition. The crucial element Artwork Ideas of Visible Arts assistance comprehend and distinguish amongst the scale for example, Symmetry & Asymmetry, Positive & Negative Space, Light & Dark, Solid & Transparent, and Large & Small.See Also: Copy Paste Text Art
Art plays a vibrant role within the personal life of the individual as well as within the social and economic development from the nation. The study of Visible arts encourages personal development plus the awareness of both our cultural heritage and also the role of artwork within the society. The learner acquires personal knowledge, skills and competencies through activities in Visual arts. When one studies Visual arts, he/she would come to appreciate or recognize that art is an integral part of everyday life.
Digital and computer art is upon us, which means that anyone with any proficiency in software design programs can produce a drawing at the drop of a hat. And life drawing is now seen by many as an old-fashioned and unnecessary waste of time. Unfortunately, when artists stop learning how to draw, figurative art flies out the window, and video art takes over. NON-REPRESENTATIONAL ARTThe ongoing debate about "What constitutes art?" is not a trivial squabble between dessicated academics.
It's an important cultural issue for huge numbers of people. For instance, as more activities become accepted as "art", so these activities find their way into the curricula of our best art schools, sometimes with unfortunate results. Last year, I visited a Graduate Show staged by one of Ireland's top art colleges. Out of many hundred exhibits, I was impressed by the artistic merits of perhaps three works - two of which were by the same artist! Most of the other works, which were nearly all abstract, seemed to me to be sloppily executed, and lacking any creative impact - a fairly dire thing to say about such a major showcase of young talent.
Obviously the show's organizers thought differently, so maybe my sense of aesthetic appreciation has deserted me. Either that, or else it's a sobering example of The Emperor's New Clothes. HOW TO EVALUATE ARTEvery attempt to define "good" art is doomed to frustration. Allowing the free market to decide may sound reasonable, except that auction prices identify Damien Hirst as the best ever British artist, which sounds a bit dodgy.
Besides, there are hundreds of dark, uninteresting but mega-valuable Old Master paintings quietly deteriorating in museums around the world, whose monetary value bears no relation to their "beauty". As for the so-called "priceless" Greek sculptures in the Louvre - the one-armed, one-legged, no-head variety, like the Venus di Milo - would you want any of them in your sitting room? I doubt it. The lesson? Expensive art isn't always good art.
Okay, so how else can we decide what constitutes a worthy artwork? How about letting the Arts Council decide? Err, no thanks. We do that already, and it's a disaster. A committee of independent critics? Hmm, perhaps not: look what happened to the Turner prize. Is subject matter a guide? For instance, is representational or figurative art better than abstraction? No. Some of the most beautiful decorative works are completely devoid of recognizable features, while a superrealist painting or sculpture can sometimes leave us cold.
The truth is, "good" or "beautiful" art is practically indefinable. Arguably, its existence hinges on a magical combination of shape and colour, which cannot be pre-selected, otherwise Volkswagen would manufacture it. ART HAS RARITY VALUE ONLYEvery so often we hear that a painting or drawing by some famous artist has been bought at Sotheby's or Christie's for $10 million or maybe $50 million. A recent example was the $100 million paid for a screenprint (Eight Elvises) by Andy Warhol.
Did the news make us choke over our breakfast? Probably not. After all, people do pay huge prices for rare objects. Nevertheless, it's very confusing, because it gives the impression that a painting has an objective or intrinsic value, sometimes reaching into the millions. But the truth is, a painting has no intrinsic value - only rarity. Even its beauty or aesthetic appeal can be acquired by buying a print, at a fraction of the cost of the original.
When it comes to a Monet, a Van Gogh or a Titian, none of this matters because the rarity value justifies a hefty price-tag, but when it comes to works of art by ordinary mortals, beware! - the $20,000 price-tag for the work of an established minor artist can include a large "fashion" premium, that can disappear overnight. All this explains why the contemporary art market has nosedived, while demand for rare Old Masters and Moderns remains comparatively buoyant.
SEPARATION OF ARTS & CRAFTS"Fine art", traditionally the premier form of visual creativity, is supposedy a drawing-based acivity, practised mainly for its aesthetic value ("art for art's sake") rather than its functionality. In contrast, the second-class category, known as "decorative art" (the new word for crafts), refers to things like ceramics, tapestry, enamelling, metalwork, stained glass, textiles, and others, which are deemed to be ornamental or decorative, rather than intellectual or spiritual.
So to recap: arts are beautiful useless things that elevate the senses - example, the Mona Lisa; whereas crafts prettify functional objects - example, a tea cup with a handpainted design. I don't know which painter/sculptor or government civil servant first proposed this absurd distinction, but it lingers on in all its ugly illogicality. Take architecture, for instance. This has always been regarded as a fine art, despite being the ultimate example of utility - just ask any architect.
Advertising posters by the likes of (say) Toulouse Lautrec and Alphonse Mucha are also seen as fine art, despite being the embodiment of decorative functionalism. On the other hand, a beautiful tapestry or stained glass window is regarded as mere ornamentalism, irrespective of the degree of artistic designwork and craftsmanship involved. And if you think all this is pointless and confusing, wait till you encounter "applied art", a term which is now used to describe a more design-oriented category of decorative art.
A-Z Types of Art • Animation ArtDerived from the Latin meaning "to breathe life into", animation is the visual art of creating a motion picture from a series of still drawings. Among the great twentieth century animators are J. Stuart Blackton, George McManus, Max Fleischer, and Walt Disney.• ArchitectureBest understood as the applied art of building design. Historically has exerted significant influence on the development of fine art, through architectural styles like Gothic, Baroque and Neoclassical.
For the origins of skyscraper design, see: 19th Century Architecture; for its characteristics and development, see: Skyscraper Architecture (1850-present); for technical details, see: Chicago School of Architecture; for historical context, see: American Architecture (1600-present).• Art BrutPainting, drawing, sculpture by artists on the margin of society, or in mental hospitals, or children. (English category is Outsider art.
)• Assemblage ArtA contemporary form of sculpture, comparable to collage, in which a work of art is built up or "assembled" from 3-D materials - typically "found" objects.• Body ArtOne of the oldest (and newest) forms - includes body painting and face painting, as well as tattoos, mime, "living statues" and (most recently) "performances" by artists like Marina Abramovic and Carole Schneemann.• CalligraphyThis fine art, practised widely in the Far East and among Islamic artists, is regarded by the Chinese as the highest form of art.
• CeramicsA type of plastic art, ceramics refers to items made from clay and baked in a kiln. See ancient pottery from China and Greece, below. Two of the foremost European ceramicists are the English artist Bernard Howell Leach (1887-1979), and the Frenchman Camille Le Tallec (1908-91).• Christian ArtThis is mostly Biblical Art, or at least works derived from the Bible. It includes Protestant Reformation art and Catholic Counter-Reformation art, as well as Jewish themes.
See also: Early Christian sculpture and also: Early Christian Art.• CollageComposition consisting of various materials like newspaper cuttings, cardboard, photos, fabrics and the like, pasted to a board or canvas. May be combined with painting or drawings.• Computer ArtAll computer-generated forms of fine or applied art, including computer-controlled types. Also known as Digital, Cybernetic or Internet art.
• Conceptual ArtA contemporary art form that places primacy on the concept or idea behind a work of art, rather than the work itself. Leading conceptual artists include: Allan Kaprow (b.1927), and Joseph Beuys (1921-86) the former Professor of Monumental Sculpture at the Dusseldorf Academy, whose dedication earned him a retrospective at the Samuel R Guggenheim Museum (New York).• Design (Artistic)This refers to the plan involved in creating something according to a set of aesthetics.
Examples of artistic design movements include: Art Nouveau, Art Deco, De Stijl, Bauhaus, Ulm Design School and Postmodernism.• DrawingA drawing can be a complete work, or a type of preparatory sketching for a painting or sculpture. A central issue in fine art concerns the relative importance of drawing (line) versus colour.- chalk- charcoal- conte crayon- pastel- pen and ink- pencilFor a selection of the greatest sketches by some of the finest draftsmen in history, please see: Best Drawings of the Renaissance (1400-1550).
• Folk ArtMostly crafts and utilitarian applied arts made by rural artisans.• French FurnitureThe greatest furniture was created during the 17th/18th centuries by French Designers at the Royal Court, in the Louis Quatorze, Quinze and Seize styles. For a short guide, see: French Decorative Arts (1640-1792).• Graffiti ArtContemporary form of street aerosol spray painting which emerged in East Coast American cities during the late 1960s/early 1970s.
Famous graffiti artists include Jean-Michel Basquiat (1960-88), Keith Haring (1958-90) and Banksy.• Graphic ArtTypes of visual expression defined more by line and tone (disegno), rather than colour (colorito). Includes drawing, cartoons, caricature art, comic strips, illustration, animation and calligraphy, as well as all forms of traditional printmaking. Also includes postmodernist styles of word art (text-based graphics).
• Icons (Icon Painting)Ranks alongside mosaic art as the most popular type of Eastern Orthodox religious art. Closely associated with Byzantine art, and later, Russian icon painters.• Illuminated ManuscriptsThis principally refers to religious texts (Christian, Islamic, Jewish) embellished with figurative illustrations and/or abstract geometric designs, exemplified by Book of Kells.• InstallationA new category of contemporary art, which employs various 2-D and 3-D materials to create a particular space designed to make an impact on the viewer/visitor.
Turner Prize Winner Damien Hirst and Tracey Emin are famous installation artists.• IllustrationA form of painting, drawing or other graphic art which explains, clarifies, pictorializes or decorates written text.• Jewellery ArtPractised by goldsmiths, as well as other master-craftsmen like silversmiths, gemologists, diamond cutters/setters and lapidaries.• Junk ArtArtworks made from ordinary, everyday materials, or "found objects", of which Marcel Duchamp's "readymades" are a sub-category.
Typically includes 3-D works like sculpture, assemblage, collage or installations.• Land ArtA relatively new category of contemporary art, also called Earth art, earthworks, or Environmental art, it was led by Robert Smithson (1938-73), and emerged in America during the 1960s as a reaction against the commercial art world.• Metalwork ArtEmbraces goldsmithing, the fashioning of precious metals into objets d'art, as well as enamelwork techniques like cloisonné, plique-a-jour, champlevé, and encrusted enamelling.
See: Celtic Metalwork. For more modern works, see also: Fabergé Easter Eggs.• Mosaic ArtAn ancient art form, developed by Ancient Greek and Byzantine artists, which creates pictorial designs out of glass tesserae. For its high point during the Middle Ages, see: Ravenna Mosaics (c.400-600) and Christian Byzantine Art (c.400-1200).• Outsider ArtArtworks by painters/sculptors outside mainstream culture; may be mentally ill, or untutored and uneducated: (French equivalent is Art Brut).
• PaintingSince classical antiquity the highest form of Western art, painting has been dominated by Renaissance-style "Academic Art". Until the invention of pre-mixed paints and the collapsible paint tube in the mid-19th century, painters had to create their own colour pigments from natural plants and metal compounds. See colour in painting. Famous painting movements or schools include: Early/HighRenaissance, Mannerism, Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassical, Romanticism, Realism, Impressionism, Post Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism, Op-Art, Pop Art, Minimalism, Photorealism, and others.
- acrylics- encaustic painting- fresco painting- gouache- ink and wash- nail art- oils- miniature painting- panel painting- tempera painting- watercolours- and more• Performance Art (and Happenings)A 20th century art form involving a live performance by the artist before an audience. The form was explored and developed by exponents of Futurism, Constructivism, Dada, Surrealism and later contemporary art movements.
• PhotographyA 20th century medium by which the artist captures pictorial images on film as opposed to the traditional fine art supports of canvas, paper or board. New computer software graphics programs have created new opportunities for editing and image manipulation. See also: Is Photography Art? Foremost among exponents of photographic art is the American Ansel Adams, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a Guggenheim fellow and recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, noted for his black-and-white photographs of the American West.
The leading contemporary Irish lens-based artist is Victor Sloan (b.1945).• Poster ArtPeaked during the French Belle Epoque and the Art Nouveau era.• Primitive ArtAssociated with Aboriginal, African, Oceanic and other tribal cultures; also embraces Outsider art.• PrintmakingThe process of making original prints by pressing an inked block or plate onto a receptive support surface, typically paper.
Among great modern exponents of fine art printmaking (eg. woodcuts, engraving, etching, lithography and silkscreen) are the American artist James McNeill Whistler (1834–1903), the French artist Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), the Dutch graphic artist MC Escher (1898-1972), Willem de Kooning (1904-97) and Robert Rauschenberg (1925-2008), as well as silkscreen printers like Andy Warhol (1928-87), all of whom infused the artform with great vitality.
- engraving- etching- giclee prints- lithography- screen-printing- woodcuts- and more• Public ArtA vague category of art which encompasses all works paid for by public funds. A more narrow definition might restrict it to all works designed for a space accessible to the general public. Sadly, most public art ends up in stores or offices staffed by public servants!• Religious ArtTypically architecture, or any fine or decorative arts with a religious theme: includes Christian or Islamic, Hindu, Buddhism or any of a hundred different sects.
See for instance Chinese Buddhist sculpture (c.100 CE - present).• Rock ArtTraditionally encompasses primitive stone engravings (petroglyphs), relief sculptures, cave painting (pictographs) and megaliths of the Stone Age.• Sand ArtEncompasses sand painting (Navajo Indians, Tibetan Buddhists), sand drawing (Vanuatu, formerly New Hebrides), sand sculpture and architecture.• SculptureSculpture is a three-dimensional work of plastic art created either by (1) Carving - in stone, marble, wood, ivory, bone; (2) modelling - from wax or clay, after which it may be cast in bronze; (3) an assemblage of "found objects".
Note: Origami paper folding should also be classed as a plastic art.- statue- relief sculpture- bronze- ice sculpture- ivory carving- marble- stone- terracotta sculpture- wood-carving• Stained Glass ArtThe supreme decorative art of the Gothic movement, stained glass reached its zenith during the 12th and 13th centuries when it was created for Christian cathedrals across Europe. Modern stained glass was made in America by John LaFarge and Louis Comfort Tiffany; and on the Continent at the Bauhaus design school.
Sadly, the creators of the stained glass masterpieces in Chartres and other Gothic cathedrals remain anonymous, however their skills were kept alive by artists like Marc Chagall (1887-1985) and Joan Miro (1893-1983), and - in Ireland - by such Irish artists as Harry Clarke (1889-1931), Sarah Purser (1848-43) and Evie Hone (1894-1955).• Tapestry ArtAn ancient type of textile art, tapestry-making flourished in Europe from the Middle Ages onwards, at the hands of French and (later) Flemish weavers.
The most famous works were woven at the Gobelins tapestry and Beauvais tapestry factories in Paris, but see also the famous Bayeux Tapestry (c.1075) a Romanesque work stitched by Anglo-Saxon and French seamsters, depicting the Norman Conquest of 1066.• Video ArtOne of the most recent categories of contemporary expression, pioneered by Andy Warhol and others, video is frequently used in installation art, as well as as a stand-alone art form.
Several Turner Prize Winners have been video artists. The leading video artist of the twentieth century is probably Bill Viola (b.1951), known for his technical and creative mastery of the genre.
Title: Types Of Abstract Art