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Britart: Young British Artists (1980s) The Young British Artists (YBAs) first appeared on the scene in the 1980s, and were officially recognized in 1997 in the "Sensation" exhibition. Owing much to early 20th century styles such as Dada and Surrealism, their work is often called "Britart." The group consisted of a number of painters, sculptors, conceptual and installation artists working in the United Kingdom, many of whom attended Goldsmiths College in London.
Its members gained considerable media coverage for their shocking artworks and dominated British art during the 1990s. Famous members include Damien Hirst (noted for The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, a dead Tiger shark pickled in formaldehyde, and lately for his diamond studded skull For the Love of God), and Tracey Emin (noted for My Bed, a dishevelled double bed featuring some highly personal detritus).
Arguably, many YBAs would never have succeeded but for the patronage and promotion of their works by contemporary art collector Charles Saatchi, who first met Damien Hirst at the Goldsmiths College 1988 student exhibition "Freeze", which showcased 16 YBAs. Saatchi purchased many of the works on show. Two years later Hirst curated two more influential YBA shows, "Modern Medicine" and "Gambler". Saatchi attended both exhibitions and bought more works.
By 1992, Saatchi was not only Hirst's principal patron, he was also the biggest sponsor for other Young British Artists - a second group of whom had appeared, via shows like "New Contemporaries," "New British Summertime," and "Minky Manky", and included artists such as Tracey Emin. Meantime, the economic recession in Britain worsened, triggering the collapse of the contemporary art market in London.
In response, Saatchi hosted a series of exhibitions at his Saatchi Gallery, promoting the name "Young British Art" from which the movement retrospectively acquired its identity. The first one presented the work of Sarah Lucas, Mark Wallinger, Rachel Whiteread and of course Damien Hirst, whose dead shark rapidly became the iconic symbol of Britart around the world. In 1993, the YBA Rachel Whiteread won the Turner Prize, followed in 1995 by Damien Hirst.
In 1997, Young British Artists went mainstream when the London Royal Academy, in conjunction with Saatchi, hosted "Sensation", a definitive exhibition of YBA art, amid no little controversy. It then travelled to the Brooklyn Museum of Art in New York. In 1999, Tracey Emin's work "My Bed" was nominated for the Turner Prize, while in 2000, YBA exhibits were included in the new Tate Modern, all of which confirmed the established reputation of the group.
See also: Contemporary Irish Artists and 20th Century Irish Painters. Some prominent YBAs include: James Rielly (portraits), Keith Coventry (abstract painter), Simon Callery (urban views), Martin Maloney (Expressionist painter), Gary Hume (Minimalist), Richard Patterson (super-abstract), Fiona Rae (abstract, Pop-art), Marcus Harvey (expressionist figurative works), Ian Davenport (geometric abstraction), Glenn Brown (sculptor and expressionist painting), and Jenny Saville (expressionist-style female bodies), several of whom are Turner Prize Winners (1984-2014).
Deconstructivist Design (1985-2010) Deconstructivism is an "anti-geometric" form of 20th century architecture that first appeared in the late 1980s, in California and Europe. Greatly facilitated by computer software developed by the aerospace industry, deconstructivist architecture espouses a non-rectilinear approach to design which often distorts the exterior of a structure. Deconstructivism was pioneered by the Canadian-American Frank O.
Gehry (b.1929), one of the most innovative American architects of the postmodern era. Other famous practitioners have included Peter Eisenman, the firm Coop Himmelb(l)au, Rem Koolhaas and Daniel Libeskind. The best-known deconstructivist buildings include: the Guggenheim Museum (Bilbao), Nationale Nederlanden Building (Prague), and The Experience Music Project (Seattle), all designed by Frank Gehry; UFA-Palast (Dresden), designed by Coop Himmelb(l)au; and Seattle Library designed by Rem Koolhaas.
See also: Design Art c.1850-1970. Body Art (1990s) During the late-1960s a type of performance art appeared, called Body art, in which the artist's own body became the "canvas", so to speak, for a passive work of art, or which then "performs" in a shocking way. The most typical forms of passive body art are body painting, tattoos, nail art, piercings, face painting, brandings or implants. The more active performance-related types of body art, in which artists abuse their own body as a way of conveying their particular "artistic message", can include mutilation, drug-taking, extreme physical activity, or extreme pain endurance.
One controversial performance group was the Vienna Action Group, founded in 1965 by Gunter Brus, Otto Muhl, Herman Nitsch, and Rudolf Schwartzkogler. Other famous body artists include Michel Journiac (1935-1995), Ketty La Rocca (1938-76), Vito Acconci (b.1940), Ulay (Frank Uwe Laysiepen) (b.1943) and the extraordinary Serbian artist Marina Abramovic (b.1946). A leading body painter is the New Zealander Joanne Gair (b.
1958). Celebrated for her trompe-l'oeil body painting and make-up artistry, she is best known for one of her artistic female nudes, entitled "Demi Moore's Birthday Suit" - which appeared on the front cover of Vanity Fair magazine in August 1992. It was photographed by the contemporary photographer Annie Leibovitz (b.1949). Chinese Cynical Realism (1990s) Cynical Realism - a term first coined by the highly influential art critic and curator Li Xianting (b.
1949) as a deliberate play on the officially sanctioned style of Socialist Realism - describes a style of painting adopted by a number of Beijing artists in the post-1989 gloom following the suppression of the Tiananmen Square demonstration. Its ironic, sometimes highly satirical criticism of contemporary society in China, greatly impressed Western art collectors, although it was and is viewed with ambivalence by Chinese art critics, who feel uncomfortable with its fame in the West.
Artists associated with Cynical Realism include: Yue Minjun (b.1962), Fang Lijun (b.1963) and Zhang Xiaogang (b.1958), all of whom have sold paintings for more than $1 million. The movement is related to "Political Pop" - a late-1980s form of Chinese Pop art. Neo-Pop Art (late 1980s onwards) The terms "Neo-Pop" or "Post-Pop" denote the revival of American interest in the themes and methods of the 1950s and 1960s Pop-Art movement.
In particular, it refers to the work of artists like Ashley Bickerton, Jeff Koons, Alan McCollum, and Haim Steinbach. Using recognizable objects, images of celebrities (eg. Michael Jackson, Madonna, Britney Spears) as well as icons and symbols from popular culture of the 1980s and 1990s, this updated form of Pop-Art also drew inspiration from Dada (in their use of readymades and found objects), as well as modern Conceptual art.
Classic examples of Neo-Pop art are "Rat-King" (1993) a sculpture by Katharina Fritsch, and Jeff Koons 1988 sculpture "Michael Jackson and Bubbles". Like its parent style, Neo-Pop poked fun at celebrity stars, and openly questioned some of society's most precious assumptions. Koons himself achieved considerable notoriety for his elevation of kitsch into high art. His "Balloon Dog" (1994-2000) is a shiny red steel sculpture (10 feet high) whose detailed monumental form contrasts absurdly with the trivial nature of its subject.
Other famous Neo-Pop artists included Americans Jenny Holzer, Cady Noland and Daniel Edwards; Young British Artists Damien Hirst, Gary Hume and Gavin Turk, as well as Michael Craig-Martin, Julian Opie and Lisa Milroy; Russians Vitali Komar and Alexander Melamid; and Belgian artist Leo Coper. NOTE: One of the confusing things about Neo-Pop is the fact that several creators of the original 1960s and 70s Pop-art were still creating interesting works in the 1990s.
The best example is the sculptor Claes Oldenburg (b.1929) whose giant-sized Pop sculptures include Free Stamp (1985-91, Willard Park, Cleveland) and Apple Core (1992, Israel Museum, Jerusalem). Stuckism (1999 onwards) A controversial British art group, co-founded in 1999 by Charles Thomson and Billy Childish along with eleven other artists. The name stems from an insult to Childish delivered by British artist Tracey Emin, who advised him that his art was 'Stuck'.
Rejecting the sterile nature of Conceptual art, as well as Performance and Installation by YBAs like Emin, which they claim is essentially devoid of artistic value, Stuckist artists favour a return to more painterly qualities as exemplified by figurative painting and other representational art. The group held numerous exhibitions in Britain during the early 2000s, including "The First Art Show of the New Millennium" (Jan 1st 2000), and "The Resignation of Sir Nicholas Serota" (March 2000), along with several annual shows entitled "The Real Turner Prize Show", as well as a number of other events.
The group also in Paris, Hamburg, Cologne, Leipzig, New Jersey, New Haven USA and Melbourne Australia. Stuckism was also featured in two recent books: "Styles, Schools and Movements: an Encyclopaedic Guide to Modern Art," by Amy Dempsey; and "The Tastemakers: UK Art Now," by Rosie Millard. A Stuckist gallery was also opened in central London. Members of the Stuckist group included, among others, Charles Thomson, Billy Childish, Bill Lewis, Philip Absolon, Sanchia Lewis, Sheila Clark, Ella Guru, and Joe Machine.
New Leipzig School (c.2000 onwards) Coming to public attention in the first years of the new Millenium, the New Leipzig School (in German, "Neue Leipziger Schule"), also called "Young German Artists" (YGAs), is a loose movement of painters and sculptors who received their training at the Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst (Academy of Visual Arts) in Leipzig, East Germany, where it was largely isolated from modern art trends in the West.
Teaching methods were uniformly traditional, focusing on the fundamentals of traditional fine art, with heavy emphasis on draftsmanship, figure drawing, life drawing, the use of grids, colour theory, and the laws of perspective. After re-unification in 1989, the school began to teach students from all across Germany and its graduates looked for opportunities to sell their works in the West. The first successful artist to emerge was Neo Rauch who was offered a solo show at the David Zwirner Gallery in New York in 2000.
His success has now opened the gates for other equally talented Leipzig artists, whose works are being showcased in Europe and the United States. Their style is typically figurative with a strong emphasis on narrative, and is characterized by muted colours. Classical Realism and the Postmodern Atelier MovementThe New Leipzig School is one of several contemporary centres of traditional craftsmanship.
In the United States, traditional fine art painting was revitalized in the 1980s by "Classical Realism", a contemporary movement founded by Richard Lack (1928–2009), a former pupil of Boston artist R. H. Ives Gammell (1893–1981) in the early 1950s. In 1967, he set up Atelier Lack, a training workshop modelled on the ateliers of 19th-century Paris. Projection Art (21st Century) Projection art - also known as Projection mapping, or video mapping, or spatial augmented reality - is the height of postmodernist artistry.
Using computerized projection technology it needs only a surface (like a building, church facade, tree, and so on) upon which to project the finished product. Any imagery can be mapped onto the receiving surface and the effects can be spectacular: it can literally transform an outside or indoor space, while at the same time telling a story and creating an optical feast. Famous projection artists include Paolo Buroni, Clement Briend, Ross Ashton, Jennifer Steinkamp, Andy McKeown and Felice Varini, to name but a few.
Computer Art (21st Century) Dating back to the Henry Drawing Machine, designed by Desmond Paul Henry in 1960, the term "Computer art" denotes any art in which computers play a significant role. This broad definition also embraces more conventional art forms that utilize computers, such as: computer-controlled animation or kinetic art, or computer-generated painting - as well as those forms that are based on computer software, like Deconstructivist architecture.
Computer art may also be called "Digital art", "Internet art", "Software art", or "Computer graphics". Pioneers of this type of art include Harold Cohen, Ronald Davis, George Grie, Jean-Pierre Hebert, Bela Julesz, Olga Kisseleva, John Lansdown, Maughan Mason, Manfred Mohr and Joseph Nechvatal. Later digital artists included: Charles Csuri, Leslie Mezei, Frieder Nake, Georg Nees, A. Michael Noll, Nam June Paik and John Whitney.
Other important research pioneers included: Professor Harold Cohen, UCSD, and Ken Goldberg of UC Berkeley. The earliest exhibitions of computer art included: "Generative Computergrafik" (1965) at the Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart, Germany; "Computer-Generated Pictures" (1965) at the Howard Wise Gallery in New York; "Computer Imagery" (1965) at Galerie Wendelin Niedlich, in Stuttgart, Germany; "Cybernetic Serendipity" (1968) at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London.
In the 21st century, computer art has become the latest arena of contemporary art - a sort of ultimate postmodernism. In fact, computer-generated art is highly revolutionary - not least because it is has the capability (as artificial intelligence grows) to achieve complete artistic independence. Watch this space! TO SEARCH FOR A PARTICULAR MOVEMENT,BROWSE OUR A-Z OF ART MOVEMENTS
Different Critical Art Concepts have developed thorough distinct eras, while using the shifting artists' perceptions of processing, analyzing, and responding to numerous artwork forms. Their resourceful expressions have been explored by their development, effectiveness, and participation in arts. Each historical period has specified novel contribution of historic and cultural contexts for acquiring the important thing Arts Fundamentals from the related time period. Visual Arts aid artists assimilate the key Arts Ideas of Symmetry, Coloration, Sample, Distinction as well as dissimilarities among 1 or more components in the composition. The key Artwork Concepts of Visual Arts aid comprehend and distinguish in between the dimensions for instance, Symmetry & Asymmetry, Positive & Negative Space, Light & Dark, Solid & Transparent, and Large & Small.See Also: Art Of Jaguar Comics Free
Artwork plays a vibrant role while in the personal life of the individual as well as inside the social and economic development of your nation. The study of Visible arts encourages personal development as well as the awareness of both our cultural heritage plus the role of artwork from the society. The learner acquires personal knowledge, skills and competencies through activities in Visual arts. When one studies Visual arts, he/she would come to appreciate or fully grasp that art is an integral part of everyday life.
This article is about the art movement. For other uses, see Pop art (disambiguation). Eduardo Paolozzi, I was a Rich Man's Plaything (1947). Part of his Bunk! series, this is considered the initial bearer of "pop art" and the first to display the word "pop". Andy Warhol, Campbell's Tomato Juice Box, 1964. Synthetic polymer paint and silkscreen ink on wood, 10 inches × 19 inches × 9½ inches (25.
4 × 48.3 × 24.1 cm), Museum of Modern Art, New York City Pop art is an art movement that emerged in Britain and the United States during the mid- to late-1950s. The movement presented a challenge to traditions of fine art by including imagery from popular and mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects. One of its aims is to use images of popular (as opposed to elitist) culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any culture, most often through the use of irony.
 It is also associated with the artists' use of mechanical means of reproduction or rendering techniques. In pop art, material is sometimes visually removed from its known context, isolated, or combined with unrelated material. Among the early artists that shaped the pop art movement were Eduardo Paolozzi and Richard Hamilton in Britain, and Larry Rivers, Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns among others in the United States.
Pop art is widely interpreted as a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism, as well as an expansion of those ideas. Due to its utilization of found objects and images, it is similar to Dada. Pop art and minimalism are considered to be art movements that precede postmodern art, or are some of the earliest examples of postmodern art themselves. Pop art often takes imagery that is currently in use in advertising.
Product labeling and logos figure prominently in the imagery chosen by pop artists, seen in the labels of Campbell's Soup Cans, by Andy Warhol. Even the labeling on the outside of a shipping box containing food items for retail has been used as subject matter in pop art, as demonstrated by Warhol's Campbell's Tomato Juice Box, 1964 (pictured). Origins The origins of pop art in North America developed differently from Great Britain.
 In the United States, pop art was a response by artists; it marked a return to hard-edged composition and representational art. They used impersonal, mundane reality, irony, and parody to "defuse" the personal symbolism and "painterly looseness" of abstract expressionism. In the U.S., some artwork by Larry Rivers, Alex Katz and Man Ray anticipated pop art. By contrast, the origins of pop art in post-War Britain, while employing irony and parody, were more academic.
Britain focused on the dynamic and paradoxical imagery of American pop culture as powerful, manipulative symbolic devices that were affecting whole patterns of life, while simultaneously improving the prosperity of a society. Early pop art in Britain was a matter of ideas fueled by American popular culture when viewed from afar. Similarly, pop art was both an extension and a repudiation of Dadaism.
 While pop art and Dadaism explored some of the same subjects, pop art replaced the destructive, satirical, and anarchic impulses of the Dada movement with a detached affirmation of the artifacts of mass culture. Among those artists in Europe seen as producing work leading up to pop art are: Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, and Kurt Schwitters. Proto-pop Charles Demuth, I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold 1928, collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City Although both British and American pop art began during the 1950s, Marcel Duchamp and others in Europe like Francis Picabia and Man Ray predate the movement; in addition there were some earlier American proto-pop origins which utilized "as found" cultural objects.
 During the 1920s, American artists Gerald Murphy, Charles Demuth and Stuart Davis created paintings that contained pop culture imagery (mundane objects culled from American commercial products and advertising design), almost "prefiguring" the pop art movement. United Kingdom: the Independent Group Richard Hamilton's collage Just what is it that makes today's homes so different, so appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered "pop art".
The Independent Group (IG), founded in London in 1952, is regarded as the precursor to the pop art movement. They were a gathering of young painters, sculptors, architects, writers and critics who were challenging prevailing modernist approaches to culture as well as traditional views of fine art. Their group discussions centered on pop culture implications from elements such as mass advertising, movies, product design, comic strips, science fiction and technology.
At the first Independent Group meeting in 1952, co-founding member, artist and sculptor Eduardo Paolozzi presented a lecture using a series of collages titled Bunk! that he had assembled during his time in Paris between 1947 and 1949. This material of "found objects" such as advertising, comic book characters, magazine covers and various mass-produced graphics mostly represented American popular culture.
One of the collages in that presentation was Paolozzi's I was a Rich Man's Plaything (1947), which includes the first use of the word "pop", appearing in a cloud of smoke emerging from a revolver. Following Paolozzi's seminal presentation in 1952, the IG focused primarily on the imagery of American popular culture, particularly mass advertising. According to the son of John McHale, the term "pop art" was first coined by his father in 1954 in conversation with Frank Cordell, although other sources credit its origin to British critic Lawrence Alloway.
 (Both versions agree that the term was used in Independent Group discussions by mid-1955.) "Pop art" as a moniker was then used in discussions by IG members in the Second Session of the IG in 1955, and the specific term "pop art" first appeared in published print in the article "But Today We Collect Ads" by IG members Alison and Peter Smithson in Ark magazine in 1956. However, the term is often credited to British art critic/curator Lawrence Alloway for his 1958 essay titled The Arts and the Mass Media, even though the precise language he uses is "popular mass culture".
 "Furthermore, what I meant by it then is not what it means now. I used the term, and also 'Pop Culture' to refer to the products of the mass media, not to works of art that draw upon popular culture. In any case, sometime between the winter of 1954-55 and 1957 the phrase acquired currency in conversation..." Nevertheless, Alloway was one of the leading critics to defend the inclusion of the imagery of mass culture in the fine arts.
Alloway clarified these terms in 1966, at which time Pop Art had already transited from art schools and small galleries to a major force in the artworld. But its success had not been in England. Practically simultaneously, and independently, New York City had become the hotbed for Pop Art. In London, the annual Royal Society of British Artists (RBA) exhibition of young talent in 1960 first showed American pop influences.
In January 1961, the most famous RBA-Young Contemporaries of all put David Hockney, the American R B Kitaj, New Zealander Billy Apple, Allen Jones, Derek Boshier, Joe Tilson, Patrick Caulfield, Peter Phillips and Peter Blake on the map; Apple designed the posters and invitations for both the 1961 and 1962 Young Contemporaries exhibitions. Hockney, Kitaj and Blake went on to win prizes at the John-Moores-Exhibition in Liverpool in the same year.
Apple and Hockney traveled together to New York during the Royal College's 1961 summer break, which is when Apple first made contact with Andy Warhol – both later moved to the United States and Apple became involved with the New York pop art scene. United States Jasper Johns, Flag, 1954–55 (dated on reverse 1954) Although pop art began in the early 1950s, in America it was given its greatest impetus during the 1960s.
The term "pop art" was officially introduced in December 1962; the occasion was a "Symposium on Pop Art" organized by the Museum of Modern Art. By this time, American advertising had adopted many elements and inflections of modern art and functioned at a very sophisticated level. Consequently, American artists had to search deeper for dramatic styles that would distance art from the well-designed and clever commercial materials.
 As the British viewed American popular culture imagery from a somewhat removed perspective, their views were often instilled with romantic, sentimental and humorous overtones. By contrast, American artists, bombarded every day with the diversity of mass-produced imagery, produced work that was generally more bold and aggressive. Roy Lichtenstein, Drowning Girl, 1963, on display at the Museum of Modern Art, New York.
Two important painters in the establishment of America's pop art vocabulary were Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg. While the paintings of Rauschenberg have relationships to the earlier work of Kurt Schwitters and other Dada artists, his concern was for the social issues of the moment. His approach was to create art out of ephemeral materials. By using topical events in the life of everyday America, he gave his work a unique quality.
 Johns' and Rauschenberg's work of the 1950s is classified as Neo-Dada, and is visually distinct from the prototypical American pop art which exploded in the early 1960s. The Cheddar Cheese canvas from Andy Warhol's Campbell's Soup Cans, 1962. Roy Lichtenstein is of equal importance to American pop art. His work, and its use of parody, probably defines the basic premise of pop art better than any other.
 Selecting the old-fashioned comic strip as subject matter, Lichtenstein produces a hard-edged, precise composition that documents while also parodying in a soft manner. Lichtenstein used oil and Magna paint in his best known works, such as Drowning Girl (1963), which was appropriated from the lead story in DC Comics' Secret Hearts #83. (Drowning Girl is part of the collection of the Museum of Modern Art.
) His work features thick outlines, bold colors and Ben-Day dots to represent certain colors, as if created by photographic reproduction. Lichtenstein said, "[abstract expressionists] put things down on the canvas and responded to what they had done, to the color positions and sizes. My style looks completely different, but the nature of putting down lines pretty much is the same; mine just don't come out looking calligraphic, like Pollock's or Kline's.
" Pop art merges popular and mass culture with fine art while injecting humor, irony, and recognizable imagery/content into the mix. The paintings of Lichtenstein, like those of Andy Warhol, Tom Wesselmann and others, share a direct attachment to the commonplace image of American popular culture, but also treat the subject in an impersonal manner clearly illustrating the idealization of mass production.
 Andy Warhol is probably the most famous figure in pop art. In fact, art critic Arthur Danto once called Warhol "the nearest thing to a philosophical genius the history of art has produced". Warhol attempted to take pop beyond an artistic style to a life style, and his work often displays a lack of human affectation that dispenses with the irony and parody of many of his peers. Early U.
S. exhibitions Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine and Tom Wesselmann had their first shows in the Judson Gallery in 1959 and 1960 and later in 1960 through 1964 along with James Rosenquist, George Segal and others at the Green Gallery on 57th Street in Manhattan. In 1960, Martha Jackson showed installations and assemblages, New Media - New Forms featured Hans Arp, Kurt Schwitters, Jasper Johns, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, Jim Dine and May Wilson.
1961 was the year of Martha Jackson's spring show, Environments, Situations, Spaces. Andy Warhol held his first solo exhibition in Los Angeles in July 1962 at Irving Blum's Ferus Gallery, where he showed 32 paintings of Campell's soup cans, one for every flavor. Warhol sold the set of paintings to Blum for $1,000; in 1996, when the Museum of Modern Art acquired it, the set was valued at $15 million.
 Donald Factor, the son of Max Factor, Jr., and an art collector and co-editor of avant garde literary magazine Nomad, wrote an essay in the magazine's last issue, Nomad/New York. The essay was one of the first on what would become known as pop art, though Factor did not use the term. The essay, "Four Artists", focused on Roy Lichtenstein, James Rosenquist, Jim Dine, and Claes Oldenburg. In the 1960s, Oldenburg, who became associated with the pop art movement, created many happenings, which were performance art-related productions of that time.
The name he gave to his own productions was "Ray Gun Theater". The cast of colleagues in his performances included: artists Lucas Samaras, Tom Wesselman, Carolee Schneemann, Oyvind Fahlstrom and Richard Artschwager; dealer Annina Nosei; art critic Barbara Rose; and screenwriter Rudy Wurlitzer. His first wife, Patty Mucha, who sewed many of his early soft sculptures, was a constant performer in his happenings.
This brash, often humorous, approach to art was at great odds with the prevailing sensibility that, by its nature, art dealt with "profound" expressions or ideas. In December 1961, he rented a store on Manhattan's Lower East Side to house The Store, a month-long installation he had first presented at the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York, stocked with sculptures roughly in the form of consumer goods.
 Opening in 1962, Willem de Kooning's New York art dealer, the Sidney Janis Gallery, organized the groundbreaking International Exhibition of the New Realists, a survey of new-to-the-scene American, French, Swiss, Italian New Realism, and British pop art. The fifty-four artists shown included Richard Lindner, Wayne Thiebaud, Roy Lichtenstein (and his painting Blam), Andy Warhol, Claes Oldenburg, James Rosenquist, Jim Dine, Robert Indiana, Tom Wesselmann, George Segal, Peter Phillips, Peter Blake (The Love Wall from 1961), Yves Klein, Arman, Daniel Spoerri, Christo and Mimmo Rotella.
The show was seen by Europeans Martial Raysse, Niki de Saint-Phalle and Jean Tinguely in New York, who were stunned by the size and look of the American artwork. Also shown were Marisol, Mario Schifano, Enrico Baj and Öyvind Fahlström. Janis lost some of his abstract expressionist artists when Mark Rothko, Robert Motherwell, Adolph Gottlieb and Philip Guston quit the gallery, but gained Dine, Oldenburg, Segal and Wesselmann.
 At an opening-night soiree thrown by collector Burton Tremaine, Willem de Kooning appeared and was turned away by Tremaine, who ironically owned a number of de Kooning's works. Rosenquist recalled: "at that moment I thought, something in the art world has definitely changed". Turning away a respected abstract artist proved that, as early as 1962, the pop art movement had begun to dominate art culture in New York.
A bit earlier, on the West Coast, Roy Lichtenstein, Jim Dine and Andy Warhol from New York City; Phillip Hefferton and Robert Dowd from Detroit; Edward Ruscha and Joe Goode from Oklahoma City; and Wayne Thiebaud from California were included in the New Painting of Common Objects show. This first pop art museum exhibition in America was curated by Walter Hopps at the Pasadena Art Museum. Pop art was ready to change the art world.
New York followed Pasadena in 1963, when the Guggenheim Museum exhibited Six Painters and the Object, curated by Lawrence Alloway. The artists were Jim Dine, Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, Robert Rauschenberg, James Rosenquist, and Andy Warhol. Another pivotal early exhibition was The American Supermarket organised by the Bianchini Gallery in 1964. The show was presented as a typical small supermarket environment, except that everything in it—the produce, canned goods, meat, posters on the wall, etc.
—was created by prominent pop artists of the time, including Apple, Warhol, Lichtenstein, Wesselmann, Oldenburg, and Johns. This project was recreated in 2002 as part of the Tate Gallery's Shopping: A Century of Art and Consumer Culture. By 1962, pop artists started exhibiting in commercial galleries in New York and Los Angeles; for some, it was their first commercial one-man show. The Ferus Gallery presented Andy Warhol in Los Angeles (and Ed Ruscha in 1963).
In New York, the Green Gallery showed Rosenquist, Segal, Oldenburg, and Wesselmann. The Stable Gallery showed R. Indiana and Warhol (in his first New York show). The Leo Castelli Gallery presented Rauschenberg, Johns, and Lichtenstein. Martha Jackson showed Jim Dine and Allen Stone showed Wayne Thiebaud. By 1966, after the Green Gallery and the Ferus Gallery closed, the Leo Castelli Gallery represented Rosenquist, Warhol, Rauschenberg, Johns, Lichtenstein and Ruscha.
The Sidney Janis Gallery represented Oldenburg, Segal, Dine, Wesselmann and Marisol, while Allen Stone continued to represent Thiebaud, and Martha Jackson continued representing Robert Indiana. In 1968, the São Paulo 9 Exhibition – Environment U.S.A.: 1957–1967 featured the "Who's Who" of pop art. Considered as a summation of the classical phase of the American pop art period, the exhibit was curated by William Seitz.
The artists were Edward Hopper, James Gill, Robert Indiana, Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, Andy Warhol and Tom Wesselmann. France Nouveau réalisme refers to an artistic movement founded in 1960 by the art critic Pierre Restany and the artist Yves Klein during the first collective exposition in the Apollinaire gallery in Milan. Pierre Restany wrote the original manifesto for the group, titled the "Constitutive Declaration of New Realism," in April 1960, proclaiming, "Nouveau Réalisme—new ways of perceiving the real.
" This joint declaration was signed on 27 October 1960, in Yves Klein's workshop, by nine people: Yves Klein, Arman, Martial Raysse, Pierre Restany, Daniel Spoerri, Jean Tinguely and the Ultra-Lettrists, Francois Dufrêne, Raymond Hains, Jacques de la Villeglé; in 1961 these were joined by César, Mimmo Rotella, then Niki de Saint Phalle and Gérard Deschamps. The artist Christo showed with the group.
It was dissolved in 1970. Contemporary of American Pop Art—often conceived as its transposition in France—new realism was along with Fluxus and other groups one of the numerous tendencies of the avant-garde in the 1960s. The group initially chose Nice, on the French Riviera, as its home base since Klein and Arman both originated there; new realism is thus often retrospectively considered by historians to be an early representative of the École de Nice movement.
 In spite of the diversity of their plastic language, they perceived a common basis for their work; this being a method of direct appropriation of reality, equivalent, in the terms used by Restany; to a "poetic recycling of urban, industrial and advertising reality". Spain In Spain, the study of pop art is associated with the "new figurative", which arose from the roots of the crisis of informalism.
Eduardo Arroyo could be said to fit within the pop art trend, on account of his interest in the environment, his critique of our media culture which incorporates icons of both mass media communication and the history of painting, and his scorn for nearly all established artistic styles. However, the Spanish artist who could be considered most authentically part of "pop" art is Alfredo Alcaín, because of the use he makes of popular images and empty spaces in his compositions.
Also in the category of Spanish pop art is the "Chronicle Team" (El Equipo Crónica), which existed in Valencia between 1964 and 1981, formed by the artists Manolo Valdés and Rafael Solbes. Their movement can be characterized as "pop" because of its use of comics and publicity images and its simplification of images and photographic compositions. Filmmaker Pedro Almodóvar emerged from Madrid's "La Movida" subculture of the 1970s making low budget super 8 pop art movies, and he was subsequently called the Andy Warhol of Spain by the media at the time.
In the book Almodovar on Almodovar, he is quoted as saying that the 1950s film "Funny Face" was a central inspiration for his work. One pop trademark in Almodovar's films is that he always produces a fake commercial to be inserted into a scene. Japan In Japan, pop art evolved from the nation's prominent avant-garde scene. The use of images of the modern world, copied from magazines in the photomontage-style paintings produced by Harue Koga in the late 1920s and early 1930s, foreshadowed elements of pop art.
 The work of Yayoi Kusama contributed to the development of pop art and influenced many other artists, including Andy Warhol. In the mid-1960s, graphic designer Tadanori Yokoo became one of the most successful pop artists and an international symbol for Japanese pop art. He is well known for his advertisements and creating artwork for pop culture icons such as commissions from The Beatles, Marilyn Monroe, and Elizabeth Taylor, among others.
 Another leading pop artist at that time was Keiichi Tanaami. Iconic characters from Japanese manga and anime have also become symbols for pop art, such as Speed Racer and Astro Boy. Japanese manga and anime also influenced later pop artists such as Takashi Murakami and his superflat movement. Italy In Italy, by 1964, pop art was known and took different forms, such as the "Scuola di Piazza del Popolo" in Rome, with pop artists such as Mario Schifano, Franco Angeli, Giosetta Fioroni, Tano Festa, Claudio Cintoli, and some artworks by Piero Manzoni, Lucio Del Pezzo, Mimmo Rotella and Valerio Adami.
Italian pop art originated in 1950s culture – the works of the artists Enrico Baj and Mimmo Rotella to be precise, rightly considered the forerunners of this scene. In fact, it was around 1958–1959 that Baj and Rotella abandoned their previous careers (which might be generically defined as belonging to a non-representational genre, despite being thoroughly post-Dadaist), to catapult themselves into a new world of images, and the reflections on them, which was springing up all around them.
Rotella's torn posters showed an ever more figurative taste, often explicitly and deliberately referring to the great icons of the times. Baj's compositions were steeped in contemporary kitsch, which turned out to be a "gold mine" of images and the stimulus for an entire generation of artists. The novelty came from the new visual panorama, both inside "domestic walls" and out-of-doors. Cars, road signs, television, all the "new world", everything can belong to the world of art, which itself is new.
In this respect, Italian pop art takes the same ideological path as that of the international scene. The only thing that changes is the iconography and, in some cases, the presence of a more critical attitude toward it. Even in this case, the prototypes can be traced back to the works of Rotella and Baj, both far from neutral in their relationship with society. Yet this is not an exclusive element; there is a long line of artists, including Gianni Ruffi, Roberto Barni, Silvio Pasotti, Umberto Bignardi, and Claudio Cintoli, who take on reality as a toy, as a great pool of imagery from which to draw material with disenchantment and frivolity, questioning the traditional linguistic role models with a renewed spirit of "let me have fun" à la Aldo Palazzeschi.
 Belgium In Belgium, pop art was represented by Paul Van Hoeydonck, whose sculpture Fallen Astronaut was left on the moon during one of the moon missions. Internationally recognized artists such as Marcel Broodthaers ( 'vous êtes doll? ") and Panamarenko are indebted to the pop art movement; Broodthaers's great influence was George Segal. Another well-known artist, Roger Raveel, mounted a birdcage with a real live pigeon in one of his paintings.
By the end of the 1960s and early 1970s, pop art references disappeared from the work of these artists when they started to adopt a more critical attitude towards America because of the Vietnam War's increasingly gruesome character. Panamarenko, however, has retained the irony inherent in the pop art movement up to the present day. Netherlands While there was no formal pop art movement in the Netherlands, there were a group of artists that spent time in New York during the early years of pop art, and drew inspiration from the international pop art movement.
Representatives of Dutch pop art include Daan van Golden, Gustave Asselbergs, Jacques Frenken, Jan Cremer, Wim T. Schippers, and Woody van Amen. They opposed the Dutch petit bourgeois mentality by creating humorous works with a serious undertone. Examples of this nature include Sex O'Clock, by Woody van Amen, and Crucifix / Target, by Jacques Frenken. Russian Federation Russia was a little late to become part of the pop art movement, and some of the artwork that resembles pop art only surfaced around the early 1970s.
Russia was a communist country at that point and bold artistic statements were closely monitored. Russia's own version of pop art was Soviet-themed and was referred to as Sots Art. After 1991, the Communist Party lost its power and the Russian revolution was beginning, and with it came a freedom to express. That is when pop art in Russia took on another form, epitomised by Dmitri Vrubel with his painting titled My God, Help Me to Survive This Deadly Love in 1990.
One might argue that the Soviet posters made in the 1950s to promote the wealth of the nation were in itself a form of pop art. Painting and sculpture examples Jasper Johns, Flag, 1954–55 (dated 1954) Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych 1962 Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, Typewriter Eraser, Scale X, 1999, painted stainless steel and fiberglass, National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC Notable artists Billy Apple Evelyne Axell Sir Peter Blake Derek Boshier Pauline Boty Patrick Caulfield Allan D'Arcangelo Jim Dine Burhan Dogancay Rosalyn Drexler Robert Dowd Ken Elias Erró Marisol Escobar James Gill Bruce Gray (sculptor) Red Grooms Richard Hamilton Keith Haring Jann Haworth David Hockney Dorothy Iannone Robert Indiana Jasper Johns Allen Jones Alex Katz Corita Kent Konrad Klapheck Kiki Kogelnik Nicholas Krushenick Yayoi Kusama Gerald Laing Roy Lichtenstein Richard Lindner John McHale Peter Max Marta Minujin Takashi Murakami Yoshitomo Nara Claes Oldenburg Julian Opie Eduardo Paolozzi Peter Phillips Sigmar Polke Hariton Pushwagner Mel Ramos Robert Rauschenberg Larry Rivers James Rizzi James Rosenquist Ed Ruscha Niki de Saint Phalle Peter Saul George Segal Colin Self Marjorie Strider Aya Takano Wayne Thiebaud Joe Tilson Andy Warhol Idelle Weber John Wesley Tom Wesselmann See also Art pop Chicago Imagists Ferus Gallery Sidney Janis Leo Castelli Green Gallery New Painting of Common Objects Figuration Libre (art movement) Lowbrow (art movement) Nouveau réalisme Neo-pop Op art Plop art Retro art Superflat SoFlo Superflat References ^ Pop Art: A Brief History, MoMA Learning ^ a b c d e Livingstone, M.
, Pop Art: A Continuing History, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1990 ^ a b c de la Croix, H.; Tansey, R., Gardner's Art Through the Ages, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1980. ^ a b c d e f Piper, David. The Illustrated History of Art, ISBN 0-7537-0179-0, p486-487. ^ Harrison, Sylvia (2001-08-27). Pop Art and the Origins of Post-Modernism. Cambridge University Press. ^ a b c d Gopnik, A.
; Varnedoe, K., High & Low: Modern Art & Popular Culture, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1990 ^ "History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian". Smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "Modern Love". The New Yorker. 2007-08-06. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ Wayne Craven, American Art: History and . p.464. ^ a b c d e f g Arnason, H., History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, New York: Harry N.
Abrams, Inc. 1968. ^ "'I was a Rich Man's Plaything', Sir Eduardo Paolozzi". Tate. 2015-12-10. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "John McHale". Warholstars.org. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "Pop art", A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art, Ian Chilvers. Oxford University Press, 1998. ^ "Pop art", The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms, Michael Clarke, Oxford University Press, 2001. ^ Alison and Peter Smithson, "But Today We Collect Ads", reprinted on page 54 in Modern Dreams The Rise and Fall of Pop, published by ICA and MIT, ISBN 0-262-73081-2 ^ Lawrence Alloway, "The Arts and the Mass Media," Architectural Design & Construction, February 1958.
^ a b Klaus Honnef, Pop Art, Taschen, 2004, p. 6, ISBN 3822822183 ^ a b Barton, Christina (2010). Billy Apple: British and American Works 1960-69. London: The Mayor Gallery. pp. 11–21. ISBN 978-0-9558367-3-2. ^ a b c d Scherman, Tony. "When Pop Turned the Art World Upside Down." American Heritage 52.1 (February 2001), 68. ^ Sandler, Irving H. The New York School: The Painters and Sculptors of the Fifties, New York: Harper & Row, 1978.
ISBN 0-06-438505-1 pp. 174–195, Rauschenberg and Johns; pp. 103–111, Rivers and the gestural realists. ^ Robert Rosenblum, "Jasper Johns" Art International (September 1960): 75. ^ Hapgood, Susan, Neo-Dada: Redefining Art, 1958-62. New York: Universe Books, 1994. ^ Hendrickson, Janis (1988). Roy Lichtenstein. Cologne, Germany: Benedikt Taschen. p. 31. ISBN 3-8228-0281-6. ^ Kimmelman, Michael (September 30, 1997).
"Roy Lichtenstein, Pop Master, Dies at 73". New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2007. ^ Michelson, Annette, Buchloh, B. H. D. (eds) Andy Warhol (October Files), MIT Press, 2001. ^ Warhol, Andy. The Philosophy of Andy Warhol, from A to B and back again. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975 ^ "The Collection". MoMA.org. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "The Great American Pop Art Store: Multiples of the Sixties".
Tfaoi.com. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ Diggory (2013). ^ a b Kristine McKenna (July 2, 1995), When Bigger Is Better: Claes Oldenburg has spent the past 35 years blowing up and redefining everyday objects, all in the name of getting art off its pedestal Los Angeles Times. ^ Reva Wolf. "Andy Warhol, Poetry, and Gossip in the 1960s". Books.google.com. p. 83. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "Museum History » Norton Simon Museum".
Nortonsimon.org. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "Six painters and the object. Lawrence Alloway [curator, conceived and prepared this exhibition and the catalogue] (Computer file)". WorldCat.org. 2009-07-24. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ Gayford, Martin (2002-12-19). "Still life at the check-out". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Ltd. Retrieved 28 November 2012. ^ Pop Artists: Andy Warhol, Pop Art, Roy Lichtenstein, Jasper Johns, Peter Max, Erró, David Hockney, Wally Hedrick, Michael Leavitt (May 20, 2010) Reprinted: 2010, General Books, Memphis, Tennessee, USA, ISBN 978-1-155-48349-8, ISBN 1-155-48349-9.
^ Jim Edwards, William Emboden, David McCarthy: Uncommonplaces: The Art of James Francis Gill, 2005, p.54 ^ Karl Ruhrberg, Ingo F. Walther, Art of the 20th Century, Taschen, 2000, p. 518. ISBN 3-8228-5907-9 ^ a b Kerstin Stremmel, Realism, Taschen, 2004, p. 13. ISBN 3-8228-2942-0 ^ Rosemary M. O'Neill, Art and Visual Culture on the French Riviera, 1956–1971: The Ecole de Nice, Ashgate, 2012, p.
93. ^ 60/90. Trente ans de Nouveau Réalisme, La Différence, 1990, p. 76 ^ Eskola, Jack (2015). Harue Koga: David Bowie of the Early 20th Century Japanese Art Avant-garde. Kindle, e-book. ^ "Yayoi Kusama interview – Yayoi Kusama exhibition". Timeout.com. 2013-01-30. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^  Archived November 1, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Tadanori Yokoo : ADC • Global Awards & Club".
Adcglobal.org. 1936-06-27. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "Pop Art Italia 1958-1968 — Galleria Civica". Comune.modena.it. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "Dutch Pop Art & The Sixties - Weg met de vertrutting!". 8weekly.nl. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^  Archived June 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Further reading Diggory, Terence (2013) Encyclopedia of the New York School Poets (Facts on File Library of American Literature).
ISBN 978-1-4381-4066-7 Francis, Mark and Foster, Hal (2010) Pop. London and New York: Phaidon. Haskell, Barbara (1984) BLAM! The Explosion of Pop, Minimalism and Performance 1958-1964. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. in association with the Whitney Museum of American Art. Lippard, Lucy R. (1966) Pop Art, with contributions by Lawrence Alloway, Nancy Marmer, Nicolas Calas, Frederick A. Praeger, New York.
Selz, Peter (moderator); Ashton, Dore; Geldzahler, Henry; Kramer, Hilton; Kunitz, Stanley and Steinberg, Leo (April 1963) "A symposium on Pop Art" Arts Magazine, pp. 36–45. Transcript of symposium held at the Museum of Modern Art on December 13, 1962. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pop art. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pop art Pop Art: A Brief History, MoMA Learning Pop Art in Modern and Contemporary Art, The Met Brooklyn Museum Exhibitions: Seductive Subversion: Women Pop Artists, 1958–1968, Oct.
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Title: Neo Pop Realism Art