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For other uses, see Pattern (disambiguation). Tilings, such as these from Igreja de Campanhã, Porto, Portugal, are visual patterns used for decoration. A pattern is a discernible regularity in the world or in a manmade design. As such, the elements of a pattern repeat in a predictable manner. A geometric pattern is a kind of pattern formed of geometric shapes and typically repeated like a wallpaper design.
Any of the senses may directly observe patterns. Conversely, abstract patterns in science, mathematics, or language may be observable only by analysis. Direct observation in practice means seeing visual patterns, which are widespread in nature and in art. Visual patterns in nature are often chaotic, never exactly repeating, and often involve fractals. Natural patterns include spirals, meanders, waves, foams, tilings, cracks, and those created by symmetries of rotation and reflection.
Patterns have an underlying mathematical structure; indeed, mathematics can be seen as the search for regularities, and the output of any function is a mathematical pattern. Similarly in the sciences, theories explain and predict regularities in the world. In art and architecture, decorations or visual motifs may be combined and repeated to form patterns designed to have a chosen effect on the viewer.
In computer science, a software design pattern is a known solution to a class of problems in programming. In fashion, the pattern is a template used to create any number of similar garments. Nature Main article: Patterns in nature Nature provides examples of many kinds of pattern, including symmetries, trees and other structures with a fractal dimension, spirals, meanders, waves, foams, tilings, cracks and stripes.
 Symmetry Snowflake sixfold symmetry Symmetry is widespread in living things. Animals that move usually have bilateral or mirror symmetry as this favours movement. Plants often have radial or rotational symmetry, as do many flowers, as well as animals which are largely static as adults, such as sea anemones. Fivefold symmetry is found in the echinoderms, including starfish, sea urchins, and sea lilies.
 Among non-living things, snowflakes have striking sixfold symmetry: each flake is unique, its structure recording the varying conditions during its crystallisation similarly on each of its six arms.Crystals have a highly specific set of possible crystal symmetries; they can be cubic or octahedral, but cannot have fivefold symmetry (unlike quasicrystals). Spirals Aloe polyphylla phyllotaxis Spiral patterns are found in the body plans of animals including molluscs such as the nautilus, and in the phyllotaxis of many plants, both of leaves spiralling around stems, and in the multiple spirals found in flowerheads such as the sunflower and fruit structures like the pineapple.
 Chaos, flow, meanders Vortex street turbulence Chaos theory predicts that while the laws of physics are deterministic, events and patterns in nature never exactly repeat because extremely small differences in starting conditions can lead to widely differing outcomes. Many natural patterns are shaped by this apparent randomness, including vortex streets and other effects of turbulent flow such as meanders in rivers.
 Waves, dunes Dune ripple Waves are disturbances that carry energy as they move. Mechanical waves propagate through a medium – air or water, making it oscillate as they pass by.Wind waves are surface waves that create the chaotic patterns of the sea. As they pass over sand, such waves create patterns of ripples; similarly, as the wind passes over sand, it creates patterns of dunes.
 Bubbles, foam Foam of soap bubbles Foams obey Plateau's laws, which require films to be smooth and continuous, and to have a constant average curvature. Foam and bubble patterns occur widely in nature, for example in radiolarians, sponge spicules, and the skeletons of silicoflagellates and sea urchins. Cracks Shrinkage Cracks Cracks form in materials to relieve stress: with 120 degree joints in elastic materials, but at 90 degrees in inelastic materials.
Thus the pattern of cracks indicates whether the material is elastic or not. Cracking patterns are widespread in nature, for example in rocks, mud, tree bark and the glazes of old paintings and ceramics. Spots, stripes Giant pufferfish skin Main article: Pattern formation Alan Turing, and later the mathematical biologist James D. Murray and other scientists, described a mechanism that spontaneously creates spotted or striped patterns, for example in the skin of mammals or the plumage of birds: a reaction-diffusion system involving two counter-acting chemical mechanisms, one that activates and one that inhibits a development, such as of dark pigment in the skin.
 These spatiotemporal patterns slowly drift, the animals' appearance changing imperceptibly as Turing predicted. Art and architecture Elaborate ceramic tiles at Topkapi Palace Further information: Mathematics and art and Mathematics and architecture Tilings Further information: Tessellation and Tile In visual art, pattern consists in regularity which in some way "organizes surfaces or structures in a consistent, regular manner.
" At its simplest, a pattern in art may be a geometric or other repeating shape in a painting, drawing, tapestry, ceramic tiling or carpet, but a pattern need not necessarily repeat exactly as long as it provides some form or organizing "skeleton" in the artwork. In mathematics, a tessellation is the tiling of a plane using one or more geometric shapes (which mathematicians call tiles), with no overlaps and no gaps.
 In architecture Patterns in architecture: the Virupaksha temple at Hampi has a fractal-like structure where the parts resemble the whole. Main articles: Pattern (architecture) and Mathematics and architecture In architecture, motifs are repeated in various ways to form patterns. Most simply, structures such as windows can be repeated horizontally and vertically (see leading picture). Architects can use and repeat decorative and structural elements such as columns, pediments, and lintels.
 Repetitions need not be identical; for example, temples in South India have a roughly pyramidal form, where elements of the pattern repeat in a fractal-like way at different sizes. Science and mathematics Fractal model of a fern illustrating self-similarity Mathematics is sometimes called the "Science of Pattern", in the sense of rules that can be applied wherever needed. For example, any sequence of numbers that may be modeled by a mathematical function can be considered a pattern.
Mathematics can be taught as a collection of patterns. Fractals Some mathematical rule-patterns can be visualised, and among these are those that explain patterns in nature including the mathematics of symmetry, waves, meanders, and fractals. Fractals are mathematical patterns that are scale invariant. This means that the shape of the pattern does not depend on how closely you look at it. Self-similarity is found in fractals.
Examples of natural fractals are coast lines and tree shapes, which repeat their shape regardless of what magnification you view at. While self-similar patterns can appear indefinitely complex, the rules needed to describe or produce their formation can be simple (e.g. Lindenmayer systems describing tree shapes). In pattern theory, devised by Ulf Grenander, mathematicians attempt to describe the world in terms of patterns.
The goal is to lay out the world in a more computationally friendly manner. In the broadest sense, any regularity that can be explained by a scientific theory is a pattern. As in mathematics, science can be taught as a set of patterns. Computer science In computer science, a software design pattern, in the sense of a template, is a general solution to a problem in programming. A design pattern provides a reusable architectural outline that may speed the development of many computer programs.
 Fashion Main article: Pattern (sewing) In fashion, the pattern is a template, a technical two-dimensional tool used to create any number of identical garments. It can be considered as a means of translating from the drawing to the real garment. See also Archetype Cellular automata Form constant Pattern coin Pattern recognition Pattern (casting) Pedagogical patterns Notes References ^ Stewart, 2001.
Page 6. ^ Stevens, Peter. Patterns in Nature, 1974. Page 3. ^ Stewart, Ian. 2001. Pages 48-49. ^ Stewart, Ian. 2001. Pages 64-65. ^ Stewart, Ian. 2001. Page 52. ^ Stewart, Ian. 2001. Pages 82-84. ^ Kappraff, Jay (2004). "Growth in Plants: A Study in Number" (PDF). Forma. 19: 335–354. ^ Crutchfield, James P; Farmer, J Doyne,; Packard, Norman H; Shaw, Robert S (December 1986). "Chaos". Scientific American.
254 (12): 46–57. ^ von Kármán, Theodore. Aerodynamics. McGraw-Hill (1963): ISBN 978-0070676022. Dover (1994): ISBN 978-0486434858. ^ Lewalle, Jacques (2006). "Flow Separation and Secondary Flow: Section 9.1". Lecture Notes in Incompressible Fluid Dynamics: Phenomenology, Concepts and Analytical Tools (PDF). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University.. ^ French, A.P. Vibrations and Waves. Nelson Thornes, 1971.
^ Tolman, H.L. (2008), "Practical wind wave modeling", in Mahmood, M.F., CBMS Conference Proceedings on Water Waves: Theory and Experiment (PDF), Howard University, USA, 13–18 May 2008: World Scientific Publ. ^ Philip Ball. Shapes, 2009. pp 68, 96-101. ^ Frederick J. Almgren, Jr. and Jean E. Taylor, The geometry of soap films and soap bubbles, Scientific American, vol. 235, pp. 82–93, July 1976.
^ Stevens, Peter. 1974. Page 207. ^ Turing, A. M. (1952). "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 237 (641): 37–72. Bibcode:1952RSPTB.237...37T. doi:10.1098/rstb.1952.0012. ^ Murray, James D. (9 March 2013). Mathematical Biology. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 436–450. ISBN 978-3-662-08539-4. ^ Ball, Philip. Shapes. 2009. Pages 159–167.
^ Jirousek, Charlotte (1995). "Art, Design, and Visual Thinking". Pattern. Cornell University. Retrieved 12 December 2012. ^ Grünbaum, Branko; Shephard, G. C. (1987). Tilings and Patterns. New York: W. H. Freeman. ^ Adams, Laurie (2001). A History of Western Art. McGraw Hill. p. 99. ^ Jackson, William Joseph (2004). Heaven's Fractal Net: Retrieving Lost Visions in the Humanities. Indiana University Press.
p. 2. ^ Resnik, Michael D. (November 1981). "Mathematics as a Science of Patterns: Ontology and Reference". Noûs. 15 (4): 529–550. doi:10.2307/2214851. ^ Bayne, Richard E (2012). "MATH 012 Patterns in Mathematics - spring 2012". Retrieved 16 January 2013. ^ Mandelbrot, Benoît B. (1983). The fractal geometry of nature. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-7167-1186-5. ^ Grenander, Ulf; Miller, Michael (2007).
Pattern Theory: From Representation to Inference. Oxford University Press. ^ "Causal Patterns in Science". Harvard Graduate School of Education. 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2013. ^ Gamma et al, 1994. ^ "An Artist Centric Marketplace for Fashion Sketch Templates, Croquis & More". Illustrator Stuff. Retrieved 7 January 2018. Bibliography In nature Adam, John A. Mathematics in Nature: Modeling Patterns in the Natural World.
Princeton, 2006. Ball, P. The Self-made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature. Oxford, 2001. Edmaier, B. Patterns of the Earth. Phaidon Press, 2007. Haeckel, E. Art Forms of Nature. Dover, 1974. Stevens, P.S. Patterns in Nature. Penguin, 1974. Stewart, Ian. What Shape is a Snowflake? Magical Numbers in Nature. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2001. Thompson, D. W., 1992. On Growth and Form. Dover reprint of 1942 2nd ed.
(1st ed., 1917). ISBN 0-486-67135-6, available online at Internet Archive In art and architecture Alexander, C. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. Oxford, 1977. de Baeck, P. Patterns. Booqs, 2009. Garcia, M. The Patterns of Architecture. Wiley, 2009. Kiely, O. Pattern. Conran Octopus, 2010. Pritchard, S. V&A Pattern: The Fifties. V&A Publishing, 2009. Circle-Pattern on Roman Mosaics in Greece In science and mathematics Adam, J.
A. Mathematics in Nature: Modeling Patterns in the Natural World. Princeton, 2006. Resnik, M.D. Mathematics as a Science of Patterns. Oxford, 1999. In computing Gamma, E., Helm, R., Johnson, R., Vlissides, J. Design Patterns. Addison-Wesley, 1994. Bishop, C.M. Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning. Springer, 2007. External links Look up pattern in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Patterns.
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Distinct Vital Art Ideas have advanced complete distinctive eras, with the shifting artists' perceptions of processing, examining, and responding to various artwork kinds. Their imaginative expressions happen to be explored by their creation, functionality, and participation in arts. Each individual historic period has given novel contribution of historical and cultural contexts for producing the true secret Arts Fundamentals from the appropriate period. Visible Arts assist artists assimilate the real key Arts Concepts of Symmetry, Colour, Pattern, Distinction as well as the dissimilarities amongst one or more factors in the composition. The important thing Artwork Principles of Visible Arts aid fully grasp and distinguish among the scale which include, Symmetry & Asymmetry, Positive & Negative Space, Light & Dark, Solid & Transparent, and Large & Small.See Also: Polynesian Arts And Crafts
Art plays a vibrant role from the personal life of the individual as well as within the social and economic development of your nation. The study of Visual arts encourages personal development and the awareness of both our cultural heritage along with the role of artwork within the society. The learner acquires personal knowledge, skills and competencies through activities in Visible arts. When one studies Visual arts, he/she would come to appreciate or have an understanding of that art is an integral part of everyday life.
All images by Squirrelly Minds.This post is sponsored by Snapbox. All opinions remain my own.Thank you for supporting those who keep Squirrelly Minds running! Get ready for a long and eventful post guys, cause I have so many goodies to share with you that I’m feeling a bit like Oprah today. Download for you, download for you, downloads for everybody!It’s no secret that I love to create, but this has been especially true with our squirrelly baby’s nursery.
Aside from the crocodile print, I made/designed everything on the wall above the dresser with so much love. Equal to creating, I love sharing my creations with others, because I get that sitting down to make/paint can be incredibly daunting for a lot of people (I feel that way too sometimes). See that moon phase art print and the mint and white triangle pillow? You can have ’em friends. And for anyone who wants to get creative and make their own pattern in photoshop, Imma gonna show you how.
Yep, today is jam packed full of goodies made with Snapbox, so get ready! Our nursery has a subtle space theme, so I created a 16×20 moon phase art print to tie it all in. It took a little (a lot) of tweaking in photoshop to get it just right, but I was so happy with the result. But you know how something can look incredible on the screen, but you build up all these grand expectations so that when you actually hold it in your hands it just isn’t the same? I worried this might happen, leaving me in disappointment due to my own unrealistic dreams.
But nevertheless I persevered and sent it off to Snapbox with bated breath.No word of a lie friends, I squealed when my 16×20 framed art print arrived. I was completely blown away by the quality – it was BETTER than what I saw on screen and envisioned in my head! And honestly, where else can you get a gorgeous, custom frame at that size for only $25.99? (usd). These aren’t IKEA quality frames guys, they’re solid wood with a crisp white finish.
Perfection! Want your own? Get it! Simply click on the above image to be taken to the art print. Right click and save it to your computer. Then, head over here, upload the image and follow the prompts to order your own 16×20 framed moon phase art print! I love this print because it isn’t nursery specific, so really it will fit into any room of the house. Be sure to send me/instagram pictures of it hanging in your home! And if you have a room that’s in need of a splash of mint, how about a white triangle on mint pillow? I was really excited to develop a simple yet cute pattern to be created into a pillow for our squirrelly baby’s nursery.
Much like the art print, I was again incredibly impressed by the quality of the faux suede pillow. It’s super soft (squirrelly baby will love snuggling up with it) and really comfortable when I lay back in the rocker. Knowing I’ll be spending a lot of my time in that chair with all those newborn feedings, comfort is absolute key. But of course, it also has to look good which, in my opinion, it totally does.
To grab your own pillow pattern, again click on the above image to open up the pattern, then right click and save on your computer. Head right over here to select your pillow style, upload the image, then have your custom pillow made just for you. If mint triangles aren’t your thing, you can upload your own photo, and even have text written on it for you. Or, if you’re comfortable using photoshop, why not make your own pattern?Get ready for the lengthy part of the post, because I’m going to show you how to create your very own pattern using photoshop which you can turn into a pillow, an art print, or whatever you need.
But I promise, it’s not nearly as complicated as it may look.Ready to get your learn on? Let’s go! Step 1: Open Photoshop and either go to File-New, or hit command+n to create a new file. Make your file 4×4 inches, and be sure to set the resolution to 300 and color mode to CMYK. Hit ok.Step 2: Right click on the shape toolbar and select the polygon tool. Select the dimensions you want (I chose 250×300) and type ‘3’ for the number of sides.
Hit ok. Step 3: Right click your newly created triangle and, if you choose, select “Rotate 90 CCW” to turn the triangle upright. To move the triangle to a different location on the canvas, simply left click and drag to the new position.Step 4: Repeat step 2 to create another triangle. If you would like to tilt your triangle as seen here, hit command + t (or edit-free transform). You’ll see a box appear around your triangle.
If you hover your mouse over any corner, you’ll see a curved line with two arrows on each end. Click and hold, then move your mouse left or right to rotate the shape to any spot you like.Step 5: Go ahead and repeat steps 2-4 to make as many triangles as you wish. I didn’t want my pattern too crowded, so I only made three triangles. Step 6: Once you’re happy with the triangles, you’ll need to merge the layers.
If you have the layers toolbox open, you can do so by clicking the downward arrow in the top right corner, then press “Merge Visible”. Otherwise, you can simply press shift+command+e, or click Layer+Merge Visible.Step 7: To start the pattern, Click “Filter-Other-Offset”. Step 8: The settings need to be set as shown for a 4×4 inch square. Regardless the size, it’s always half of the original.
4 inches is 1200 pixels, so therefore half that is 600 pixels. Click ‘Wrap Around’ then ok.Step 9: To put your pattern in the ‘data’base, start by clicking ‘Edit-Define Pattern’ Step 10: Name your pattern and click ok. Now save your file as a psd and close it.Step 11: Now it’s time to create a new image for the item you want a pattern on. In my case, it’s the pillow. Again make sure it’s 300 resolution at CMYK if you plan to print.
Make the image the size you need (Snapbox pillows at 18×18), follow all the other inputs as shown and hit ok. Step 12: Fill the background of your image with your desired colour using the paint bucket tool. Make sure the colour you want is showing on the overlapping square.Step 13: To fill the background with the pattern, go to ‘Edit-Fill’. Make sur ethe opacity is set to 100%, click “Select Pattern” then highlight the one you just made.
Click ok. Step 14: Now the pattern has filled your image! If you want, you can stop here and skip to step 16. YAY!!!!! If you’re picky like me, you can make a few extra tweaks. Feel free to disregard the following steps if you’re over the moon happy with your pattern.Now I’ll show you how to remove, rotate and copy individual triangles, and resize the entire image.Knowing that the edges of the pillow would be distorted due to its curve, I didn’t want any triangles on the outer edges.
All I did was remove them using the brush tool. Just make sure its colour is the same as the background.Step 15: Now again, you can leave your pattern just like this and it’ll look great! Or you can be picky like me and want to tweak a few things here and there. Remember how I rotated the triangles back in steps 3 and 4? You can do exactly that again with each individual triangle you see. The only difference is you have to highlight the area surrounded the triangle.
Press ‘m’, or click on the rectangular marquee tool (it looks like a box with a dashed border). Left click, hold and drag the box over the triangle you want to change, then let go. A box that looks like marching ants should now appear around it. Click command+t and you’re back to step 3 where you can rotate the triangle any way you like. Repeat as much as you’d like.You can also copy and paste whichever triangles you like by selecting it using the marquee tool, then hitting command+J.
This will create a layer that you can move around. Step 16: Once you’re happy with the layout, first save it as a photoshop file in case you want to come back and make changes in the future. Then, repeat step 6 to merge all the layers. Again, you can leave it just like this or, if like me you want larger triangles, you can resize the image. To do so, click command+t. See those boxes in the corners? Left click on one and hold the shift button, then move your cursor up and down to make the image larger or smaller.
When it’s at a size you like, let go of the mouse and shift key, then hit enter.Step 17: Now it’s time to save. Click File-Save As, and then save as a jpeg using the highest quality options. Now you’re image is ready to be sent off to be made into a pillow, a print, or whatever else you like!Once again in case you missed them, you can find the free Moon Phase Art Print and Pillow Pattern for download right here:Hope you all enjoyed our little sneak peek of the nursery, and the goodies that came with it!I’ll be back in a few weeks with Snapbox and a post called “The Bump”, where I can share my maternity photos with you! They involve tall grasses, the mister making a rare appearance, and the most beautiful dock you’ve ever seen.
See you then! This post is sponsored by Snapbox.Thank you for supporting those who keep Squirrelly Minds running! Spread the love
Title: Pattern Making In Art