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Battersea Power Station Battersea Power Station Viewed from the north bank of the Thames in August 2012 Location of Battersea Power Station Official name Battersea A and B power stations Country England Location Nine Elms, Battersea, Wandsworth, South West London Coordinates 51°28′54″N 0°8′41″W / 51.48167°N 0.14472°WCoordinates: 51°28′54″N 0°8′41″W / 51.
48167°N 0.14472°W Status Decommissioned and awaiting redevelopment Construction began 1929 (A station) 1945 (B station) Commission date 1933–35 (A station) 1953–55 (B station) Decommission date 1975 (A station) 1983 (B station) Construction cost £2,141,550 (A station) Owner(s) London Power Company (1939–1948)British Electricity Authority (1948–1955)Central Electricity Authority (1955–1957)Central Electricity Generating Board (1957–1983) Thermal power station Primary fuel Coal Secondary fuel Oil (A station only) Power generation Units operational A station: Two 69 MW Metropolitan-Vickers (MV) British Thompson-Houston and one 105 MW Metropolitan-VickersB station:Two 100 MW and one 72 MW Metropolitan-Vickers Nameplate capacity 1935: 243 MW 1955: 503 MW 1975: 488 MW 1983: 146 MW Websitehttps://batterseapowerstation.
co.uk Battersea Power Station is a decommissioned coal-fired power station located on the south bank of the River Thames, in Nine Elms, Battersea, an inner-city district of South West London. It comprises two individual power stations, built in two stages in the form of a single building. Battersea A Power Station was built in the 1930s, with Battersea B Power Station to the east in the 1950s. The two stations were built to a nearly identical design, providing the long-recognised four-chimney layout.
The station ceased generating electricity in 1983, but over the past 50 years it has become one of the best known landmarks in London and is Grade II* listed. The station's celebrity owes much to numerous popular culture references, which include the cover art of Pink Floyd's 1977 album Animals and its appearance in the 1965 Beatles' film Help! The station is one of the largest brick buildings in the world and is notable for its original, lavish Art Deco interior fittings and decor.
 The building remained largely unused for more than 30 years after its closure; in 2008 the condition of the structure was described as "very bad" by English Heritage, which included it in its Heritage at Risk Register. The site was also listed on the 2004 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund. Since the station's closure, numerous redevelopment plans were drawn up from successive site owners.
In 2004, when a redevelopment project by Parkview International stalled, the site was sold to the administrators of Irish company Real Estate Opportunities (REO), who bought it for £400 million in November 2006 with plans to refurbish the station for public use and build 3,400 homes across the site. This plan fell through due to REO's debt being called in by the state-owned banks of the UK and Ireland.
The site was again put up for sale in December 2011 through commercial estate agent Knight Frank. The combination of an existing debt burden of some £750 million, the need to make a £200 million contribution to a proposed extension to the London Underground, requirements to fund conservation of the derelict power station shell, and the presence of a waste transfer station and cement plant on the river frontage made commercial development of the site a significant challenge.
 In 2012, administrators Ernst & Young entered into an exclusivity agreement with Malaysia's SP Setia and Sime Darby to develop the site. The £400 million sale was completed in September 2012, and the redevelopment intends to implement the Rafael Vinoly design, which had gained planning consent from Wandsworth Council in 2011. In January 2013, the first residential apartments went on sale.
 Construction on Phase 1 was due to commence in 2013, with completion due in 2016/17.Apple will locate its new London headquarters at Battersea Power Station, becoming the largest office tenant with 1,400 staff across six floors in the central boiler house. History Until the late 1930s electricity was supplied by municipal undertakings. These were small power companies that built power stations dedicated to a single industry or group of factories, and sold any excess electricity to the public.
These companies used widely differing standards of voltage and frequency. In 1925 Parliament decided that the power grid should be a single system with uniform standards and under public ownership. Several of the private power companies reacted to the proposal by forming the London Power Company. They planned to heed parliament's recommendations and build a small number of very large stations. The London Power Company's first of these super power stations was planned for the Battersea area, on the south bank of the River Thames in London.
The proposal was made in 1927, for a station built in two stages and capable of generating 400 megawatts (MW) of electricity when complete. The site chosen was a 15-acre (61,000 m2) plot of land which had been the site of the reservoirs for the former Southwark and Vauxhall Waterworks Company. The site was chosen for its proximity to the River Thames for cooling water and coal delivery, and because it was in the heart of London, the station's immediate supply area.
 The proposal sparked protests from those who felt that the building would be too large and would be an eyesore, as well as worries about the pollution damaging local buildings, parks and even paintings in the nearby Tate Gallery. The company addressed the former concern by hiring Sir Giles Gilbert Scott to design the building's exterior. He was a noted architect and industrial designer, famous for his design of the red telephone box, and of Liverpool Anglican Cathedral.
He would go on to design another London power station, Bankside, which now houses Tate Modern art gallery. The pollution issue was resolved by granting permission for the station on the condition that its emissions were to be treated, to ensure they were "clean and smokeless". Construction of the first phase, the A Station, began in March 1929. The main building work was carried out by John Mowlem & Co, and the structural steelwork erection carried out by Sir William Arrol & Co.
Other contractors were employed for specialist tasks. Most of the electrical equipment, including the steam turbine turbo generators, was produced by Metropolitan-Vickers in Trafford Park, Manchester. The building of the steel frame began in October 1930. Once completed, the construction of the brick cladding began, in March 1931. Until the construction of the B Station, the eastern wall of the boiler house was clad in corrugated metal sheeting as a temporary enclosure.
 The A Station first generated electricity in 1933, but was not completed until 1935. The total cost of its construction was £2,141,550. Between construction beginning in 1929 and 1933, there were six fatal and 121 non-fatal accidents on the site. After the end of the Second World War, construction began on the second phase, the B Station. The station came into operation gradually between 1953 and 1955.
 It was nearly identical to the A Station from the outside and was constructed directly to its east as a mirror to it, which gave the power station its now familiar four-chimney layout. The construction of the B Station brought the site's generating capacity up to 509 megawatts (MW), making it the third largest generating site in the UK at the time, providing a fifth of London's electricity needs (with the remainder supplied by 28 smaller stations).
 It was also the most thermally efficient power station in the world when it opened. The A Station had been operated by the London Power Company, but by the time the B Station was completed, the UK's electric supply industry had been nationalised, and ownership of the two stations had passed into the hands of the British Electricity Authority in 1948. In 1955, this became the Central Electricity Authority, which in turn became the Central Electricity Generating Board in 1957.
On 20 April 1964, the power station was the site of a fire that caused power failures throughout London, including at the BBC Television Centre, which was due to launch BBC Two that night. The launch was delayed until the following day at 11 am. Design and specification Battersea power station was built in two phases. This is the power station in 1934, with the first phase operational Battersea power station was designed in the brick cathedral style.
It is now one of few existing examples in England of this once common design style. Both of the stations were designed by a team of architects and engineers. The team was headed by Dr. Leonard Pearce, the chief engineer of the London Power Company, but a number of other notable engineers were also involved, including Henry Newmarch Allott, and T. P. O'Sullivan who was later responsible for the Assembly Hall at Filton.
J. Theo Halliday was employed as architect, with Halliday & Agate Co. employed as a sub-consultant. Halliday was responsible for the supervision and execution of the appearance of the exterior and interior of the building. Architect Sir Giles Gilbert Scott was involved in the project much later on, consulted to appease public reaction, and referred to in the press as "architect of the exterior".
 The station was designed in the brick-cathedral style of power station design, which was popular at the time. Battersea is one of a very small number of examples of this style of power station design still in existence in the UK, others being Uskmouth and Bankside. The station's design proved popular straightaway, and was described as a "temple of power", which ranked equal with St Paul's Cathedral as a London landmark.
In a 1939 survey by The Architectural Review a panel of celebrities ranked it as their second favourite modern building. The A Station's control room was given many Art Deco fittings by architect Halliday. Italian marble was used in the turbine hall, and polished parquet floors and wrought-iron staircases were used throughout. Owing to a lack of available money following the Second World War, the interior of the B Station was not given the same treatment, and instead the fittings were made from stainless steel.
 Each of the two connected stations consists of a long boiler house with a chimney at each end and an adjacent turbine hall. This makes a single main building which is of steel frame construction with brick cladding, similar to the skyscrapers built in the United States around the same time. The station is the largest brick structure in Europe. The building's gross dimensions measure 160 metres (520 ft) by 170 metres (560 ft), with the roof of the boiler house standing at over 50 metres (160 ft).
Each of the four chimneys is made from concrete and stands 103 metres (338 ft) tall with a base diameter of 8.5 metres (28 ft) tapering to 6.7 metres (22 ft) at the top. The station also had jetty facilities for unloading coal, a coal sorting and storage area, control rooms and an administration block. The A Station generated electricity using three turbo alternators; two 69 megawatt (MW) Metropolitan-Vickers British Thomson-Houston sets, and one 105 MW Metropolitan-Vickers set, totalling 243 MW.
At the time of its commissioning, the 105 MW generating set was the largest in Europe. The B Station also had three turbo alternators, all made by Metropolitan-Vickers. This consisted of two units which used 16 MW high-pressure units exhausting to a 78 MW and associated with a 6 MW house alternator, giving these units a total rating of 100 MW. The third unit consisted of a 66 MW machine associated with a 6 MW house alternator, giving the unit a rating of 72 MW.
Combined, these gave the B station a generating capacity of 260 MW, making the site's generating capacity 503 MW. All of the station's boilers were made by Babcock & Wilcox, fuelled by pulverised coal from pulverisers also built by Babcock & Wilcox. There were nine boilers in the A station and six in the B station. The B station's boilers were the largest ever built in the UK at that time.
The B station also had the highest thermal efficiency of any power station in the country for the first twelve years of its operation. Operations Coal transportation Coal was usually brought to the station by collier ships, and unloaded by cranes, which are still intact on the station's riverfront. The station had an annual coal consumption of over 1,000,000 tonnes. The majority of this coal was delivered to the station from coal ports in South Wales and North East England by coastal collier ships.
The ships were "flat-irons" with a low-profile superstructure, fold-down funnel and masts to fit under bridges over the Thames above the Pool of London. The LPC and its nationalised successors owned and operated several of its own "flat-irons" for this service. The jetty facilities used two cranes to offload coal, with the capacity of unloading two ships at one time, at a rate of 480 tonnes an hour.
Coal was also delivered by rail to the east of the station using the Brighton Main Line which passes near the site. Coal was usually delivered to the jetty, rather than by rail. A conveyor belt system was then used to take coal to the coal storage area or directly to the station's boiler rooms. The conveyor belt system consisted of a series of bridges connected by towers. The coal storage area was a large concrete box capable of holding 75,000 tonnes of coal.
This had an overhead gantry with a conveyor belt attached to the conveyor belt system, for taking coal from the coal store to the boiler rooms. Water system Water is essential to a thermal power station, as it is used to condense steam from the steam turbines before it is returned to the boiler. Water cycled through Battersea Power Station's systems was taken from the River Thames, upon whose banks it had been built.
The station would extract an average of 1.5 gigalitres (340,000,000 imperial gallons) of water from the river each day. Once the water had been through the station's systems, the water was cooled and discharged back into the river. After the end of World War II, the London Power Company took the opportunity to use the waste heat to supply the Pimlico District Heating Undertaking, which started operating in 1950.
Scrubbers The reduction of sulphur emissions had been an important factor since the station was in the design stages, as it was one of the main worries of those who protested the construction of the station. The London Power Company began developing an experimental technique for washing the flue gases in 1925. It used water and alkaline sprays over scrubbers of steel and timber in the flue ducts. The gases were subject to continuous washing, and with the presence of the catalyst iron oxide, sulphur dioxide was converted into sulphuric acid.
Battersea Power Station was one of the first commercial applications of this technique in the world. This method of washing was stopped in the B Station in the 1960s, when it was discovered that the discharge of these products into the Thames was more harmful to the river than the gases would be to the atmosphere. Closure and redevelopment Closure The station in November 1986, three years after ceasing to generate electricity The fact that the station's output continued to fall, coupled with increased operating costs, such as flue gas cleaning, led to Battersea's demise.
On 17 March 1975, the A Station was closed after being in operation for 40 years. By this time the A Station was co-firing oil and its generating capacity had declined to 228 MW. Three years after the closure of the A Station, rumours began to circulate that the B Station would soon follow. A campaign was then launched to try to save the building as part of the national heritage. As a result, the station was declared a heritage site in 1980, when the Secretary of State for the Environment, Michael Heseltine, awarded the building Grade II listed status.
 (This was upgraded to Grade II* listed in 2007.) On 31 October 1983 production of electricity at Station B also ended, after nearly 30 years of operation. By then the B Station's generating capacity had fallen to 146 MW. The closure of the two stations was put down largely to the generating equipment becoming outdated, and the preferred choice of fuel for electricity generation shifting from coal toward oil, gas and nuclear power.
 Since the station ceased generating electricity, there have been numerous proposals and attempts to redevelop the site. Theme park proposal The station's roof was removed in the late 1980s, when there were plans to convert the structure into a theme park. Following the station's closure, the Central Electricity Generating Board had planned to demolish the station and sell the land for housing, but because of the building's then Grade II listed status, they had to pay the high-cost of preserving the building.
In 1983 they held a competition for ideas on the redevelopment of the site. It was won by a consortium led by developer David Roche and which included John Broome, owner of Alton Towers Ltd. This consortium proposed an indoor theme park, with shops and restaurants. At an estimated cost of £35 million, the scheme was risky and would require over 2 million visitors a year to make any profit. The scheme received planning approval in May 1986 and the site was purchased by John Broome for £1.
5 million in 1987. Work on converting the site began the same year. The project was halted in March 1989, for lack of funding, after costs had quickly escalated that January, from £35 million to £230 million. By this point huge sections of the building's roof had been removed, so that machinery could be taken out. Without a roof, the building's steel framework has been left exposed and its foundations have been prone to flooding.
 In March 1990, the proposal was changed to a mixture of offices, shops and a hotel. This proposal was granted planning permission in August 1990, despite opposition from 14 independent organisations, including English Heritage. Despite permission being granted, no further work took place on the site between 1990 and 1993. Parkview proposal In 1993, the site and its outstanding debt of £70 million were bought from the Bank of America by Hong Kong-based development company, Parkview International, for £10 million.
 Following resolution of creditors' claims, it acquired the freehold title in May 1996. In November 1996 plans for the redevelopment of the site were submitted and outline consent was received in May 1997. Detailed consent for much of the site was granted in August 2000, and the rest in May 2001. The company received full possession of the site in 2003. Having purchased the site, Parkview started work on a £1.
1 billion project to restore the building and to redevelop the site into a retail, housing and leisure complex. During the Parkview era several masterplans for the site were developed by various architects and subsequently discarded. One notable plan, called simply "The Power Station", was masterminded by architect Nicholas Grimshaw. The scheme proposed a shopping mall, with 40 to 50 restaurants, cafés and bars, 180 shops, as well as nightclubs, comedy venues and a cinema.
Cosmopolitan shops would have been sited in the A Station's turbine hall, and label name shops in the B Station's turbine hall. The boiler house would have been glazed over and used as a public space for installations and exhibitions. A riverside walkway would also be created, running continuously along the riverside from Vauxhall to Battersea Park. Parkview claimed that 3,000 jobs would be created during the construction of the project, and 9,000 would be employed once completed, with an emphasis on local recruitment.
 The Battersea Power Station Community Group campaigned against the Parkview plan and argued for an alternative community-based scheme to be drawn up. The group described the plans as "a deeply unattractive project that has no affordable housing anywhere on the 38-acre (150,000 m2) site, no decent jobs for local people and no credible public transport strategy". They also criticised how appropriate the project was in its location, and proposal of other large buildings on the site.
Keith Garner of the group said "I feel that there's a real problem of appropriateness. They need a completely different kind of scheme, not this airport-lounge treatment. What you see now is a majestic building looming up from the river. If you surround it with buildings 15 storeys high, you don’t have a landmark any more." In 2005 Parkview, English Heritage and the London Borough of Wandsworth claimed that the reinforcement inside the chimneys was corroded and irreparable.
Wandsworth Council granted permission for them to be demolished and rebuilt. However, the Twentieth Century Society, the World Monuments Fund and the Battersea Power Station Company Ltd commissioned an alternative engineers' report that claimed that the existing chimneys could be repaired. In response, Parkview claimed to have given a legally binding undertaking to the council to provide certainty that the chimneys will be replaced "like for like", in accordance with the requirements of English Heritage and the planning authorities.
 REO proposal Real Estate Opportunities were granted permission to redevelop the power station in November 2010 On 30 November 2006, it was announced that Real Estate Opportunities, led by Irish businessmen Richard Barrett and Johnny Ronan of Treasury Holdings, had purchased Battersea Power Station and the surrounding land for €532 million (£400 million). REO subsequently announced that the previous plan by Parkview had been dropped and that it had appointed the practice of the Uruguayan-born architect Rafael Viñoly, of New York as the new master planner for the site.
 The centrepiece of this masterplan was a 980-foot-high "eco tower" that dwarfed the power station and was described by London's then mayor Boris Johnson as an "inverted toilet-roll holder". The tower was quickly dropped from the scheme. Jersey law firms, Ogier, Carey Olsen and Mourant Oxannes helped REO to raise funds for the new Battersea Power Station redevelopment. On 30 November 2011, it was officially announced that the REO scheme had collapsed with the debt called in by its lenders and creditors, putting the site in administration.
London Underground extension Main article: Northern line extension to Battersea A proposed part of the regeneration is an extension of the London Underground to serve the area. Although the site is close to Battersea Park and Queenstown Road stations, it appears to be considered that trains from these stations to Victoria and Waterloo respectively are already heavily loaded. The proposed 2-mile tunnelled extension would branch from the Northern line at Kennington and travel west to Nine Elms and Battersea.
The proposed extension would cost at least £500 million in 2008 terms before inflation and optimism bias (extra contingency amounts) and would be part funded by REO and, possibly, other significant land owners in the Nine Elms area. The 2010 planning consent for the site includes a phased contribution of approximately £200 million to the Underground extension, which adds another financial hurdle to the many difficulties in developing the site.
Biomass power station They include reusing part of the station building as a power station, fuelled by biomass and waste. The station's existing chimneys would be utilised for venting steam. The former turbine halls would be converted to shopping spaces, and the roofless boiler house used as a park. An energy museum would also be housed inside the former station building. The restoration of the power station building would cost £150 million.
 Eco-dome A plastic built "eco-dome" was to be built to the east of the power station. This building was originally planned to have a large 300 metres (980 ft) chimney, but this has now been abandoned in favour of a series of smaller towers. The eco-dome would house offices, and aim to reduce energy consumption in the buildings by 67% compared to conventional office buildings, by using the towers to draw cool air through the building.
3,200 new homes would also be built on the site to house 7,000 people. Consultation process In June 2008 a consultation process was launched, which revealed that 66% of the general public were in favour of the plans. At an event at the station on 23 March 2009, it was announced that REO were to submit the planning application for their proposal to Wandsworth Council. These plans have now been shelved due to the latest financial crisis to hit the site.
Planning consent The Council gave planning consent on 11 November 2010. REO hoped for construction to begin in 2011, but this has now been cancelled. The station structure itself was expected to be repaired and secure by 2016, with completion of the whole project by 2020. Plans now include the construction of 3,400 apartments and 3,500,000-square-foot (330,000 m2) of office space.
 Approximately 28,000 inhabitants and 25,000 workers are expected to occupy the space once complete. Lenders allow more time Reuters reported on 1 September 2011 that lenders would allow more time for a new equity partner to be found: "Lenders to the owner of Battersea Power Station in London waived a debt maturity deadline yesterday while talks with potential new equity partners for its redevelopment continued, a source close to the process told Reuters.
AIM-listed Real Estate Opportunities is seeking a partner for the 5.5 billion pound ($9 billion) development, and its senior lenders Lloyds and Ireland's National Asset Management Agency have already extended a deadline once relating to the 400 million pounds REO paid for the site in 2006. 'The banks have nothing to gain by calling the debt in. Talks with new equity partners continue, and an announcement may come in the next few weeks,' the source said".
However, in November 2011, Lloyds and NAMA called in the debt and the REO scheme collapsed into administration. A new buyer is now being sought for the site. Controversy On 19 September 2011, the Irish Independent reported concern over an alleged donation of €23,000 by a developer to Britain's Conservative Party. Farrell and Partners Urban Park proposal Battersea Power Station from the Chelsea Bridge In February 2012, Sir Terry Farrell's architectural firm put forward a proposal to convert the power station site into an "urban park" with an option to develop housing at a later date.
In this vision, Farrells propose to demolish all but the central boiler hall and chimneys and display the switching equipment from the control rooms in 'pods'. However, this plan is unlikely to bear fruit due to the Grade 2 listing status of the site. The bid failed to make the shortlist of final bidders considered by the administrators. Chelsea F.C. Interest On 9 November 2008, Chelsea Football Club were reported to be considered moving to a new purpose built stadium at the power station.
The proposed stadium was to hold between 65,000 and 75,000 fans and feature a retractable roof. The proposals were designed by HOK Sport, the same company who designed Wembley Stadium. However, the Chelsea FC scheme was seriously in doubt due to concerns for the preservation of the site and the collapse of the REO scheme in late November 2011. 2012 redevelopment plans The power station's 39-acre site received much interest, with many submitting bids in the 2012 sale.
Potential buyers were required to preserve the station's Grade II* listed four iconic chimneys and wash towers. Following the failure of the REO bid to develop the site, in February 2012, Battersea Power Station was put up for sale on the open market for the first time in its history. The sale was conducted by commercial estate agent Knight Frank on behalf of the site's creditors. In May 2012, several bids were received for the landmark site, which was put on the market after Nama and Lloyds Banking Group called in loans held by Treasury Holdings' Real Estate Opportunities (REO).
Bids were received from Chelsea F.C. with other interested parties including a Malaysian interest, SP Setia, London & Regional, a company owned by the London-based Livingstone brothers and housebuilder Berkeley. If sold, the new owner would have to pay £500 million for the power station, including £325 million to cover the debts held by Nama and Lloyds, and a £100 million contribution to the Northern line extension.
If the sale is unsuccessful, the agent would have a duty to maintain and preserve the site in line with its listed status. On 7 June 2012, Knight Frank announced that administrators Ernst & Young had entered into an exclusive agreement with Malaysian developers SP Setia and Sime Darby, who were given 28 days to conduct due diligence and agree the final terms of the deal. Completion of the sale to the Malaysian consortium took place in September 2012.
 The redevelopment of the site will use the existing Vinoly master plan which intends to position the Power Station as the central focus of the regenerated 40-acre site, housing a blend of shops, cafes, restaurants, art and leisure facilities, office space and residential accommodation. The plan includes the restoration of the historic Power Station itself, the creation of a new riverside park to the north of the Power Station and the creation of a new High Street which is designed to link the future entrance to Battersea Power Station tube station with the Power Station.
The redevelopment is hoped to bring about the extension of the existing riverside walk and facilitate access directly from the Power Station to Battersea Park and Chelsea Bridge. Restoration of the Grade II* listed Power Station is an early priority in the development. WilkinsonEyre was appointed in 2013 to complete the detailed design of the power station. Work commenced in 2013 and plans include the restoration of the art deco structure internally and externally, reconstruction of the chimneys, and refurbishment of the historic cranes and jetty as a new river taxi stop.
 The plan includes over 800 homes of varying sizes, and sales of residential apartments in Phase 1 of the redevelopment began in January 2013 with around 75 per cent of townhouses and apartments being sold within four days. Construction work on Phase 1, called Circus West, is being undertaken by Carillion and commenced in 2013 alongside work on the Power Station. The full redevelopment consists of seven main phases, some of which are planned to run concurrently.
Phase 1 is due to complete in 2016/17 with the Northern line extension and requisite new Battersea Power Station terminal anticipated to complete in 2020. In October 2013, Frank Gehry was appointed joint architect with Foster + Partners to design "Phase 3" of the scheme, which will provide "the gateway to the entire development and the new Northern line extension". Apple In September 2016, Apple announced plans to renovate and eventually house 1,400 employees at the station by 2021, occupying around 500,000 square feet of the space.
Apple and other firms will share the site with over 4,000 homes. In popular culture The station has become an iconic structure and has been featured in many forms of culture in its more than seventy-year history. Main article: Battersea Power Station in popular culture Battersea Power Station has become an iconic structure, being featured in or used as a shooting location for many films, television programmes, music videos and video games.
One of the station's earliest appearances on film was in Alfred Hitchcock's 1936 film Sabotage, which shows the station before the construction of the B station. The interior of the A station's control room was used for the "Find The Fish" segment of Monty Python's 1983 film The Meaning of Life. It also appears during the first daylight attack on London sequence in the 1969 movie, Battle of Britain, in the movie as in real life used as a navigational landmark by the attacking Luftwaffe bombers.
More recently in October 2007, the power station was used as a filming location for the Batman movie, The Dark Knight. The station's stripped, empty interior was used as a setting for a burnt out warehouse. A closeup of the station can be seen as stand-in for the exterior of a London railway station in Michael Radford's 1984 film Nineteen Eighty-Four. The station appears repurposed as the Ark of the Arts in the film Children of Men, serving as a vast storage warehouse for cultural treasures.
The Battersea Power Station also made a short appearance in the BBC One television series Sherlock, during a scene in the first episode of the second season, titled "A Scandal in Belgravia." The station has appeared numerous times in the long-running British science fiction series Doctor Who. It appeared briefly in the episode The Dalek Invasion of Earth in 1964, which saw the station in the 22nd century with two chimneys demolished, and a nearby nuclear reactor dome.
 It appeared again in the 2006 Doctor Who episodes "Rise of the Cybermen" and "The Age of Steel" as the base to which Londoners are drawn to be converted into Cybermen. The Battersea Power Station Community Group think one of the main reasons for the power station's worldwide recognition is that it appeared on the cover of Pink Floyd's 1977 album Animals, on which it was photographed with the group's inflatable pink pig floating above it.
The photographs were taken in early December 1976 and the inflatable pig was made by the German company Ballon Fabrik and Australian artist Jeffrey Shaw. The inflatable pig was tethered to one of the power station's southern chimneys, but broke loose from its moorings and, to the astonishment of pilots in approaching planes, drifted into the flight path of Heathrow Airport. Police helicopters tracked its course, until it landed in Kent.
 Video footage of the photoshoot was used in the promotional video for the song "Pigs on the Wing". The album was officially launched at an event at the power station. In recent years, the power station has been used for various sporting, cultural and political events. Since 22 August 2009, the station has been used as a venue on the Red Bull X-Fighters season. On 13 April 2010 the station was used as the venue for the launch of the Conservative Party's 2010 general election manifesto.
 Between 6 and 7 May 2010, the station site was used by Sky News in their coverage of the election. Recently, Spanish poet Eduardo Moga has written about the building; and a picture of it by Joel P. has been used as the cover for another Spanish writer's short tale: David Ferrer's La verdad sobre Mr. Henry Baker (cuento de Navidad). Battersea Power Station also appeared in a video game DiRT3 (2011) as a DC gymkhana compound.
That year, co-producer Ken Block visited the Power Station with his Ford Focus RS and Mikko Hirvonen with his Ford Fiesta RS to perform stunts there. See also Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom Energy policy of the United Kingdom Bankside Power Station References Footnotes ^ a b Rory Olcayto (5 October 2007). "Battersea Power Station upgraded to grade II*". Archived from the original on 15 October 2007.
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Battersea Power Station Community Group. Archived from the original on 20 January 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2009. ^ a b c d e f Booth, Robert (20 June 2008). "Latest plans for Battersea power station revealed". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 11 March 2009. ^ "World Monuments Fund – Battersea Power Station". ^ a b "Iconic landmark is sold for £400m". BBC News. 30 November 2006. Retrieved 30 November 2006.
^ a b c Hatcher, David (12 November 2010). "REO's Battersea Power Station granted consent by Wandsworth". www.propertyweek.com. Retrieved 28 January 2011. ^ "Battersea Power Station in London on sale". BBC News. 24 February 2012. ^ "| Knight Frank". Search.knightfrank.com. Retrieved 27 March 2013. ^  FT.com 1 December 2011 ^ Molloy, Thomas (3 September 2009). "REO searching for partner in Battersea power station revamp".
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Henry Baker (cuento de Navidad), Ávila (Spain): non-commercial edition, Dec. 2016. Bibliography Watts, Peter (2016), Up in Smoke: The Failed Dreams of Battersea Power Station, Paradise Road, ISBN 978-0-9935702-0-9 External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Battersea Power Station. Battersea Power Station – a new energy for London Battersea Power Station Community Group Battersea Power Station Company Ltd Battersea Power Station and Bankside (Tate Modern) compared Battersea Power Station Redevelopment Images Battersea Power Station Photos BBC picture gallery Fan's website Pink Floyd And Battersea Power Station – Animals Cover Story Historic England.
"Grade II at the time of entry (Grade II* since 2007) (207028)". Images of England. Heritage at Risk: Battersea+Power+Station Footage of Battersea Power Station Fire in 1964 Battersea Power Station becomes most expensive UK building ever sold v t e Electricity generation in Greater London Companies and organisations Current EDF Energy Hardy Oil and Gas International Power Former The Energy Group Pre-nationalisation electric power companies London Electricity Board National Power Power stations Biomass Active Heathrow T2 Coal Closed Acton Lane Barking A, B + C Battersea Blackwall Point Brimsdown Brunswick Wharf Croydon A + B Deptford Fulham Greenwich Grosvenor Gallery Hackney Kingston Lots Road Neasden Stepney West Ham Woolwich Gas Active Barking Citigen Croydon Enfield Greenwich Taylors Lane Closed Bulls Bridge Future Barking Reach (extension) Incinerators/Waste Active Belvedere Crossness Edmonton SELCHP Closed Shoreditch Oil Active Greenwich (co-fired) Closed Bankside Belvedere Brunswick Wharf (co-fired) Lots Road Wind Active Dagenham v t e London landmarks Buildings and structures Bridges Albert Bridge Blackfriars Bridge Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges Lambeth Bridge London Bridge Millennium Footbridge Southwark Bridge Tower Bridge Vauxhall Bridge Waterloo Bridge Westminster Bridge Entertainment venues Cinemas Empire, Leicester Square BFI IMAX Odeon Leicester Square Football stadia Wembley Stadium (national stadium) Craven Cottage (Fulham) The Den (Millwall) Emirates Stadium (Arsenal) Loftus Road (Queens Park Rangers) Olympic Stadium (West Ham United) Selhurst Park (Crystal Palace) Stamford Bridge (Chelsea) The Valley (Charlton Athletic) White Hart Lane (Tottenham Hotspur) Other major sports venues All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club The Championship Course (rowing) Crystal Palace National Sports Centre Lord's (cricket) Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park The Oval (cricket) Twickenham Stadium (rugby) Theatres London Coliseum London Palladium The Old Vic Royal National Theatre Royal Opera House Shakespeare's Globe Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Theatre Royal Haymarket Other Alexandra Palace Brixton Academy ExCeL Hammersmith Apollo O2 Arena Royal Albert Hall Royal Festival Hall Wembley Arena Government 10 Downing Street Admiralty Arch Bank of England City Hall County Hall Guildhall Horse Guards Mansion House National Archives Old Bailey Palace of Westminster Royal Courts of Justice Scotland Yard SIS Building Museums andgalleries British Museum Cutty Sark Golden Hinde HMS Belfast Imperial War Museum Madame Tussauds Museum of London National Gallery National Maritime Museum Natural History Museum Royal Academy of Arts Royal Observatory Science Museum Tate Britain Tate Modern Tower of London Victoria and Albert Museum Places of worship All Hallows-by-the-Tower BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Bevis Marks Synagogue Methodist Central Hall Regent's Park Mosque St Martin-in-the-Fields St Mary-le-Bow St Paul's Cathedral Southwark Cathedral Westminster Abbey Westminster Cathedral Retailing Shops Fortnum & Mason Hamleys Harrods Liberty Peter Jones Selfridges Shopping centres and markets Borough Market Brent Cross Burlington Arcade Kensington Arcade Leadenhall Market The Mall Wood Green One New Change Petticoat Lane Market Royal Exchange Westfield London Westfield Stratford City Royal buildings Partly occupied by the Royal Family Buckingham Palace Clarence House Kensington Palace St James's Palace Unoccupied Banqueting House Hampton Court Palace Kew Palace The Queen's Gallery Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace Skyscrapers 1 Canada Square 8 Canada Square 20 Fenchurch Street 30 St Mary Axe 125 London Wall Broadgate Tower BT Tower Centre Point Citigroup Centre Heron Tower Leadenhall Building Lloyd's building Millbank Tower Senate House The Shard Shell Centre St George Wharf Tower Strata SE1 Tower 42 Structures Albert Memorial ArcelorMittal Orbit Cleopatra's Needle Crystal Palace transmitting station London Eye London Wall Marble Arch Monument to the Great Fire Nelson's Column Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain ("Eros") Thames Barrier Wellington Arch Transport City Airport Heathrow Airport Charing Cross station Clapham Junction station Euston station King's Cross station Liverpool Street station London Bridge station Paddington station St Pancras station Victoria station Waterloo station Emirates Air Line Victoria Coach Station Other Barbican Estate Battersea Power Station British Library Kew Gardens Lambeth Palace London Zoo Oxo Tower St Bartholomew's Hospital Smithfield Market Somerset House Parks Royal Parks Bushy Park Green Park Greenwich Park Hampton Court Park Hyde Park Kensington Gardens Regent's Park Richmond Park St.
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Different Important Artwork Ideas have progressed extensive different eras, with all the switching artists' perceptions of processing, examining, and responding to varied art forms. Their innovative expressions have been explored by their generation, overall performance, and participation in arts. Each historic period has presented novel contribution of historic and cultural contexts for establishing the real key Arts Fundamentals on the applicable time period. Visual Arts assist artists assimilate the key Arts Ideas of Symmetry, Color, Pattern, Distinction and also the discrepancies in between one or maybe more aspects in the composition. The crucial element Artwork Principles of Visible Arts enable have an understanding of and distinguish between the scale like, Symmetry & Asymmetry, Positive & Negative Space, Light & Dark, Solid & Transparent, and Large & Small.See Also: The Mac Arts Centre
Art plays a vibrant role in the personal life of your individual as well as within the social and economic development on the nation. The study of Visual arts encourages personal development and the awareness of both our cultural heritage along with the role of art during the society. The learner acquires personal knowledge, skills and competencies through activities in Visual arts. When one studies Visual arts, he/she would come to appreciate or recognize that artwork is an integral part of everyday life.
Bankside Power Station Bankside 'B' Power Station, about 1985, before conversion to the Tate Modern Location of the Bankside Power Station in Greater London Official name Bankside Power Station Country England, United Kingdom Location Greater London Coordinates 51°30′27″N 0°05′56″W / 51.507625°N 0.098970°WCoordinates: 51°30′27″N 0°05′56″W / 51.507625°N 0.
098970°W Status Decommissioned Construction began 1891 (Pioneer Station), 1893 (A Station), 1947 (B Station) Commission date 1891 (Pioneer Station), 1893 (A Station), 1952 (B Station) Decommission date 1959 (A Station), 1981 (B Station) Owner(s) As operator(s), plus CEGB (1981-1990), Nuclear Electric (1990-1994); Tate Gallery 1994-date Operator(s) City of London Electric Lighting Company Limited (1891-1948), British Electricity Authority (1948–55), Central Electricity Authority (1955–57), CEGB (1958–81) Thermal power station Primary fuel Coal (A Station), Oil 'Bunker C' (B Station) Power generation Nameplate capacity 89 MW (A Station), 300 MW (B Station) Bankside Power Station was a former electricity generating station located on the south bank of the River Thames, in the Bankside area of the Borough of Southwark, London.
It generated electricity from 1891 to 1981.Bankside Power Station was also used as a training base for apprenticeships from all over the country. It trained both (electrical and mechanical) craft and engineering students using specialised machine shops for the training. Since 2000 the building has been used to house the Tate Modern art museum and gallery. Pioneer station The pioneer Bankside power station was built at Meredith Wharf Bankside in 1891.
 It was owned and operated by the City of London Electric Lighting Company Limited (CLELCo) and supplied electricity to the City and to part of north Southwark. The generating equipment was installed by the Brush Electrical Engineering Company and comprised two pairs of 25 kW Brush arc-lighters and two 100 kW single phase alternators generating at 2 kV and 100 Hz. This equipment first supplied direct current (DC) electricity to arc lamp street lights in Queen Victoria Street on 25 June 1891.
Alternating current (AC) for domestic and commercial consumers was first supplied on 14 December 1891, this was a single-phase, 100 Hz, three-wire, 204/102 Volt system. Electricity cables were carried over Southwark bridge and Blackfriars bridge. Bankside A 1893-1959 The power station, later known as Bankside A, was extended several times as the demand for electricity grew. An engine room, 230 ft (70 m) long and 50 ft (15 m) wide, was built in 1893 with two 200 kW, two 350 kW and two 400 kW alternators driven by Willans engines.
The associated boiler house was the same length and had nine Babcock and Wilcox boilers. In 1895 the engine room was extended to 424 ft (129 m) and the boiler house to 300 ft (91 m) containing 22 boilers. A DC supply for the printing presses of Fleet Street was provided from a DC power house at Bankside built in 1900. In 1901 the boiler house was doubled in width and contained 46 boilers.
In the engine room there were ten British Thomson-Houston alternators directly coupled to three-crank Willans engines, eight Brush alternators with a capacity of 3,600 kW driven by two-cylinder compound Brush engines, and two Ferranti compound engines driving 1,500 kW alternators at 150 RPM, making an aggregate capacity of 10,500 kW. By 1907 the capacity of the station was 25,500 kW with 15,000 kW being DC machinery.
 The first 2,500 kW turbo-alternator was installed in December 1910 and a second in January 1911, others followed at nearly yearly intervals. By 1920 there were seven turbo-alternators with an aggregate capacity of 19,500 kW. Until 1919 the system of generation was 2 kV, single-phase AC, and 450 V DC, this was changed that year to 11 kV, three-phase AC. The steam conditions were also increased from 150 psi to 250 psi with superheat to 660oF.
 Over the period 1921-28 a new boiler house was built alongside the east face of the power house. This had 18 boilers, the coal strike of 1921 led to six of the boilers being specified for oil firing, although two of these were later returned to coal firing. The old boiler house and its three 150 ft (46 m) chimneys were demolished. Bankside A generating capacity and output Year Generating capacity (MW) Annual output (GWh) Connections (MW) 1910 25 25.
2 37.4 1915 34.5 29.5 46.2 1923 34.5 49.2 70.1 1928 89 79.5 99.4 1934 89 114.1 131.7 1945 89 103.0 127.8 In 1934 Bankside was connected to London ring of the national grid and became a 'selected' station under the operational control of the Central Electricity Board. Equipment at Bankside A Following construction of new boiler house in 1921-28, the steam plant at Bankside A throughout the remainder of its operational life comprised: twelve Babcock 50,000 lb/hr boilers (four oil-fired, eight coal-fired chain grate); four coal-fired Yarrow 65,000 lb/hr boilers; and two coal-fired Yarrow 70,000 lb/hr boilers.
The operating pressure was 260 psi at 600-700oF. The total evaporative capacity was 850,000 lb/hr. Condenser cooling water was drawn from the river Thames through a pump house located on the river bank at 7,800,000 gallons per hour. At its peak in the 1930s the generating equipment comprised: one 5 MW, five 10 MW, two 15 MW Oerlikon and British Thomson-Houston turbo-alternators, and one Parsons 4 MW house service set (450-500 V), total capacity 89 MW.
 Some of the older plant was decommissioned. By 1952 the plant comprised one 5 MW and two 10 MW Oerlikon turbo-alternators, two 10 MW and two 15 MW B.T.H. turbo-alternators and one Parsons 4 MW set. Complaints There were numerous complaints against the power station throughout its operational life. In October 1901 the CLELCo paid the Corporation of Southwark £250 in settlement of the costs of the Corporation taking a smoke nuisance action against the company.
Then in January 1903 the company was fined £20 plus costs for "creating smoke". The CLELCo challenged some of these nuisance actions. In May 1910 an officer of the Public Control Department of the London County Council stated that he had observed black smoke issuing from the centre chimney and "in such volumes as to constitute a nuisance". This was contested by the company who said the information was inaccurate, since this was after sunset "any vapour or gas would assume a dark appearance […] and the absence of light would not ensure accuracy".
 The London County Council undertook tests to measure the deposition of grit in the area during the summer of 1950. They estimated that up to 235 tons per square mile of grit was deposited in the area from Bankside ‘A’ power station during the month of September 1950. Renewal and nationalisation By the late 1930s Bankside was considered inefficient (in 1946 the thermal efficiency was 15.
82%), old and polluting. Preliminary plans were drawn up by the CEB for a new power station, Bankside B, but World War II delayed any further redevelopment. On 1 April 1948 the British electricity industry was nationalised, Bankside was vested in the British Electricity Authority and the electricity distribution system radiating from the power station was vested in the London Electricity Board.
Bankside A was decommissioned in March 1959 and was demolished to allow the eastern end of Bankside B to be built. Bankside B 1947-1981 The redevelopment of Bankside power station, suspended during the war, was started again by the City of London Electric Lighting Company Limited in 1944. It developed plans for a new power station with an ultimate capacity of 300 MW and submitted these to the planning authority the London County Council in 1944.
 It was a highly controversial proposal as it continued industrialisation of the South Bank which the 1943 County of London Plan has sought to redevelop with offices, flats and educational and cultural institutions. The new Bankside B power station was appoved by the British Cabinet in April 1947. The designation Bankside A and Bankside B was only used when both stations co-existed during the period 1947-59.
The building was designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, the designer of Liverpool Anglican Cathedral, many of the K-series red telephone boxes, and an important consultant credited with designing the Art-deco exterior of Battersea Power Station. Bankside is a 155 m (509 ft) long, 73 m (240 ft) wide, steel framed, brick-clad building with a central chimney 99 m (325 ft) high. The chimney's height was less than that of St Paul's Cathedral, which is directly opposite, but set back from, the north bank of the Thames.
The plan of the building was divided into three sections - the 85 ft (26 m) high main turbine hall in the centre, with the boiler house to the north and the electricity transformers and switch house to the south. Bankside B was set-back from the river front to allow the boulevard proposed in the County of London Plan to be developed at a later date. Bankside B was designed to be coal-fired but, following a coal and power shortage in early 1947, was redesigned to be oil-fired (the first such power station in Britain).
 Bunker 'C' oil was delivered by barge from the Shell Haven refinery on the Thames estuary to three large underground tanks to the south of the building. Each tank was 28 m in diameter, 7.3 m high and held 4,000 tons of oil. The oil consumption of the station at full load was 67 tons per hour. Construction work was undertaken in two phases: 1947-52 and 1958-63. This allowed the old Bankside A to continue in operation while the new power station was built.
The western half of the building, plus the chimney, was completed first and started generating power in 1952 from four boilers and two 60 MW turbo-alternators. Bankside A was decommissioned in March 1959 and construction started on the eastern portion. This was completed December 1963 and generated electricity from one further boiler, and one 120 MW and one 60 MW turbo-alternator. The maximum total generating capacity of Bankside B was 300 MW.
 Equipment at Bankside B The specification of the boiler plant at Bankside B was as follows. Bankside B boiler plant Manufacturer Foster Wheeler John Brown Land (Brown Riley) Commissioned 1952 1963 Number Four One Steam production (each) 375,000 lb/hr 860,000 lb/hr Pressure 950 psi 1600 psi Temperature 925oF 1005oF Reheat None 377 psi & 1005oF Condenser cooling water was taken from the river Thames at 10 million gallons per hour (1.
07 million m3/day). The temperature rise of the cooling water across the condensers was 15oF (8.5oC). The specification of generating equipment at Bankside B was as follows. Bankside B generating plant Manufacturer British Thomson-Houston Associated Electrical Industries English Electric Number Two One One Commissioned November 1952 & June 1953 late 1962 December 1963 Rated output 60 MW 60 MW 120 MW Steam conditions at turbine stop valve 900 psi, 900oF 915 psi, 900oF 1500 psi, 1000oF Alternator cooling Air (408 m3/min) Hydrogen Hydrogen Terminal voltage 15 kV 13.
8 kV The 120 MW turbo-alternator was in the top 20 of the most efficient of UK electricity generators between 1963-73. The alternators were connected to 66 kV 3-phase delta-star transformers. The main 66 kV switchgear, rated at 2,500 MVA, was on the three upper floors of the switch-house: the circuit breakers on the upper floor, the selector switches below and the bus-bars on the lower floor. Two 66 kV cables ran to Battersea power station, and two to Deptford power station.
Ten 22 kV cables and twelve 11 kV cables distributed to various sub-stations of the London Electricity Board. Flue-gas washing Bankside B had a flue-gas washing plant to mitigate air pollution at its central London location. Only two British power stations had previously been fitted with such equipment: Battersea power station and Fulham power station. At Bankside flue-gases from the boilers were washed with a three-pass counter-current/co-current flow of river water from the Thames (to which chalk was added) in cedar wood scrubber towers.
 This process produced a characteristic white plume from the chimney. The plant was effective at removing sulphur compounds from the flue-gases (over its operational life it achieved an overall average sulphur removal efficiency of 97.2%). However, the process cooled the gases which caused ‘plume-droop’ under certain atmospheric conditions, causing a fume nuisance at ground level. Contaminated water from the flue-gas washing plant was treated in tanks through which air was bubbled, this oxidised the sulphite to sulphate, the water was diluted with water from the condensers before being returned to the river.
 This pollution was insignificant in the 1950s but was detrimental to the recovery of the Thames after concerted efforts were made to clean-up the river from the late-1960s. District Heating In 1971 the London Electricity Board gained legal powers to develop a district heating scheme at Bankside. A boiler house was constructed on the north face of the building at the base of the chimney together with underground pipes in Tooley Street.
 The scheme was abandoned following the fuel crisis of 1973-4 . Generating capacity and output The total output of Bankside B for selected years over its operational life was as follows. Bankside B generating capacity and output Year Generating capacity (MW) Annual output (GWh) 1953/4 120 118.9 1958/9 120 657.7 1962/3 180 623.5 1963/4 300 536.0 1970/1 300 1301.2 1973/4 300 662.6 1976/7 240 466.
7 1978/9 120 109.4 1979/80 100 9.6 On 8 October 1970 the station produced 6,004,364 kWh in a 24-hour period. Rising oil prices from 1973 made the station uneconomic compared to coal-fired power stations, resulting in it being used less often - principally during the winter and at peak times. One of the 60 MW units was decommissioned in 1976 and the two other 60 MW units in 1978. The 120 MW unit was derated to 100 MW.
Bankside B was closed on 31 October 1981. Redevelopment Following its closure there were several proposals to redevelop the redundant power station or its site. These included an industrial museum, an entertainment hall, a hotel, an opera house, and a conference and exhibition centre, but none were financially viable. There were also campaigns for the building to be saved. The group SAVE Britain's Heritage visited Bankside in May 1980 and produced a report on possible uses.
 Applications to list the building in 1987 and 1992 were refused. The government wished to sell the site and listing would have constrained how developers could intervene in the fabric of the building. Bankside was given a 'Certificate of immunity from listing' on 3 February 1993. At the privatisation of the British electricity industry in 1990 the power station was transferred to Nuclear Electric.
The company prepared the building for sale by removing asbestos and the redundant machinery at a cost of £2.5 million. An application was made to demolish the west wall of the building to enable this to be done, but contractors were able to remove the plant through a hole in the west wall. The BBC television programme 'One Foot in the Past' focused on the impending threat to the building; the reporter, Gavin Stamp, made an impassioned plea for the building to be saved.
 Main article: Tate Modern In April 1994 the Tate Gallery announced that Bankside would be the home for the new Tate Modern. The £134 million conversion started in June 1995 with the removal of the remaining redundant plant. The conversion work was carried out by Carillion and completed in January 2000. Some of the internal structure remains, including the turbine hall. An electrical substation, taking up the southern part of the building, remained on-site and was owned by the French power company EDF Energy.
In 2006, EDF announced that they would be releasing half this holding to the museum. The oil tanks were redeveloped into a performance art space opened in July 2012. A tower extension to the museum over the tanks was opened on 17 June 2016. Film and television Several episodes of British television, particularly science fiction series that have required industrial backdrops, such as Red Dwarf, were filmed at the station.
The building featured in Danny Cannon's film Judge Dredd. It served as the Tower of London in Richard Loncraine's 1995 film version of Richard III. In its modern incarnation as the Tate Modern, the building's exterior is featured at the beginning of the premiere episode of Ashes to Ashes. It also appeared in "Children of Men" by Alfonso Cuaron. The Blitz The power station was a target during the Blitz during World War II.
On one occasion, an electrical engineer named Charlie Reeves went into the shelter, as usual, during an air raid in June 1944. He then suddenly realized that the power had been left on and it would cause a problem if a bomb struck with the power on. So he ran up the steps out of the shelter to switch off. In this short time a bomb did strike and he was fatally wounded. He was taken to Guy's Hospital and died of his wounds a few days later.
See also Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom City of London Electric Lighting Company Limited Tate Modern Energy policy of the United Kingdom References ^ a b c d e f g h "The rise, fall and transformation of Bankside power station, 1890-2010". Retrieved 6 December 2013. ^ a b c Garcke, Manual of Electrical Undertakings, Vols 1-45, 1896-1947/8 ^ Murray, Stephen (2017). "Electrifying the City: power and profit at the City of London Electric Lighting Company Limited".
London Journal. ^ a b c d e f Parsons, R.H. (1939). The Early Days of the Power Station Industry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 114–19. ^ a b c Bourne, R. (1996). "The Beginnings of Electric Street Lighting in the City of London". Engineering Science and Education Journal. 5 (2). ^ London County Council (1939). London Statistics 1936-38. London: LCC. ^ Garke's Manual of Electricity Supply (Vol.
56). London: Garcke. 1959. pp. A–32. ^ Garcke (1939). Manual of Electrical Undertakings (Vol.41). London: Garcke. p. 290. ^ Garcke (1952). Manual of Electrical Undertakings (Vol.49). London: Garcke. pp. A26. ^ London Metropolitan Archives, LMA/4278/01/589, CLELC, Board of Directors Minute Book, minutes dated 30 October 1901 f.33; and minutes dated 21 January 1903, f.133. ^ Ashby, E and M. Anderson (1981).
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^ "Transforming Tate Modern". ^ "The Tanks: 2012 programme". ^ "Tate Modern Switch House". ^ Sabbagh, Karl (2000). Power Into Art. London: Allen Lane. p. 11. External links Photos of the interior of Bankside Power Station 1991 Article: Electrifying the City: Power and Profit at the City of London Electric Lighting Company Limited Article: The battle for Bankside: electricity, politics and the plans for post-war London v t e Electricity generation in Greater London Companies and organisations Current EDF Energy Hardy Oil and Gas International Power Former The Energy Group Pre-nationalisation electric power companies London Electricity Board National Power Power stations Biomass Active Heathrow T2 Coal Closed Acton Lane Barking A, B + C Battersea Blackwall Point Brimsdown Brunswick Wharf Croydon A + B Deptford Fulham Greenwich Grosvenor Gallery Hackney Kingston Lots Road Neasden Stepney West Ham Woolwich Gas Active Barking Citigen Croydon Enfield Greenwich Taylors Lane Closed Bulls Bridge Future Barking Reach (extension) Incinerators/Waste Active Belvedere Crossness Edmonton SELCHP Closed Shoreditch Oil Active Greenwich (co-fired) Closed Bankside Belvedere Brunswick Wharf (co-fired) Lots Road Wind Active Dagenham Retrieved from "https://en.
Title: Power Station Of Art