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Bauhaus at Berlin 1932-1933 Using funds from the sale of Bauhaus royalties, Mies van der Rohe rents a disused telephone factory in Steglitz Berlin, where he reopens the school as a private institute. With 14 students, together with staff members Kandinsky, Josef Albers, Hilberseimer, Reich, and Peterhans, it survives for about 6 months until the Nazis finally close it down in April 1933. Mies van der Rohe is expelled from Germany.
BAUHAUS CREATIVE OUTPUT Bauhaus ArchitectureIt wasn't until 1927 that Bauhaus began to offer classes in architecture so "Bauhaus" style designs produced from 1919 to 1927 - such as, the competition design for the Chicago Tribune Tower, the Sommerfeld house (Berlin), the Otte house (Berlin), the Auerbach house (Jena), and the 1926 Bauhaus school buildings in Dessau - were the exclusive work of Gropius.
Bauhaus student output during this period was geared to the finishing and equipping of these buildings' architectural designs, and encompassed interior finishes, and craft work like cabinets, chairs and pottery. Under Meyer, Bauhaus gained two major architectural commissions, and these were also fully equipped by workshop products. Under Mies van der Rohe the school won no further design commissions.
Although the Bauhaus promoted a certain style of popular standardized architectural design - ideas shared by several other professional architects across Germany - it did not involve itself in worker housing estates. The development of large-scale housing projects for workers was not the main priority of Gropius, Meyer or Mies. This type of architectural work was actually done by non-Bauhaus city architects like Hans Poelzig, Bruno Taut, and especially Ernst May, who responded energetically to the promise of a "minimal dwelling" written into the new Weimar Constitution and went on to build thousands of socially progressive housing units in Desden, Berlin and Frankfurt, respectively.
The design style embodied by Walter Gropius became known as the International Style of modern architecture, and later spread to the United States, where it was developed by Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969) and other European emigrants like Richard Neutra (1892-1970). Bauhaus PaintingWhile architecture had always been the highest goal of Bauhaus training, to begin with the staff consisted almostentirely of painters: first, Feininger and Itten; then Muche, Schlemmer, Klee, Kandinsky and Moholy-Nagy.
These outstanding teachers provided a level of technical and stylistic tuition which has rarely been equalled. Right from the very beginning, most students tried their hand at painting and drawing - in a non-academic way. The main goal was to stimulate and sharpen a student's creativity, rather than learn how Old Masters painted.Bauhaus Printmaking/Graphic Art The printmaking workshop only operated when the school was located in Weimar.
Its artistic director was Lyonel Feininger, while its supervising craftsman was the lithographer Carl Zaubitzer. Open to use by both staff and students, it produced Feininger's "Twelve woodcuts" as well as a Portfolio of the State Bauhaus School, and started a New European Graphics project highlighting all the major tendencies of the international avant-garde - from Futurism to Dada, Constructivism, and Surrealism.
In addition, the print workshop took on outside commissions such as lithograph-production for Piet Mondrian and Alexander Rodchenko. The workshop was also an early pioneer of typography and graphic art, through its poster art and typography designs for various internal projects. These included production of Bauhaus postcards - widely distributed as original graphic miniatures - whose typeface and image became an important advertising medium for the school.
Bauhaus SculptureDuring the Weimar period, two separate sculpture workshops operated at the Bauhaus: one for stone work, one for wood-carving. To begin with, Johannes Itten directed both, and in 1922 was succeeded by Oskar Schlemmer. The supervising master-craftsman (later famous for his Bauhaus-style chess set) was the sculptor Josef Hartwig. At Dessau a single workshop was set up in 1925 by Joost Schmidt.
At Weimar, in keeping with the focus on architecture, students worked mainly on architectural sculpture. Thus for example in 1921-22, the wood workshop created reliefs and wooden cravings for the Adolf Sommerfeld house designed by Gropius and Meyer, while in 1922-23 the stone workshop produced wall decorations for the Bauhaus' own school buildings. If the initial emphasis at Weimar was on free artistic work, sculpture classes at Dessau concentrated more on educational aspects.
Joost Schmidt's workshop provided an introductory course in sculpture, while students also explored stage design, the creation of maquettes as well as architectural sculpture. Bauhaus Applied Arts Graphic designs for a range of decorative arts were widely explored by students, after the earlier example of William Morris in England. Interestingly, the most profitable tangible product of the Bauhaus was its wallpaper.
Also, as we have seen, Bauhaus weaving models were adopted by leading manufacturers for mass-production, as were several of its electic light fittings. Bauhaus also excelled in modern furniture design. The cantilever chair by Dutch designer Mart Stam, and the Wassily Chair, designed by Marcel Breuer are two notable examples. Bauhaus Legacy Most art historians acknowledge that the Bauhaus approach to design had a major impact on art and architecture throughout Western Europe, North America and Israel, not least because so many of its influential teachers fled Germany and took up teaching posts abroad.
Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer taught at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, influencing the likes of I.M. Pei, Lawrence Halprin and Paul Rudolph, among others; Herbert Bayer organized and designed a major exhibition of Bauhaus work at the Museum of Modern Art, New York in 1938-9; Mies van der Rohe relocated to Chicago, where he enjoyed the patronage of Philip Johnson (1906-2005) - one of the most influential American architects of his day, with whom he later designed the landmark Seagram Building - and became one of the leading figures in American architecture; Moholy-Nagy also settled in Chicago and set up the New Bauhaus school with philanthropist Walter Paepcke.
Bauhaus printmaker and painter Werner Drewes taught at Columbia University and Washington University St. Louis, while Josef Albers lectured at the experimental and influential Black Mountain College, before heading the department of architecture and design at Yale University. He duly became world famous for his non-objective art - namely, his Homage to the Square series of paintings. Important Collections of Bauhaus Art & Design - Bauhaus-Archiv, Museum fur Gesaltung, Berlin.
- Busch-Reisinger Museum, Harvard University- Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco- Minneapolis Institute of Arts- Paul Klee Centre, Bern, Switzerland
Title: School Of Art And Design Berlin