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"Martin Luther King" and "MLK" redirect here. For other uses, see Martin Luther King (disambiguation) and MLK (disambiguation). Martin Luther King Jr. King in 1964 1st President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference In office 1957–1968 Preceded by Inaugural holder Succeeded by Ralph Abernathy Personal details Born Michael King Jr.January 15, 1929Atlanta, Georgia, U.S. Died April 4, 1968 (aged 39)Memphis, Tennessee, U.
S. Cause of death Gunshot head wound Nationality American Spouse(s) Coretta Scott (m. 1953) Children Yolanda Denise King Martin Luther King III Dexter Scott King Bernice Albertine King Parents Martin Luther King Sr. Alberta Williams King Relatives Christine King Farris (sister) Alfred Daniel Williams King (brother) Alveda King (niece) Alma mater Morehouse College Crozer Theological Seminary Boston University Occupation Minister activist Known for Civil rights movement, Peace movement Awards Nobel Peace Prize (1964) Presidential Medal of Freedom (1977, posthumous) Congressional Gold Medal (2004, posthumous) Monuments Martin Luther King Jr.
Memorial Signature Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 through 1968. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using the tactics of nonviolence and civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs and inspired by the nonviolent activism of Mahatma Gandhi.
King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, serving as its first president. With the SCLC, he led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Albany, Georgia, and helped organize the nonviolent 1963 protests in Birmingham, Alabama. He also helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech.
On October 14, 1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolent resistance. In 1965, he helped to organize the Selma to Montgomery marches, and the following year he and the SCLC took the movement north to Chicago to work on segregated housing. In the final years of his life, he expanded his focus to include opposition towards poverty and the Vietnam War, alienating many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled "Beyond Vietnam".
In 1968, King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D.C., to be called the Poor People's Campaign, when he was assassinated by James Earl Ray on April 4 in Memphis, Tennessee. King's death was followed by riots in many U.S. cities. Ray, who fled the country, was arrested two months later at London Heathrow Airport. Ray was sentenced to 99 years in prison for King's murder, and died in 1998 from hepatitis while serving his sentence.
King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King Jr. Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971, and as a U.S. federal holiday in 1986. Hundreds of streets in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor, and a county in Washington State was also rededicated for him. The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.
C., was dedicated in 2011. Early life and education The high school that King attended was named after African-American educator Booker T. Washington. King was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia, to the Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. and Alberta Williams King. King's legal name at birth was Michael King, and his father was also born Michael King, but the elder King changed both his and his son's names around 1934.
 The elder King would later state that "Michael" was a mistake by the attending physician to his son's birth, and the younger King's birth certificate was altered to read "Martin Luther King Jr." in 1957. King's parents were both African-American, and he also had Irish ancestry through his paternal great-grandfather. King was a middle child, between an older sister, Christine King Farris, and a younger brother, A.
D. King. King sang with his church choir at the 1939 Atlanta premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind, and he enjoyed singing and music. His mother was an accomplished organist and choir leader who took him to various churches to sing, and he received attention for singing "I Want to Be More and More Like Jesus". King later became a member of the junior choir in his church. King said that his father regularly whipped him until he was fifteen; a neighbor reported hearing the elder King telling his son "he would make something of him even if he had to beat him to death.
" King saw his father's proud and fearless protests against segregation, such as King Sr. refusing to listen to a traffic policeman after being referred to as "boy," or stalking out of a store with his son when being told by a shoe clerk that they would have to "move to the rear" of the store to be served. When King was a child, he befriended a white boy whose father owned a business near his family's home.
When the boys were six, they started school: King had to attend a school for African Americans and the other boy went to one for whites (public schools were among the facilities segregated by state law). King lost his friend because the child's father no longer wanted the boys to play together. King suffered from depression throughout much of his life. In his adolescent years, he initially felt resentment against whites due to the "racial humiliation" that he, his family, and his neighbors often had to endure in the segregated South.
 At the age of 12, shortly after his maternal grandmother died, King blamed himself and jumped out of a second-story window, but survived. King was skeptical of many of Christianity's claims. At the age of 13, he denied the bodily resurrection of Jesus during Sunday school. From this point, he stated, "doubts began to spring forth unrelentingly." However, he later concluded that the Bible has "many profound truths which one cannot escape" and decided to enter the seminary.
 Growing up in Atlanta, King attended Booker T. Washington High School. He became known for his public speaking ability and was part of the school's debate team. King became the youngest assistant manager of a newspaper delivery station for the Atlanta Journal in 1942 when he was 13. During his junior year, he won first prize in an oratorical contest sponsored by the Negro Elks Club in Dublin, Georgia.
Returning home to Atlanta by bus, he and his teacher were ordered by the driver to stand so that white passengers could sit down. King initially refused, but complied after his teacher told him that he would be breaking the law if he did not submit. King said that during this incident, he was "the angriest I have ever been in my life." A precocious student, he skipped both the ninth and the twelfth grades of high school.
 During King's junior year in high school, Morehouse College, a respected historically black college, announced that it would accept any high school juniors who could pass its entrance exam. At that time, many students had abandoned further studies to enlist in World War II. Due to this, Morehouse was eager to fill its classrooms. At the age of 15, King passed the exam and entered Morehouse. The summer before his last year at Morehouse, in 1947, the 18-year-old King chose to enter the ministry.
He had concluded that the church offered the most assuring way to answer "an inner urge to serve humanity." King's "inner urge" had begun developing, and he made peace with the Baptist Church, as he believed he would be a "rational" minister with sermons that were "a respectful force for ideas, even social protest." In 1948, he graduated from Morehouse with a B.A. in sociology and enrolled in Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, from which he graduated with a B.
Div. degree in 1951. King's father fully supported his decision to continue his education. While attending Crozer, King was joined by Walter McCall, a former classmate at Morehouse. At Crozer, King was elected president of the student body. The African-American students of Crozer for the most part conducted their social activity on Edwards Street. King became fond of the street because a classmate had an aunt who prepared collard greens for them, which they both relished.
 King once reproved another student for keeping beer in his room, saying they had shared responsibility as African Americans to bear "the burdens of the Negro race." For a time, he was interested in Walter Rauschenbusch's "social gospel." In his third year at Morehouse, King became romantically involved with the white daughter of an immigrant German woman who worked as a cook in the cafeteria.
The daughter had been involved with a professor prior to her relationship with King. King planned to marry her, but friends advised against it, saying that an interracial marriage would provoke animosity from both blacks and whites, potentially damaging his chances of ever pastoring a church in the South. King tearfully told a friend that he could not endure his mother's pain over the marriage and broke the relationship off six months later.
He continued to have lingering feelings toward the women he left; one friend was quoted as saying, "He never recovered." King married Coretta Scott on June 18, 1953, on the lawn of her parents' house in her hometown of Heiberger, Alabama. They became the parents of four children: Yolanda King (1955–2007), Martin Luther King III (b. 1957), Dexter Scott King (b. 1961), and Bernice King (b.
1963). During their marriage, King limited Coretta's role in the civil rights movement, expecting her to be a housewife and mother. At age 25 in 1954, King was called as pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Doctoral studies See also: Martin Luther King Jr. authorship issues King began doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University and received his Ph.
D. degree on June 5, 1955, with a dissertation (initially supervised by Edgar S. Brightman and, upon the latter's death, by Lotan Harold DeWolf) titled A Comparison of the Conceptions of God in the Thinking of Paul Tillich and Henry Nelson Wieman. While pursuing doctoral studies, King worked as an assistant minister at Boston's historic Twelfth Baptist Church with Rev. William Hunter Hester. Hester was an old friend of King's father, and was an important influence on King.
 Decades later, an academic inquiry in October 1991 concluded that portions of his dissertation had been plagiarized and he had acted improperly. However, "[d]espite its finding, the committee said that 'no thought should be given to the revocation of Dr. King's doctoral degree,' an action that the panel said would serve no purpose." The committee also found that the dissertation still "makes an intelligent contribution to scholarship.
" A letter is now attached to the copy of King's dissertation held in the university library, noting that numerous passages were included without the appropriate quotations and citations of sources. Significant debate exists on how to interpret King's plagiarism. Montgomery bus boycott, 1955 Main articles: Montgomery bus boycott and Jim Crow laws § Public arena Rosa Parks with King, 1955 In March 1955, Claudette Colvin—a black fifteen-year-old schoolgirl in Montgomery—ignored Jim Crow Laws when she refused to give up her bus seat to a white man; the laws were local regulations in the Southern United States that enforced racial segregation.
King was on the committee from the Birmingham African-American community that looked into the case; E. D. Nixon and Clifford Durr decided to wait for a better case to pursue because the incident involved a minor. Nine months later on December 1, 1955, a similar incident occurred when Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus. The two incidents led to the Montgomery bus boycott, which was urged and planned by Nixon and led by King.
 The boycott lasted for 385 days, and the situation became so tense that King's house was bombed. King was arrested during this campaign, which concluded with a United States District Court ruling in Browder v. Gayle that ended racial segregation on all Montgomery public buses. King's role in the bus boycott transformed him into a national figure and the best-known spokesman of the civil rights movement.
 Southern Christian Leadership Conference In 1957, King, Ralph Abernathy, Fred Shuttlesworth, Joseph Lowery, and other civil rights activists founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The group was created to harness the moral authority and organizing power of black churches to conduct nonviolent protests in the service of civil rights reform. One of the group's inspirations was the crusades of evangelist Billy Graham, who befriended King after he attended a Graham crusade in New York City in 1957.
 King led the SCLC until his death. The SCLC's 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom was the first time King addressed a national audience. Other civil rights leaders involved in the SCLC with King included: James Bevel, Allen Johnson, Curtis W. Harris, Walter E. Fauntroy, C. T. Vivian, Andrew Young, The Freedom Singers, Charles Evers, Cleveland Robinson, Randolph Blackwell, Annie Bell Robinson Devine, Charles Kenzie Steele, Alfred Daniel Williams King, Benjamin Hooks, Aaron Henry and Bayard Rustin.
 On September 20, 1958, King was signing copies of his book Stride Toward Freedom in Blumstein's department store in Harlem when he narrowly escaped death. Izola Curry—a mentally ill black woman who thought that King was conspiring against her with communists—stabbed him in the chest with a letter opener. After emergency surgery by Aubre de Lambert Maynard, Emil Naclerio and John W. V. Cordice, King was hospitalized for several weeks.
Curry was later found mentally incompetent to stand trial. In 1959, he published a short book called The Measure of A Man, which contained his sermons "What is Man?" and "The Dimensions of a Complete Life." The sermons argued for man's need for God's love and criticized the racial injustices of Western civilization. Harry Wachtel—who joined King's legal advisor Clarence B. Jones in defending four ministers of the SCLC in a libel suit over a newspaper advertisement (New York Times Co.
v. Sullivan)—founded a tax-exempt fund to cover the expenses of the suit and to assist the nonviolent civil rights movement through a more effective means of fundraising. This organization was named the "Gandhi Society for Human Rights." King served as honorary president for the group. Displeased with the pace of President Kennedy's addressing the issue of segregation, King and the Gandhi Society produced a document in 1962 calling on the President to follow in the footsteps of Abraham Lincoln and use an executive order to deliver a blow for civil rights as a kind of Second Emancipation Proclamation.
Kennedy did not execute the order. Lyndon B. Johnson and Robert F. Kennedy with civil rights leaders, June 22, 1963 The FBI was under written directive from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy when it began tapping King's telephone in the fall of 1963. Kennedy was concerned that allegations of communists in the SCLC—if they were made public—would derail the administration's civil rights initiatives.
He warned King to discontinue these associations and later felt compelled to issue the written directive that authorized the FBI to wiretap King and other SCLC leaders. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover feared the civil rights movement and investigated the allegations of communist infiltration. When no evidence emerged to support this, the FBI used the incidental details caught on tape over the next five years in attempts to force King out of his leadership position, in the COINTELPRO program.
 King believed that organized, nonviolent protest against the system of southern segregation known as Jim Crow laws would lead to extensive media coverage of the struggle for black equality and voting rights. Journalistic accounts and televised footage of the daily deprivation and indignities suffered by Southern blacks, and of segregationist violence and harassment of civil rights workers and marchers, produced a wave of sympathetic public opinion that convinced the majority of Americans that the civil rights movement was the most important issue in American politics in the early 1960s.
 King organized and led marches for blacks' right to vote, desegregation, labor rights, and other basic civil rights. Most of these rights were successfully enacted into the law of the United States with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 1965 Voting Rights Act. King and the SCLC put into practice many of the principles of the Christian Left and applied the tactics of nonviolent protest with great success by strategically choosing the method of protest and the places in which protests were carried out.
There were often dramatic stand-offs with segregationist authorities, who sometimes turned violent. Throughout his participation in the civil rights movement, King was criticized by many groups. This included opposition by more militant blacks such as Nation of Islam member Malcolm X.Stokely Carmichael was a separatist and disagreed with King's plea for racial integration because he considered it an insult to a uniquely African-American culture.
Omali Yeshitela urged Africans to remember the history of violent European colonization and how power was not secured by Europeans through integration, but by violence and force. Albany Movement Main article: Albany Movement The Albany Movement was a desegregation coalition formed in Albany, Georgia, in November 1961. In December, King and the SCLC became involved. The movement mobilized thousands of citizens for a broad-front nonviolent attack on every aspect of segregation within the city and attracted nationwide attention.
When King first visited on December 15, 1961, he "had planned to stay a day or so and return home after giving counsel." The following day he was swept up in a mass arrest of peaceful demonstrators, and he declined bail until the city made concessions. According to King, "that agreement was dishonored and violated by the city" after he left town. King returned in July 1962 and was given the option of forty-five days in jail or a $178 fine (equivalent to $1,400 in 2017); he chose jail.
Three days into his sentence, Police Chief Laurie Pritchett discreetly arranged for King's fine to be paid and ordered his release. "We had witnessed persons being kicked off lunch counter stools ... ejected from churches ... and thrown into jail ... But for the first time, we witnessed being kicked out of jail." It was later acknowledged by the King Center that Billy Graham was the one who bailed King out of jail during this time.
 After nearly a year of intense activism with few tangible results, the movement began to deteriorate. King requested a halt to all demonstrations and a "Day of Penance" to promote nonviolence and maintain the moral high ground. Divisions within the black community and the canny, low-key response by local government defeated efforts. Though the Albany effort proved a key lesson in tactics for King and the national civil rights movement, the national media was highly critical of King's role in the defeat, and the SCLC's lack of results contributed to a growing gulf between the organization and the more radical SNCC.
After Albany, King sought to choose engagements for the SCLC in which he could control the circumstances, rather than entering into pre-existing situations. Birmingham campaign Main article: Birmingham campaign King was arrested for protesting the treatment of blacks in Birmingham. In April 1963, the SCLC began a campaign against racial segregation and economic injustice in Birmingham, Alabama.
The campaign used nonviolent but intentionally confrontational tactics, developed in part by Rev. Wyatt Tee Walker. Black people in Birmingham, organizing with the SCLC, occupied public spaces with marches and sit-ins, openly violating laws that they considered unjust. King's intent was to provoke mass arrests and "create a situation so crisis-packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation.
" However, the campaign's early volunteers did not succeed in shutting down the city, or in drawing media attention to the police's actions. Over the concerns of an uncertain King, SCLC strategist James Bevel changed the course of the campaign by recruiting children and young adults to join in the demonstrations.Newsweek called this strategy a Children's Crusade. During the protests, the Birmingham Police Department, led by Eugene "Bull" Connor, used high-pressure water jets and police dogs against protesters, including children.
Footage of the police response was broadcast on national television news and dominated the nation's attention, shocking many white Americans and consolidating black Americans behind the movement. Not all of the demonstrators were peaceful, despite the avowed intentions of the SCLC. In some cases, bystanders attacked the police, who responded with force. King and the SCLC were criticized for putting children in harm's way.
But the campaign was a success: Connor lost his job, the "Jim Crow" signs came down, and public places became more open to blacks. King's reputation improved immensely. King was arrested and jailed early in the campaign—his 13th arrest out of 29. From his cell, he composed the now-famous Letter from Birmingham Jail which responds to calls on the movement to pursue legal channels for social change.
King argues that the crisis of racism is too urgent, and the current system too entrenched: "We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed." He points out that the Boston Tea Party, a celebrated act of rebellion in the American colonies, was illegal civil disobedience, and that, conversely, "everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was 'legal'.
" King also expresses his frustration with white moderates and clergymen too timid to oppose an unjust system: I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro's great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen's Councilor or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to "order" than to justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: "I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action"; who paternalistic-ally believes he can set the timetable for another man's freedom; who lives by a mythical concept of time and who constantly advises the Negro to wait for a "more convenient season.
" St. Augustine, Florida Main article: St. Augustine movement In March 1964, King and the SCLC joined forces with Robert Hayling's then-controversial movement in St. Augustine, Florida. Hayling's group had been affiliated with the NAACP but was forced out of the organization for advocating armed self-defense alongside nonviolent tactics. However, the pacifist SCLC accepted them. King and the SCLC worked to bring white Northern activists to St.
Augustine, including a delegation of rabbis and the 72-year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, all of whom were arrested. During June, the movement marched nightly through the city, "often facing counter demonstrations by the Klan, and provoking violence that garnered national media attention." Hundreds of the marchers were arrested and jailed. During the course of this movement, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed.
 Selma, Alabama Main article: Selma to Montgomery marches In December 1964, King and the SCLC joined forces with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Selma, Alabama, where the SNCC had been working on voter registration for several months. A local judge issued an injunction that barred any gathering of 3 or more people affiliated with the SNCC, SCLC, DCVL, or any of 41 named civil rights leaders.
This injunction temporarily halted civil rights activity until King defied it by speaking at Brown Chapel on January 2, 1965. During the 1965 march to Montgomery, Alabama, violence by state police and others against the peaceful marchers resulted in much publicity, making Alabama's racism visible nationwide. New York City On February 6, 1964, King delivered the inaugural speech of a lecture series initiated at the New School called "The American Race Crisis.
" No audio record of his speech has been found, but in August 2013, almost 50 years later, the school discovered an audiotape with 15 minutes of a question-and-answer session that followed King's address. In these remarks, King referred to a conversation he had recently had with Jawaharlal Nehru in which he compared the sad condition of many African Americans to that of India's untouchables. March on Washington, 1963 Main article: March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom (1963) King, representing the SCLC, was among the leaders of the "Big Six" civil rights organizations who were instrumental in the organization of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which took place on August 28, 1963.
The other leaders and organizations comprising the Big Six were Roy Wilkins from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Whitney Young, National Urban League; A. Philip Randolph, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; John Lewis, SNCC; and James L. Farmer Jr., of the Congress of Racial Equality. The primary logistical and strategic organizer was King's colleague Bayard Rustin.
 For King, this role was another which courted controversy, since he was one of the key figures who acceded to the wishes of United States President John F. Kennedy in changing the focus of the march. Kennedy initially opposed the march outright, because he was concerned it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation. However, the organizers were firm that the march would proceed.
 With the march going forward, the Kennedys decided it was important to work to ensure its success. President Kennedy was concerned the turnout would be less than 100,000. Therefore, he enlisted the aid of additional church leaders and the UAW union to help mobilize demonstrators for the cause. King gave his most famous speech, "I Have a Dream", before the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.
The march originally was conceived as an event to dramatize the desperate condition of blacks in the southern U.S. and an opportunity to place organizers' concerns and grievances squarely before the seat of power in the nation's capital. Organizers intended to denounce the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civil rights workers and blacks. However, the group acquiesced to presidential pressure and influence, and the event ultimately took on a far less strident tone.
 As a result, some civil rights activists felt it presented an inaccurate, sanitized pageant of racial harmony; Malcolm X called it the "Farce on Washington", and the Nation of Islam forbade its members from attending the march. I Have a Dream 30-second sample from "I Have a Dream" speech by Martin Luther King Jr. at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963 Problems playing this file? See media help.
The march did, however, make specific demands: an end to racial segregation in public schools; meaningful civil rights legislation, including a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment; protection of civil rights workers from police brutality; a $2 minimum wage for all workers (equivalent to $16 in 2017); and self-government for Washington, D.C., then governed by congressional committee.
 Despite tensions, the march was a resounding success. More than a quarter of a million people of diverse ethnicities attended the event, sprawling from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial onto the National Mall and around the reflecting pool. At the time, it was the largest gathering of protesters in Washington, D.C.'s history. King delivered a 17-minute speech, later known as "I Have a Dream".
In the speech's most famous passage—in which he departed from his prepared text, possibly at the prompting of Mahalia Jackson, who shouted behind him, "Tell them about the dream!"—King said: I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.
' I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today. "I Have a Dream" came to be regarded as one of the finest speeches in the history of American oratory.
 The March, and especially King's speech, helped put civil rights at the top of the agenda of reformers in the United States and facilitated passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The original typewritten copy of the speech, including King's handwritten notes on it, was discovered in 1984 to be in the hands of George Raveling, the first African-American basketball coach of the University of Iowa.
In 1963, Raveling, then 26, was standing near the podium, and immediately after the oration, impulsively asked King if he could have his copy of the speech. He got it. Selma voting rights movement and "Bloody Sunday", 1965 Main article: Selma to Montgomery marches The civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, in 1965 Acting on James Bevel's call for a march from Selma to Montgomery, King, Bevel, and the SCLC, in partial collaboration with SNCC, attempted to organize the march to the state's capital.
The first attempt to march on March 7, 1965, was aborted because of mob and police violence against the demonstrators. This day has become known as Bloody Sunday and was a major turning point in the effort to gain public support for the civil rights movement. It was the clearest demonstration up to that time of the dramatic potential of King's nonviolence strategy. King, however, was not present. King met with officials in the Lyndon B.
Johnson Administration on March 5 in order to request an injunction against any prosecution of the demonstrators. He did not attend the march due to church duties, but he later wrote, "If I had any idea that the state troopers would use the kind of brutality they did, I would have felt compelled to give up my church duties altogether to lead the line." Footage of police brutality against the protesters was broadcast extensively and aroused national public outrage.
 King next attempted to organize a march for March 9. The SCLC petitioned for an injunction in federal court against the State of Alabama; this was denied and the judge issued an order blocking the march until after a hearing. Nonetheless, King led marchers on March 9 to the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, then held a short prayer session before turning the marchers around and asking them to disperse so as not to violate the court order.
The unexpected ending of this second march aroused the surprise and anger of many within the local movement. The march finally went ahead fully on March 25, 1965. At the conclusion of the march on the steps of the state capitol, King delivered a speech that became known as "How Long, Not Long." In it, King stated that equal rights for African Americans could not be far away, "because the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice.
"[a] Chicago open housing movement, 1966 Main article: Chicago Freedom Movement King stood behind President Johnson as he signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1966, after several successes in the south, King, Bevel, and others in the civil rights organizations took the movement to the North, with Chicago as their first destination. King and Ralph Abernathy, both from the middle class, moved into a building at 1550 S.
Hamlin Avenue, in the slums of North Lawndale on Chicago's West Side, as an educational experience and to demonstrate their support and empathy for the poor. The SCLC formed a coalition with CCCO, Coordinating Council of Community Organizations, an organization founded by Albert Raby, and the combined organizations' efforts were fostered under the aegis of the Chicago Freedom Movement. During that spring, several white couple/black couple tests of real estate offices uncovered racial steering: discriminatory processing of housing requests by couples who were exact matches in income, background, number of children, and other attributes.
 Several larger marches were planned and executed: in Bogan, Belmont Cragin, Jefferson Park, Evergreen Park (a suburb southwest of Chicago), Gage Park, Marquette Park, and others. President Lyndon B. Johnson meeting with King in the White House Cabinet Room, 1966 King later stated and Abernathy wrote that the movement received a worse reception in Chicago than in the South.
Marches, especially the one through Marquette Park on August 5, 1966, were met by thrown bottles and screaming throngs. Rioting seemed very possible. King's beliefs militated against his staging a violent event, and he negotiated an agreement with Mayor Richard J. Daley to cancel a march in order to avoid the violence that he feared would result. King was hit by a brick during one march but continued to lead marches in the face of personal danger.
 When King and his allies returned to the South, they left Jesse Jackson, a seminary student who had previously joined the movement in the South, in charge of their organization. Jackson continued their struggle for civil rights by organizing the Operation Breadbasket movement that targeted chain stores that did not deal fairly with blacks. A 1967 CIA document declassified in 2017 downplayed King's role in the "black militant situation" in Chicago, with a source stating that King “sought at least constructive, positive projects.
” Opposition to the Vietnam War See also: Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War External audio You can listen to the speech, "Why I Am Opposed to the War in Vietnam", by Martin Luther King here. King long opposed American involvement in the Vietnam War, but at first avoided the topic in public speeches in order to avoid the interference with civil rights goals that criticism of President Johnson's policies might have created.
 However, at the urging of SCLC's former Director of Direct Action and now the head of the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, James Bevel, King eventually agreed to publicly oppose the war as opposition was growing among the American public. During an April 4, 1967, appearance at the New York City Riverside Church—exactly one year before his death—King delivered a speech titled "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence.
" He spoke strongly against the U.S.'s role in the war, arguing that the U.S. was in Vietnam "to occupy it as an American colony" and calling the U.S. government "the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today." He also connected the war with economic injustice, arguing that the country needed serious moral change: A true revolution of values will soon look uneasily on the glaring contrast of poverty and wealth.
With righteous indignation, it will look across the seas and see individual capitalists of the West investing huge sums of money in Asia, Africa and South America, only to take the profits out with no concern for the social betterment of the countries, and say: "This is not just." King also opposed the Vietnam War because it took money and resources that could have been spent on social welfare at home.
The United States Congress was spending more and more on the military and less and less on anti-poverty programs at the same time. He summed up this aspect by saying, "A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death." He stated that North Vietnam "did not begin to send in any large number of supplies or men until American forces had arrived in the tens of thousands", and accused the U.
S. of having killed a million Vietnamese, "mostly children." King also criticized American opposition to North Vietnam's land reforms. King's opposition cost him significant support among white allies, including President Johnson, Billy Graham, union leaders and powerful publishers. "The press is being stacked against me", King said, complaining of what he described as a double standard that applauded his nonviolence at home, but deplored it when applied "toward little brown Vietnamese children.
"Life magazine called the speech "demagogic slander that sounded like a script for Radio Hanoi", and The Washington Post declared that King had "diminished his usefulness to his cause, his country, his people." King speaking to an anti-Vietnam war rally at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul, April 27, 1967 The "Beyond Vietnam" speech reflected King's evolving political advocacy in his later years, which paralleled the teachings of the progressive Highlander Research and Education Center, with which he was affiliated.
 King began to speak of the need for fundamental changes in the political and economic life of the nation, and more frequently expressed his opposition to the war and his desire to see a redistribution of resources to correct racial and economic injustice. He guarded his language in public to avoid being linked to communism by his enemies, but in private he sometimes spoke of his support for democratic socialism.
 In a 1952 letter to Coretta Scott, he said: "I imagine you already know that I am much more socialistic in my economic theory than capitalistic ..." In one speech, he stated that "something is wrong with capitalism" and claimed, "There must be a better distribution of wealth, and maybe America must move toward a democratic socialism." King had read Marx while at Morehouse, but while he rejected "traditional capitalism", he also rejected communism because of its "materialistic interpretation of history" that denied religion, its "ethical relativism", and its "political totalitarianism.
" King also stated in "Beyond Vietnam" that "true compassion is more than flinging a coin to a beggar ... it comes to see that an edifice which produces beggars needs restructuring." King quoted a United States official who said that from Vietnam to Latin America, the country was "on the wrong side of a world revolution." King condemned America's "alliance with the landed gentry of Latin America", and said that the U.
S. should support "the shirtless and barefoot people" in the Third World rather than suppressing their attempts at revolution. King's stance on Vietnam encouraged Allard K. Lowenstein, William Sloane Coffin and Norman Thomas, with the support of anti-war Democrats, to attempt to persuade King to run against President Johnson in the 1968 United States presidential election. King contemplated but ultimately decided against the proposal on the grounds that he felt uneasy with politics and considered himself better suited for his morally unambiguous role as an activist.
 On April 15, 1967, King participated in and spoke at an anti-war march from New York's Central Park to the United Nations organized by the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam and initiated by its chairman, James Bevel. At the U.N. King also brought up issues of civil rights and the draft. I have not urged a mechanical fusion of the civil rights and peace movements. There are people who have come to see the moral imperative of equality, but who cannot yet see the moral imperative of world brotherhood.
I would like to see the fervor of the civil-rights movement imbued into the peace movement to instill it with greater strength. And I believe everyone has a duty to be in both the civil-rights and peace movements. But for those who presently choose but one, I would hope they will finally come to see the moral roots common to both. Seeing an opportunity to unite civil rights activists and anti-war activists, Bevel convinced King to become even more active in the anti-war effort.
 Despite his growing public opposition towards the Vietnam War, King was also not fond of the hippie culture which developed from the anti-war movement. In his 1967 Massey Lecture, King stated: The importance of the hippies is not in their unconventional behavior, but in the fact that hundreds of thousands of young people, in turning to a flight from reality, are expressing a profoundly discrediting view on the society they emerge from.
 On January 13, 1968, the day after President Johnson's State of the Union Address, King called for a large march on Washington against "one of history's most cruel and senseless wars." We need to make clear in this political year, to congressmen on both sides of the aisle and to the president of the United States, that we will no longer tolerate, we will no longer vote for men who continue to see the killings of Vietnamese and Americans as the best way of advancing the goals of freedom and self-determination in Southeast Asia.
 Poor People's Campaign, 1968 Main article: Poor People's Campaign A shantytown established in Washington, D. C. to protest economic conditions as a part of the Poor People's Campaign. In 1968, King and the SCLC organized the "Poor People's Campaign" to address issues of economic justice. King traveled the country to assemble "a multiracial army of the poor" that would march on Washington to engage in nonviolent civil disobedience at the Capitol until Congress created an "economic bill of rights" for poor Americans.
 The campaign was preceded by King's final book, Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? which laid out his view of how to address social issues and poverty. King quoted from Henry George and George's book, Progress and Poverty, particularly in support of a guaranteed basic income. The campaign culminated in a march on Washington, D.C., demanding economic aid to the poorest communities of the United States.
King and the SCLC called on the government to invest in rebuilding America's cities. He felt that Congress had shown "hostility to the poor" by spending "military funds with alacrity and generosity." He contrasted this with the situation faced by poor Americans, claiming that Congress had merely provided "poverty funds with miserliness." His vision was for change that was more revolutionary than mere reform: he cited systematic flaws of "racism, poverty, militarism and materialism", and argued that "reconstruction of society itself is the real issue to be faced.
" The Poor People's Campaign was controversial even within the civil rights movement. Rustin resigned from the march, stating that the goals of the campaign were too broad, that its demands were unrealizable, and that he thought that these campaigns would accelerate the backlash and repression on the poor and the black. After King's death The plan to set up a shantytown in Washington, D.C.
, was carried out soon after the April 4 assassination. Criticism of King's plan was subdued in the wake of his death, and the SCLC received an unprecedented wave of donations for the purpose of carrying it out. The campaign officially began in Memphis, on May 2, at the hotel where King was murdered. Thousands of demonstrators arrived on the National Mall and established a camp they called "Resurrection City.
" They stayed for six weeks. Assassination and aftermath Main article: Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. The Lorraine Motel, where King was assassinated, is now the site of the National Civil Rights Museum. I've Been to the Mountaintop Final 30 seconds of "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech by Martin Luther King Jr. Problems playing this file? See media help. On March 29, 1968, King went to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of the black sanitary public works employees, who were represented by AFSCME Local 1733.
The workers had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment. In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day. On April 3, King addressed a rally and delivered his "I've Been to the Mountaintop" address at Mason Temple, the world headquarters of the Church of God in Christ.
King's flight to Memphis had been delayed by a bomb threat against his plane. In the prophetic peroration of the last speech of his life, in reference to the bomb threat, King said the following: And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers? Well, I don't know what will happen now.
We've got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn't matter with me now. Because I've been to the mountaintop. And I don't mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over. And I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land.
So I'm happy, tonight. I'm not worried about anything. I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. King was booked in Room 306 at the Lorraine Motel (owned by Walter Bailey) in Memphis. Abernathy, who was present at the assassination, testified to the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations that King and his entourage stayed at Room 306 so often that it was known as the "King-Abernathy suite.
" According to Jesse Jackson, who was present, King's last words on the balcony before his assassination were spoken to musician Ben Branch, who was scheduled to perform that night at an event King was attending: "Ben, make sure you play 'Take My Hand, Precious Lord' in the meeting tonight. Play it real pretty." King was fatally shot by James Earl Ray at 6:01 p.m., April 4, 1968, as he stood on the motel's second-floor balcony.
The bullet entered through his right cheek, smashing his jaw, then traveled down his spinal cord before lodging in his shoulder. Abernathy heard the shot from inside the motel room and ran to the balcony to find King on the floor. Jackson stated after the shooting that he cradled King's head as King lay on the balcony, but this account was disputed by other colleagues of King; Jackson later changed his statement to say that he had "reached out" for King.
 After emergency chest surgery, King died at St. Joseph's Hospital at 7:05 p.m. According to biographer Taylor Branch, King's autopsy revealed that though only 39 years old, he "had the heart of a 60 year old", which Branch attributed to the stress of 13 years in the civil rights movement. Aftermath Further information: King assassination riots King's friend Mahalia Jackson (seen here in 1964) sang at his funeral.
The assassination led to a nationwide wave of race riots in Washington, D.C., Chicago, Baltimore, Louisville, Kansas City, and dozens of other cities. Presidential candidate Robert F. "Bobby" Kennedy was on his way to Indianapolis for a campaign rally when he was informed of King's death. He gave a short speech to the gathering of supporters informing them of the tragedy and urging them to continue King's ideal of nonviolence.
James Farmer Jr., and other civil rights leaders also called for non-violent action, while the more militant Stokely Carmichael called for a more forceful response. The city of Memphis quickly settled the strike on terms favorable to the sanitation workers. President Lyndon B. Johnson declared April 7 a national day of mourning for the civil rights leader. Vice President Hubert Humphrey attended King's funeral on behalf of the President, as there were fears that Johnson's presence might incite protests and perhaps violence.
 At his widow's request, King's last sermon at Ebenezer Baptist Church was played at the funeral, a recording of his "Drum Major" sermon, given on February 4, 1968. In that sermon, King made a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to "feed the hungry", "clothe the naked", "be right on the [Vietnam] war question", and "love and serve humanity.
" His good friend Mahalia Jackson sang his favorite hymn, "Take My Hand, Precious Lord", at the funeral. Two months after King's death, escaped convict James Earl Ray was captured at London Heathrow Airport while trying to leave the United Kingdom on a false Canadian passport in the name of Ramon George Sneyd on his way to white-ruled Rhodesia. Ray was quickly extradited to Tennessee and charged with King's murder.
He confessed to the assassination on March 10, 1969, though he recanted this confession three days later. On the advice of his attorney Percy Foreman, Ray pleaded guilty to avoid a trial conviction and thus the possibility of receiving the death penalty. He was sentenced to a 99-year prison term. Ray later claimed a man he met in Montreal, Quebec, with the alias "Raoul" was involved and that the assassination was the result of a conspiracy.
 He spent the remainder of his life attempting, unsuccessfully, to withdraw his guilty plea and secure the trial he never had. Allegations of conspiracy Martin Luther King and Coretta Scott King's sarcophagus at the Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site in Atlanta, Georgia Ray's lawyers maintained he was a scapegoat similar to the way that John F. Kennedy assassin Lee Harvey Oswald is seen by conspiracy theorists.
 Supporters of this assertion said that Ray's confession was given under pressure and that he had been threatened with the death penalty. They admitted that Ray was a thief and burglar, but claimed that he had no record of committing violent crimes with a weapon. However, prison records in different U.S. cities have shown that he was incarcerated on numerous occasions for charges of armed robbery.
 In a 2008 interview with CNN, Jerry Ray, the younger brother of James Earl Ray, claimed that James was smart and was sometimes able to get away with armed robbery. Jerry Ray said that he had assisted his brother on one such robbery. "I never been with nobody as bold as he is," Jerry said. "He just walked in and put that gun on somebody, it was just like it's an everyday thing." Those suspecting a conspiracy in the assassination point to the two successive ballistics tests which proved that a rifle similar to Ray's Remington Gamemaster had been the murder weapon.
Those tests did not implicate Ray's specific rifle. Witnesses near King at the moment of his death said that the shot came from another location. They said that it came from behind thick shrubbery near the boarding house—which had been cut away in the days following the assassination—and not from the boarding house window. However, Ray's fingerprints were found on various objects (a rifle, a pair of binoculars, articles of clothing, a newspaper) that were left in the bathroom where it was determined the gunfire came from.
 An examination of the rifle containing Ray's fingerprints also determined that at least one shot was fired from the firearm at the time of the assassination. In 1997, King's son Dexter Scott King met with Ray, and publicly supported Ray's efforts to obtain a new trial. Two years later, Coretta Scott King, King's widow, along with the rest of King's family, won a wrongful death claim against Loyd Jowers and "other unknown co-conspirators.
" Jowers claimed to have received $100,000 to arrange King's assassination. The jury of six whites and six blacks found in favor of the King family, finding Jowers to be complicit in a conspiracy against King and that government agencies were party to the assassination.William F. Pepper represented the King family in the trial. In 2000, the U.S. Department of Justice completed the investigation into Jowers' claims but did not find evidence to support allegations about conspiracy.
The investigation report recommended no further investigation unless some new reliable facts are presented. A sister of Jowers admitted that he had fabricated the story so he could make $300,000 from selling the story, and she in turn corroborated his story in order to get some money to pay her income tax. In 2002, The New York Times reported that a church minister, Rev. Ronald Denton Wilson, claimed his father, Henry Clay Wilson—not James Earl Ray—assassinated King.
He stated, "It wasn't a racist thing; he thought Martin Luther King was connected with communism, and he wanted to get him out of the way." Wilson provided no evidence to back up his claims. King researchers David Garrow and Gerald Posner disagreed with William F. Pepper's claims that the government killed King. In 2003, Pepper published a book about the long investigation and trial, as well as his representation of James Earl Ray in his bid for a trial, laying out the evidence and criticizing other accounts.
 King's friend and colleague, James Bevel, also disputed the argument that Ray acted alone, stating, "There is no way a ten-cent white boy could develop a plan to kill a million-dollar black man." In 2004, Jesse Jackson stated: The fact is there were saboteurs to disrupt the march. And within our own organization, we found a very key person who was on the government payroll. So infiltration within, saboteurs from without and the press attacks.
... I will never believe that James Earl Ray had the motive, the money and the mobility to have done it himself. Our government was very involved in setting the stage for and I think the escape route for James Earl Ray. Legacy Martin Luther King Jr. statue over the west entrance of Westminster Abbey, installed in 1998 King's main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the U.
S. Just days after King's assassination, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1968. Title VIII of the Act, commonly known as the Fair Housing Act, prohibited discrimination in housing and housing-related transactions on the basis of race, religion, or national origin (later expanded to include sex, familial status, and disability). This legislation was seen as a tribute to King's struggle in his final years to combat residential discrimination in the U.
S. Internationally, King's legacy includes influences on the Black Consciousness Movement and civil rights movement in South Africa. King's work was cited by and served as an inspiration for South African leader Albert Lutuli, who fought for racial justice in his country and was later awarded the Nobel Prize. The day following King's assassination, school teacher Jane Elliott conducted her first "Blue Eyes/Brown Eyes" exercise with her class of elementary school students in Riceville, Iowa.
Her purpose was to help them understand King's death as it related to racism, something they little understood as they lived in a predominantly white community. King has become a national icon in the history of American liberalism and American progressivism. King also influenced Irish politician and activist John Hume. Hume, the former leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party, cited King's legacy as quintessential to the Northern Irish civil rights movement and the signing of the Good Friday Agreement, calling him "one of my great heroes of the century.
" King's wife, Coretta Scott King, followed in her husband's footsteps and was active in matters of social justice and civil rights until her death in 2006. The same year that Martin Luther King was assassinated, she established the King Center in Atlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy and the work of championing nonviolent conflict resolution and tolerance worldwide. Their son, Dexter King, serves as the center's chairman.
 Daughter Yolanda King, who died in 2007, was a motivational speaker, author and founder of Higher Ground Productions, an organization specializing in diversity training. Even within the King family, members disagree about his religious and political views about gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people. King's widow Coretta said publicly that she believed her husband would have supported gay rights.
 However, his youngest child, Bernice King, has said publicly that he would have been opposed to gay marriage. On February 4, 1968, at the Ebenezer Baptist Church, in speaking about how he wished to be remembered after his death, King stated: I'd like somebody to mention that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to give his life serving others. I'd like for somebody to say that day that Martin Luther King Jr.
tried to love somebody. I want you to say that day that I tried to be right on the war question. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try to feed the hungry. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try in my life to clothe those who were naked. I want you to say on that day that I did try in my life to visit those who were in prison. And I want you to say that I tried to love and serve humanity.
Yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major. Say that I was a drum major for justice. Say that I was a drum major for peace. I was a drum major for righteousness. And all of the other shallow things will not matter. I won't have any money to leave behind. I won't have the fine and luxurious things of life to leave behind. But I just want to leave a committed life behind. Martin Luther King Jr.
Day Main article: Martin Luther King Jr. Day Beginning in 1971, cities such as St. Louis, Missouri, and states established annual holidays to honor King. At the White House Rose Garden on November 2, 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating a federal holiday to honor King. Observed for the first time on January 20, 1986, it is called Martin Luther King Jr. Day. Following President George H.
W. Bush's 1992 proclamation, the holiday is observed on the third Monday of January each year, near the time of King's birthday. On January 17, 2000, for the first time, Martin Luther King Jr. Day was officially observed in all fifty U.S. states.Arizona (1992), New Hampshire (1999) and Utah (2000) were the last three states to recognize the holiday. Utah previously celebrated the holiday at the same time but under the name Human Rights Day.
 Liturgical commemorations King is remembered as a martyr by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America with an annual feast day on the anniversary of his death, April 4. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates King liturgically on the anniversary of his birth, January 15. UK legacy and The Martin Luther King Peace Committee Banner at the 2012 Republican National Convention In the United Kingdom, The Northumbria and Newcastle Universities Martin Luther King Peace Committee exists to honor King's legacy, as represented by his final visit to the UK to receive an honorary degree from Newcastle University in 1967.
 The Peace Committee operates out of the chaplaincies of the city's two universities, Northumbria and Newcastle, both of which remain centres for the study of Martin Luther King and the US civil rights movement. Inspired by King's vision, it undertakes a range of activities across the UK as it seeks to "build cultures of peace." In 2017, Newcastle University unveiled a bronze statue of King to celebrate the 50th anniversary of his honorary doctorate ceremony.
 The Students Union also voted to rename their bar 'Luthers'. Ideas, influences, and political stances Religion King at the 1963 Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. As a Christian minister, King's main influence was Jesus Christ and the Christian gospels, which he would almost always quote in his religious meetings, speeches at church, and in public discourses. King's faith was strongly based in Jesus' commandment of loving your neighbor as yourself, loving God above all, and loving your enemies, praying for them and blessing them.
His nonviolent thought was also based in the injunction to turn the other cheek in the Sermon on the Mount, and Jesus' teaching of putting the sword back into its place (Matthew 26:52). In his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail, King urged action consistent with what he describes as Jesus' "extremist" love, and also quoted numerous other Christian pacifist authors, which was very usual for him.
In another sermon, he stated: Before I was a civil rights leader, I was a preacher of the Gospel. This was my first calling and it still remains my greatest commitment. You know, actually all that I do in civil rights I do because I consider it a part of my ministry. I have no other ambitions in life but to achieve excellence in the Christian ministry. I don't plan to run for any political office.
I don't plan to do anything but remain a preacher. And what I'm doing in this struggle, along with many others, grows out of my feeling that the preacher must be concerned about the whole man. In his speech "I've Been to the Mountaintop", he stated that he just wanted to do God's will. Nonviolence King worked alongside Quakers such as Bayard Rustin to develop non-violent tactics. Veteran African-American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin was King's first regular advisor on nonviolence.
 King was also advised by the white activists Harris Wofford and Glenn Smiley. Rustin and Smiley came from the Christian pacifist tradition, and Wofford and Rustin both studied Gandhi's teachings. Rustin had applied nonviolence with the Journey of Reconciliation campaign in the 1940s, and Wofford had been promoting Gandhism to Southern blacks since the early 1950s. King had initially known little about Gandhi and rarely used the term "nonviolence" during his early years of activism in the early 1950s.
King initially believed in and practiced self-defense, even obtaining guns in his household as a means of defense against possible attackers. The pacifists guided King by showing him the alternative of nonviolent resistance, arguing that this would be a better means to accomplish his goals of civil rights than self-defense. King then vowed to no longer personally use arms. In the aftermath of the boycott, King wrote Stride Toward Freedom, which included the chapter Pilgrimage to Nonviolence.
King outlined his understanding of nonviolence, which seeks to win an opponent to friendship, rather than to humiliate or defeat him. The chapter draws from an address by Wofford, with Rustin and Stanley Levison also providing guidance and ghostwriting. King was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi and his success with nonviolent activism, and as a theology student, King described Gandhi as being one of the "individuals who greatly reveal the working of the Spirit of God".
 King had "for a long time ... wanted to take a trip to India." With assistance from Harris Wofford, the American Friends Service Committee, and other supporters, he was able to fund the journey in April 1959. The trip to India affected King, deepening his understanding of nonviolent resistance and his commitment to America's struggle for civil rights. In a radio address made during his final evening in India, King reflected, "Since being in India, I am more convinced than ever before that the method of nonviolent resistance is the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for justice and human dignity.
" Bayard Rustin's open homosexuality, support of democratic socialism, and his former ties to the Communist Party USA caused many white and African-American leaders to demand King distance himself from Rustin, which King agreed to do. However, King agreed that Rustin should be one of the main organizers of the 1963 March on Washington. King's admiration of Gandhi's nonviolence did not diminish in later years.
He went so far as to hold up his example when receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, hailing the "successful precedent" of using nonviolence "in a magnificent way by Mohandas K. Gandhi to challenge the might of the British Empire ... He struggled only with the weapons of truth, soul force, non-injury and courage." Gandhi seemed to have influenced him with certain moral principles, though Gandhi himself had been influenced by The Kingdom of God Is Within You, a nonviolent classic written by Christian anarchist Leo Tolstoy.
In turn, both Gandhi and Martin Luther King had read Tolstoy, and King, Gandhi and Tolstoy had been strongly influenced by Jesus' Sermon on the Mount. King quoted Tolstoy's War and Peace in 1959. Another influence for King's nonviolent method was Henry David Thoreau's essay On Civil Disobedience, which King read in his student days. He was influenced by the idea of refusing to cooperate with an evil system.
 He also was greatly influenced by the works of Protestant theologians Reinhold Niebuhr and Paul Tillich, as well as Walter Rauschenbusch's Christianity and the Social Crisis. King also sometimes used the concept of "agape" (brotherly Christian love). However, after 1960, he ceased employing it in his writings. Even after renouncing his personal use of guns, King had a complex relationship with the phenomenon of self-defense in the movement.
He publicly discouraged it as a widespread practice, but acknowledged that it was sometimes necessary. Throughout his career King was frequently protected by other civil rights activists who carried arms, such as Colonel Stone Johnson,Robert Hayling, and the Deacons for Defense and Justice. Politics As the leader of the SCLC, King maintained a policy of not publicly endorsing a U.
S. political party or candidate: "I feel someone must remain in the position of non-alignment, so that he can look objectively at both parties and be the conscience of both—not the servant or master of either." In a 1958 interview, he expressed his view that neither party was perfect, saying, "I don't think the Republican party is a party full of the almighty God nor is the Democratic party.
They both have weaknesses ... And I'm not inextricably bound to either party." King did praise Democratic Senator Paul Douglas of Illinois as being the "greatest of all senators" because of his fierce advocacy for civil rights causes over the years. King critiqued both parties' performance on promoting racial equality: Actually, the Negro has been betrayed by both the Republican and the Democratic party.
The Democrats have betrayed him by capitulating to the whims and caprices of the Southern Dixiecrats. The Republicans have betrayed him by capitulating to the blatant hypocrisy of reactionary right wing northern Republicans. And this coalition of southern Dixiecrats and right wing reactionary northern Republicans defeats every bill and every move towards liberal legislation in the area of civil rights.
 Although King never publicly supported a political party or candidate for president, in a letter to a civil rights supporter in October 1956 he said that he was undecided as to whether he would vote for Adlai Stevenson or Dwight Eisenhower, but that "In the past I always voted the Democratic ticket." In his autobiography, King says that in 1960 he privately voted for Democratic candidate John F.
Kennedy: "I felt that Kennedy would make the best president. I never came out with an endorsement. My father did, but I never made one." King adds that he likely would have made an exception to his non-endorsement policy for a second Kennedy term, saying "Had President Kennedy lived, I would probably have endorsed him in 1964." In 1964, King urged his supporters "and all people of goodwill" to vote against Republican Senator Barry Goldwater for president, saying that his election "would be a tragedy, and certainly suicidal almost, for the nation and the world.
" King supported the ideals of democratic socialism, although he was reluctant to speak directly of this support due to the anti-communist sentiment being projected throughout the United States at the time, and the association of socialism with communism. King believed that capitalism could not adequately provide the basic necessities of many American people, particularly the African-American community.
 Compensation See also: Reparations for slavery debate in the United States King stated that black Americans, as well as other disadvantaged Americans, should be compensated for historical wrongs. In an interview conducted for Playboy in 1965, he said that granting black Americans only equality could not realistically close the economic gap between them and whites. King said that he did not seek a full restitution of wages lost to slavery, which he believed impossible, but proposed a government compensatory program of $50 billion over ten years to all disadvantaged groups.
 He posited that "the money spent would be more than amply justified by the benefits that would accrue to the nation through a spectacular decline in school dropouts, family breakups, crime rates, illegitimacy, swollen relief rolls, rioting and other social evils." He presented this idea as an application of the common law regarding settlement of unpaid labor, but clarified that he felt that the money should not be spent exclusively on blacks.
He stated, "It should benefit the disadvantaged of all races." Family planning On being awarded the Planned Parenthood Federation of America's Margaret Sanger Award on May 5, 1966, King said: Recently, the press has been filled with reports of sightings of flying saucers. While we need not give credence to these stories, they allow our imagination to speculate on how visitors from outer space would judge us.
I am afraid they would be stupefied at our conduct. They would observe that for death planning we spend billions to create engines and strategies for war. They would also observe that we spend millions to prevent death by disease and other causes. Finally they would observe that we spend paltry sums for population planning, even though its spontaneous growth is an urgent threat to life on our planet.
Our visitors from outer space could be forgiven if they reported home that our planet is inhabited by a race of insane men whose future is bleak and uncertain. There is no human circumstance more tragic than the persisting existence of a harmful condition for which a remedy is readily available. Family planning, to relate population to world resources, is possible, practical and necessary. Unlike plagues of the dark ages or contemporary diseases we do not yet understand, the modern plague of overpopulation is soluble by means we have discovered and with resources we possess.
What is lacking is not sufficient knowledge of the solution but universal consciousness of the gravity of the problem and education of the billions who are its victims... FBI and King's personal life Memo describing FBI attempts to disrupt the Poor People's Campaign with fraudulent claims about King—part of the COINTELPRO campaign against the anti-war and civil rights movements FBI surveillance and wiretapping FBI director J.
Edgar Hoover personally ordered surveillance of King, with the intent to undermine his power as a civil rights leader. According to the Church Committee, a 1975 investigation by the U.S. Congress, "From December 1963 until his death in 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was the target of an intensive campaign by the Federal Bureau of Investigation to 'neutralize' him as an effective civil rights leader.
" The Bureau received authorization to proceed with wiretapping from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy in the fall of 1963 and informed President John F. Kennedy, both of whom unsuccessfully tried to persuade King to dissociate himself from Stanley Levison, a New York lawyer who had been involved with Communist Party USA. Although Robert Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of King's phones "on a trial basis, for a month or so", Hoover extended the clearance so his men were "unshackled" to look for evidence in any areas of King's life they deemed worthy.
 The Bureau placed wiretaps on Levison's and King's home and office phones, and bugged King's rooms in hotels as he traveled across the country. In 1967, Hoover listed the SCLC as a black nationalist hate group, with the instructions: "No opportunity should be missed to exploit through counterintelligence techniques the organizational and personal conflicts of the leaderships of the groups .
.. to insure the targeted group is disrupted, ridiculed, or discredited." NSA monitoring of King's communications In a secret operation code-named "Minaret", the National Security Agency (NSA) monitored the communications of leading Americans, including King, who criticized the U.S. war in Vietnam. A review by the NSA itself concluded that Minaret was "disreputable if not outright illegal.
" Allegations of communism For years, Hoover had been suspicious about potential influence of communists in social movements such as labor unions and civil rights. Hoover directed the FBI to track King in 1957, and the SCLC as it was established (it did not have a full-time executive director until 1960). The investigations were largely superficial until 1962, when the FBI learned that one of King's most trusted advisers was New York City lawyer Stanley Levison.
 The FBI feared Levison was working as an "agent of influence" over King, in spite of its own reports in 1963 that Levison had left the Party and was no longer associated in business dealings with them. Another King lieutenant, Hunter Pitts O'Dell, was also linked to the Communist Party by sworn testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). However, by 1976 the FBI had acknowledged that it had not obtained any evidence that King himself or the SCLC were actually involved with any communist organizations.
 For his part, King adamantly denied having any connections to communism, stating in a 1965 Playboy interview that "there are as many Communists in this freedom movement as there are Eskimos in Florida." He argued that Hoover was "following the path of appeasement of political powers in the South" and that his concern for communist infiltration of the civil rights movement was meant to "aid and abet the salacious claims of southern racists and the extreme right-wing elements.
" Hoover did not believe King's pledge of innocence and replied by saying that King was "the most notorious liar in the country." After King gave his "I Have A Dream" speech during the March on Washington on August 28, 1963, the FBI described King as "the most dangerous and effective Negro leader in the country." It alleged that he was "knowingly, willingly and regularly cooperating with and taking guidance from communists.
" The attempt to prove that King was a communist was related to the feeling of many segregationists that blacks in the South were happy with their lot but had been stirred up by "communists" and "outside agitators." However, the 1950s and '60s civil rights movement arose from activism within the black community dating back to before World War I. King said that "the Negro revolution is a genuine revolution, born from the same womb that produces all massive social upheavals—the womb of intolerable conditions and unendurable situations.
" CIA surveillance CIA files declassified in 2017 revealed that the agency was investigating possible links between King and Communism after a Washington Post article dated November 4, 1964 claimed he was invited to the Soviet Union and that Ralph Abernathy, spokesman for subject, refused to comment on the source of the invitation. Adultery King and Malcolm X, March 26, 1964 Having concluded that King was dangerous due to communist infiltration, the FBI shifted to attempting to discredit King through revelations regarding his private life.
FBI surveillance of King, some of it since made public, attempted to demonstrate that he also engaged in numerous extramarital affairs.Lyndon Johnson once said that King was a "hypocritical preacher." Ralph Abernathy stated in his 1989 autobiography And the Walls Came Tumbling Down that King had a "weakness for women", although they "all understood and believed in the biblical prohibition against sex outside of marriage.
It was just that he had a particularly difficult time with that temptation." In a later interview, Abernathy said that he only wrote the term "womanizing", that he did not specifically say King had extramarital sex and that the infidelities King had were emotional rather than sexual. Abernathy criticized the media for sensationalizing the statements he wrote about King's affairs, such as the allegation that he admitted in his book that King had a sexual affair the night before he was assassinated.
 In his original wording, Abernathy had claimed he saw King coming out of his room with a lady when he awoke the next morning and later claimed that "he may have been in there discussing and debating and trying to get her to go along with the movement, I don't know." In his 1986 book Bearing the Cross, David Garrow wrote about a number of extramarital affairs, including one woman King saw almost daily.
According to Garrow, "that relationship ... increasingly became the emotional centerpiece of King's life, but it did not eliminate the incidental couplings ... of King's travels." He alleged that King explained his extramarital affairs as "a form of anxiety reduction." Garrow asserted that King's supposed promiscuity caused him "painful and at times overwhelming guilt." King's wife Coretta appeared to have accepted his affairs with equanimity, saying once that "all that other business just doesn't have a place in the very high level relationship we enjoyed.
" Shortly after Bearing the Cross was released, civil rights author Howell Raines gave the book a positive review but opined that Garrow's allegations about King's sex life were "sensational" and stated that Garrow was "amassing facts rather than analyzing them." The FBI distributed reports regarding such affairs to the executive branch, friendly reporters, potential coalition partners and funding sources of the SCLC, and King's family.
 The bureau also sent anonymous letters to King threatening to reveal information if he did not cease his civil rights work. The FBI–King suicide letter sent to King just before he received the Nobel Peace Prize read, in part: The FBI–King suicide letter, mailed anonymously by the FBI The American public, the church organizations that have been helping—Protestants, Catholics and Jews will know you for what you are—an evil beast.
So will others who have backed you. You are done. King, there is only one thing left for you to do. You know what it is. You have just 34 days in which to do (this exact number has been selected for a specific reason, it has definite practical significant [sic]). You are done. There is but one way out for you. You better take it before your filthy fraudulent self is bared to the nation. A tape recording of several of King's extramarital liaisons, excerpted from FBI wiretaps, accompanied the letter.
 King interpreted this package as an attempt to drive him to suicide, although William Sullivan, head of the Domestic Intelligence Division at the time, argued that it may have only been intended to "convince Dr. King to resign from the SCLC." King refused to give in to the FBI's threats. In 1977, Judge John Lewis Smith Jr. ordered all known copies of the recorded audiotapes and written transcripts resulting from the FBI's electronic surveillance of King between 1963 and 1968 to be held in the National Archives and sealed from public access until 2027.
 Police observation during the assassination A fire station was located across from the Lorraine Motel, next to the boarding house in which James Earl Ray was staying. Police officers were stationed in the fire station to keep King under surveillance. Agents were watching King at the time he was shot. Immediately following the shooting, officers rushed out of the station to the motel.
Marrell McCollough, an undercover police officer, was the first person to administer first aid to King. The antagonism between King and the FBI, the lack of an all points bulletin to find the killer, and the police presence nearby led to speculation that the FBI was involved in the assassination. Awards and recognition King showing his medallion, which he received from Mayor Wagner Statue of King in Birmingham's Kelly Ingram Park Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, where King ministered, was renamed Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church in 1978.
King was awarded at least fifty honorary degrees from colleges and universities. On October 14, 1964, King became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, which was awarded to him for leading nonviolent resistance to racial prejudice in the U.S. In 1965, he was awarded the American Liberties Medallion by the American Jewish Committee for his "exceptional advancement of the principles of human liberty.
" In his acceptance remarks, King said, "Freedom is one thing. You have it all or you are not free." In 1957, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP. Two years later, he won the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award for his book Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story. In 1966, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America awarded King the Margaret Sanger Award for "his courageous resistance to bigotry and his lifelong dedication to the advancement of social justice and human dignity.
" Also in 1966, King was elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In November 1967 he made a 24-hour trip to the United Kingdom to receive an honorary degree from Newcastle University, being the first African-American to be so honoured by Newcastle. In a moving impromptu acceptance speech, he said There are three urgent and indeed great problems that we face not only in the United States of America but all over the world today.
That is the problem of racism, the problem of poverty and the problem of war. In 1971 he was posthumously awarded a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for his Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam. In 1977, the Presidential Medal of Freedom was posthumously awarded to King by President Jimmy Carter. The citation read: Martin Luther King Jr. was the conscience of his generation. He gazed upon the great wall of segregation and saw that the power of love could bring it down.
From the pain and exhaustion of his fight to fulfill the promises of our founding fathers for our humblest citizens, he wrung his eloquent statement of his dream for America. He made our nation stronger because he made it better. His dream sustains us yet. King and his wife were also awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 2004. King was second in Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century.
 In 1963, he was named Time Person of the Year, and in 2000, he was voted sixth in an online "Person of the Century" poll by the same magazine. King placed third in the Greatest American contest conducted by the Discovery Channel and AOL. Five-dollar bill On April 20, 2016, Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew announced that the $5, $10, and $20 bills would all undergo redesign prior to 2020.
Lew said that while Lincoln would remain on the obverse of the $5 bill, the reverse would be redesigned to depict various historical events that had occurred at the Lincoln Memorial. Among the planned designs are images from King's "I Have a Dream" speech and the 1939 concert by opera singer Marian Anderson. Works Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story (1958) ISBN 978-0-06-250490-6 The Measure of a Man (1959) ISBN 978-0-8006-0877-4 Strength to Love (1963) ISBN 978-0-8006-9740-2 Why We Can't Wait (1964) ISBN 978-0-8070-0112-7 Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? (1967) ISBN 978-0-8070-0571-2 The Trumpet of Conscience (1968) ISBN 978-0-8070-0170-7 A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King Jr.
(1986) ISBN 978-0-06-250931-4 The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr. (1998), ed. Clayborne Carson ISBN 978-0-446-67650-2 "All Labor Has Dignity" (2011) ed. Michael Honey ISBN 978-0-8070-8600-1 "Thou, Dear God": Prayers That Open Hearts and Spirits Collection of King's prayers. (2011), ed. Lewis Baldwin ISBN 978-0-8070-8603-2 MLK: A Celebration in Word and Image Photographed by Bob Adelman, introduced by Charles Johnson ISBN 978-0-8070-0316-9 See also Memorials to Martin Luther King Jr.
Sermons and speeches of Martin Luther King Jr. Equality before the law Violence begets violence List of civil rights leaders List of peace activists United States labor law Post–civil rights era in African-American history References Notes ^ Though commonly attributed to King, this expression originated with 19th-century abolitionist Theodore Parker. Citations ^ "Martin Luther King Wins The Nobel Prize for Peace".
The New York Times. October 15, 1964. Retrieved February 13, 2018. ^ Ogletree, Charles J. (2004). All Deliberate Speed: Reflections on the First Half Century of Brown v. Board of Education. W W Norton & Co. p. 138. ISBN 0-393-05897-2. ^ "Upbringing & Studies". The King Center. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2012. ^ King 1992, pp. 30–31. ^ a b Mikkelson, David (July 19, 2003).
"Four Things About King". Snopes. Snopes.com. Retrieved March 14, 2011. ^ King 1992, p. 31. ^ "King, James Albert". ^ Nsenga, Burton. "AfricanAncestry.com Reveals Roots of MLK and Marcus Garvey". ^ Nelson, Alondra (2016). The Social Life of DNA. pp. 160–161. ISBN 9780807027189. ^ King 1992, p. 76. ^ Katznelson, Ira (2005). When Affirmative Action was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America.
WW Norton & Co. p. 5. ISBN 0-393-05213-3. ^ Millender, Dharathula H. (1986). Martin Luther King Jr.: Young Man with a Dream. Aladdin. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-02-042010-1. ^ Frady, Marshall (2005). Martin Luther King, Jr: A Life. pp. 12–15. ISBN 978-0-14-303648-7. ^ Pierce, Alan (2004). Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. Abdo Pub Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-59197-727-8. ^ Blake, John. "How MLK became an angry black man".
^ Carson, Clayborn. "Martin Luther King Jr". ^ a b c "An Autobiography of Religious Development". The Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute. Stanford University. Retrieved April 2, 2016. ^ a b King 1998, p. 6. ^ a b c Fleming, Alice (2008). Martin Luther King Jr.: A Dream of Hope. Sterling. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4027-4439-6. ^ King 1992, p. 82. ^ King 1992, pp. 35–36. ^ Frady 2002, p.
18. ^ Downing, Frederick L. (1986). To See the Promised Land: The Faith Pilgrimage of Martin Luther King, Jr. Mercer University Press. p. 150. ISBN 0-86554-207-4. ^ Nojeim, Michael J. (2004). Gandhi and King: The Power of Nonviolent Resistance. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 179. ISBN 0-275-96574-0. ^ Farris, Christine King (2009). Through It All: Reflections on My Life, My Family, and My Faith.
Atria Books. pp. 44–47. ISBN 978-1-4165-4881-2. ^ a b c Frady 2002, pp. 20–22. ^ L. Lewis, David (2013). King: A Biography. University of Illinois Press. p. 27. ^ "Coretta Scott King". The Daily Telegraph. February 1, 2006. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2008. ^ Warren, Mervyn A. (2001). King Came Preaching: The Pulpit Power of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
InterVarsity Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-8308-2658-0. ^ Civil Rights History from the Ground Up: Local Struggles, a National Movement. University of Georgia Press. p. 410. ^ Fuller, Linda K. (2004). National Days, National Ways: Historical, Political, And Religious Celebrations around the World. Greenwood Publishing. p. 314. ISBN 0-275-97270-4. ^ a b Radin, Charles A. (October 11, 1991). "Panel Confirms Plagiarism by King at BU".
The Boston Globe. p. 1. ^ Baldwin, Lewis V. (2010). The Voice of Conscience: The Church in the Mind of Martin Luther King, Jr. Oxford University Press. pp. 42–44. ISBN 9780195380316. ^ "Boston U. Panel Finds Plagiarism by Dr. King". The New York Times. October 11, 1991. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2013. ^ "King's Ph.D. dissertation, with attached note" (PDF).
Retrieved November 7, 2014. ^ Ling, Peter (October 1996). "Plagiarism, preaching and prophecy: the legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr. and the persistence of racism [Review]". Ethnic and Racial Studies. 19 (4): 912–916. doi:10.1080/01419870.1996.9993942. ^ Manheimer, Ann S. (2004). Martin Luther King Jr.: Dreaming of Equality. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 103. ISBN 1-57505-627-5. ^ "December 1, 1955: Rosa Parks arrested".
CNN. March 11, 2003. Retrieved June 8, 2008. ^ Walsh, Frank (2003). The Montgomery Bus Boycott. Gareth Stevens. p. 24. ISBN 0-8368-5403-9. ^ McMahon, Thomas F. (2004). Ethical Leadership Through Transforming Justice. University Press of America. p. 25. ISBN 0-7618-2908-3. ^ Fisk, Larry J.; Schellenberg, John (1999). Patterns of Conflict, Paths to Peace. Broadview Press. p. 115. ISBN 1-55111-154-3.
^ King 1992, p. 9. ^ a b Jackson 2006, p. 53. ^ Frady 2002, p. 52. ^ Miller, Steven P. (2009). Billy Graham and the Rise of the Republican South. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-8122-4151-8. Retrieved April 8, 2015. ^ Marable, Manning; Mullings, Leith (2000). Let Nobody Turn Us Around: Voices of Resistance, Reform, and Renewal: an African American Anthology. Rowman & Littlefield.
pp. 391–2. ISBN 0-8476-8346-X. ^ "Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom". Civil Rights Digital Library. Retrieved October 25, 2013. ^ "Program from the SCLC's Tenth Annual Convention". The King Center. Retrieved September 7, 2015. ^ Pearson, Hugh (2002). When Harlem Nearly Killed King: The 1958 Stabbing of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Seven Stories Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-58322-614-8. ^ Graham, Renee (February 4, 2002).
"'King' is a Deft Exploration of the Civil Rights Leader's Stabbing". The Boston Globe. – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). Retrieved January 20, 2013. ^ "Today in History, September 20". – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). Associated Press. September 19, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2013. ^ "Measure of a Man, The (1959)". Martin Luther King Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle.
Stanford University. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved January 24, 2013. ^ "Martin Luther King Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle: Gandhi Society for Human Rights". Stanford University. ^ Theoharis, Athan G.; Poveda, Tony G.; Powers, Richard Gid; Rosenfeld, Susan (1999). The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide. Greenwood Publishing. p. 148. ISBN 0-89774-991-X. ^ a b Herst 2007, pp.
372–74. ^ a b Theoharis, Athan G.; Poveda, Tony G.; Powers, Richard Gid; Rosenfeld, Susan (1999). The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 123. ISBN 0-89774-991-X. ^ Wilson, Joseph; Marable, Manning; Ness, Immanuel (2006). Race and Labor Matters in the New U.S. Economy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 47. ISBN 0-7425-4691-8. ^ Schofield, Norman (2006). Architects of Political Change: Constitutional Quandaries and Social Choice Theory.
Cambridge University Press. p. 189. ISBN 0-521-83202-0. ^ Shafritz, Jay M. (1998). International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration. Westview Press. p. 1242. ISBN 0-8133-9974-2. ^ Loevy, Robert D.; Humphrey, Hubert H.; Stewart, John G. (1997). The Civil Rights Act of 1964: The Passage of the Law that Ended Racial Segregation. SUNY Press. p. 337. ISBN 0-7914-3361-7. ^ Glisson 2006, p.
190. ^ Bobbitt, David (2007). The Rhetoric of Redemption: Kenneth Burke's Redemption Drama and Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" Speech. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 105. ISBN 0-7425-2928-2. ^ Ling, Peter J. (2002). Martin Luther King, Jr. Routledge. pp. 250–1. ISBN 0-415-21664-8. ^ Yeshitela, Omali. "Abbreviated Report from the International Tribunal on Reparations for Black People in the U.
S." African People's Socialist Party. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008. ^ a b King, Martin Luther. The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr. Hatchette Digital. 2001. Accessed January 4, 2013. ^ King, Martin Luther (1990). A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King Jr. Harper Collins. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-06-064691-2. ^ King Center:Billy Graham Accessed September 15, 2014 ^ Glisson 2006, pp.
190–93. ^ "Albany, GA Movement". Civil Rights Movement Veterans. Retrieved September 8, 2008. ^ Frady 2002, p. 96. ^ Garrow, (1986) p. 246. ^ McWhorter, Diane (2001). "Two Mayors and a King". Carry Me Home: Birmingham, Alabama: The Climactic Battle of the Civil Rights Revolution. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-2648-6. ^ a b Harrell, David Edwin; Gaustad, Edwin S.; Miller, Randall M.; Boles, John B.
; Woods, Randall Bennett; Griffith, Sally Foreman (2005). Unto a Good Land: A History of the American People, Volume 2. Wm B Eerdmans Publishing. p. 1055. ISBN 0-8028-2945-7. ^ "Birmingham USA: Look at Them Run". Newsweek: 27. May 13, 1963. ^ Frady 2002, pp. 113–14. ^ "Integration: Connor and King". Newsweek: 28, 33. April 22, 1963. ^ King, Coretta Scott. "The Meaning of The King Holiday".
The King Center. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2012. ^ a b c King, Martin Luther (April 16, 1963). "Letter from Birmingham Jail". The Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2012. King began writing the letter on newspaper margins and continued on bits of paper brought by friends.
^ Augustine.com – "Black History: Dr. Robert B. Hayling" ; David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Harper Collins, 1987) p 316–318 ^ "We Shall Overcome—Lincolnville Historic District". nps.gov. ^ Jones, Maxine D.; McCarthy, Kevin M. (1993). African Americans in Florida: An Illustrated History. Pineapple Press. pp. 113–5.
ISBN 1-56164-031-X. ^ "St. Augustine Movement". King Online Encyclopedia. Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2012. ^ Haley, Alex (January 1965). "Martin Luther King". Interview. Playboy. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2012. ^ "The Selma Injunction". Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2008. ^ El Naggar, Mona (August 22, 2013). "Found After Decades, a Forgotten Tape of King 'Thinking on His Feet'". The New York Times. Retrieved August 31, 2013. ^ Gates, Henry Louis; Appiah, Anthony (1999). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. Basic Civitas Books. p. 1251. ISBN 0-465-00071-1.
^ Cashman, Sean Dennis (1991). African-Americans and the Quest for Civil Rights, 1900–1990. NYU Press. p. 162. ISBN 0-8147-1441-2. ^ Schlesinger Jr., Arthur M. (2002) . Robert Kennedy and His Times. Houghton Mifflin Books. p. 351. ISBN 0-618-21928-5. ^ Marable, Manning (1991). Race, Reform, and Rebellion: The Second Reconstruction in Black America, 1945–1990. Univ. Press of Mississippi.
p. 74. ISBN 0-87805-493-6. ^ Rosenberg, Jonathan; Karabell, Zachary (2003). Kennedy, Johnson, and the Quest for Justice: The Civil Rights Tapes. WW Norton & Co. p. 130. ISBN 0-393-05122-6. ^ Schlesinger Jr., Arthur M. (2002) . Robert Kennedy and His Times. Houghton Mifflin Books. pp. 350, 351. ISBN 0-618-21928-5. ^ a b Boggs, Grace Lee (1998). Living for Change: An Autobiography. U of Minnesota Press.
p. 127. ISBN 0-8166-2955-2. ^ Aron, Paul (2005). Mysteries in History: From Prehistory to the Present. ABC-CLIO. p. 399. ISBN 1-85109-899-2. ^ Singleton, Carl; Wildin, Rowena (1999). The Sixties in America. Salem Press. p. 454. ISBN 0-89356-982-8. ^ Bennett, Scott H. (2003). Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915–1963. Syracuse University Press.
p. 225. ISBN 0-8156-3003-4. ^ Davis, Danny (January 16, 2007). "Celebrating the Birthday and Public Holiday for Martin Luther King, Jr". Congressional Record. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2011. ^ a b Powers, Roger S.; Vogele, William B.; Kruegler, Christopher; McCarthy, Ronald M. (1997). Protest, power, and change: an encyclopedia of nonviolent action from ACT-UP to Women's Suffrage.
Taylor & Francis. p. 313. ISBN 0-8153-0913-9. ^ Younge, Gary (August 21, 2003). "I have a dream". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 27, 2013. Retrieved January 9, 2013. ^ Hansen, Drew (2005). The Dream: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Speech that Inspired a Nation. HarperCollins. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-06-008477-6. ^ King, Martin Luther; King, Coretta Scott (2008). The Words of Martin Luther King Jr.
: Second Edition. Newmarket Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-55704-815-8. ^ Moore, Lucinda (August 1, 2003). "Dream Assignment". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2008. ^ James T. Patterson, Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945–1974 (Oxford University Press 1996) pp 482–85, 542–46 ^ Harvard Sitkoff, The Struggle for Black Equality (Hill and Wang; 2008) pp 152–53 ^ Patrick, Alvin.
"Guardian of history: MLK's "I have a dream speech" lives on". CBS News. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved August 31, 2013. ^ King 1998, pp. 276–79. ^ Jackson 2006, pp. 222–23. ^ Jackson 2006, p. 223. ^ Isserman, Maurice; Kazin, Michael (2000). America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s. Oxford University Pressk. p. 175. ISBN 0-19-509190-6. ^ Azbell, Joe (1968). The Riotmakers. Oak Tree Books.
p. 176. ^ a b "Theodore Parker And The 'Moral Universe'". National Public Radio. September 2, 2010. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved January 24, 2013. ^ Leeman, Richard W. (1996). African-American Orators: A Bio-critical Sourcebook. Greenwood Publishing. p. 220. ISBN 0-313-29014-8. ^ "North Lawndale". Encyclopedia. Chicago History. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013.
Retrieved September 8, 2008. ^ Cohen & Taylor 2000, pp. 360–62. ^ a b Ralph, James (1993). Northern Protest: Martin Luther King Jr., Chicago, and the Civil Rights Movement. Harvard University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-674-62687-7. ^ Cohen & Taylor 2000, p. 347. ^ Cohen & Taylor 2000, p. 416. ^ Fairclough, Adam (1987). To Redeem the Soul of America: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference & Martin Luther King Jr.
University of Georgia Press. p. 299. ISBN 0-8203-2346-2. ^ Baty, Chris (2004). Chicago: City Guide. Lonely Planet. p. 52. ISBN 1-74104-032-9. ^ Stone, Eddie (1988). Jesse Jackson. Holloway House Publishing. pp. 59–60. ISBN 0-87067-840-X. ^ Lentz, Richard (1990). Symbols, the News Magazines, and Martin Luther King. LSU Press. p. 230. ISBN 0-8071-2524-5. ^ Isserman, Maurice; Kazin, Michael (2000).
America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s. Oxford University Press. p. 200. ISBN 0-19-509190-6. See also: Miller, Keith D. (1998). Voice of Deliverance: The Language of Martin Luther King Jr. and Its Sources. University of Georgia Press. p. 139. ISBN 0-8203-2013-7. ^ Mis, Melody S. (2008). Meet Martin Luther King, Jr. Rosen Publishing Group. p. 20. ISBN 1-4042-4209-0. ^ Slessarev, Helene (1997).
The Betrayal of the Urban Poor. Temple University Press. p. 140. ISBN 1-56639-543-7. ^ CIA (October 5, 1967). "Views on Black Militant Situation in Chicago" (PDF). Retrieved February 13, 2018. ^ a b c Peter Braunstein (2004). The Sixties Chronicle. Legacy Publishing. p. 311. ISBN 1-4127-1009-X. ^ a b c Alexander Remington (December 24, 2008). "The Rev. James L. Bevel dies at 72; civil rights activist and top lieutenant to King".
Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 15, 2014. ^ Krenn, Michael L. (1998). The African American Voice in U.S. Foreign Policy Since World War II. Taylor & Francis. p. 29. ISBN 0-8153-3418-4. ^ Robbins 2007, p. 107. ^ Robbins 2007, p. 102. ^ a b c Robbins 2007, p. 109. ^ Robbins 2007, p. 106. ^ Baldwin, Lewis V. (1992). To Make the Wounded Whole: The Cultural Legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Fortress Press. p. 273. ISBN 0-8006-2543-9. ^ Long, Michael G. (2002). Against Us, But for Us: Martin Luther King Jr. and the State. Mercer University Press. p. 199. ISBN 0-86554-768-8. ^ "A Prince of War Exposed". counterpunch.org. ^ a b Dyson, Michael Eric (2008). "Facing Death". April 4, 1968: Martin Luther King Jr.'s death and how it changed America. Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00212-2.
^ David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross (1986), pp. 440, 445. ^ a b Pierre, Robert E. (October 16, 2011). "Martin Luther King Jr. made our nation uncomfortable". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2012. ^ Lawson, Payne & Patterson 2006, p. 148. ^ Harding, James M.; Rosenthal, Cindy (2006). Restaging the Sixties: Radical Theaters and Their Legacies. University of Michigan Press. p. 297. ISBN 0-472-06954-3.
^ Lentz, Richard (1990). Symbols, the News Magazines, and Martin Luther King. LSU Press. p. 64. ISBN 0-8071-2524-5. ^ Ling, Peter J. (2002). Martin Luther King, Jr. Routledge. p. 277. ISBN 0-415-21664-8. ^ Sturm, Douglas. "Martin Luther King Jr. as Democratic Socialist." The Journal of Religious Ethics, 18, no. 2 (1990): 79–105. Retrieved March 11, 2014. ^ Martin Luther King Jr (2015). Cornel West, ed.
The Radical King. Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-1282-3. ^ Obery M. Hendricks Jr., Ph.D. (January 20, 2014). The Uncompromising Anti-Capitalism of Martin Luther King Jr. The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2014. ^ Franklin, Robert Michael (1990). Liberating Visions: Human Fulfillment and Social Justice in African-American Thought. Fortress Press. p. 125. ISBN 0-8006-2392-4. ^ King Jr., Martin Luther; King, Coretta Scott; King, Dexter Scott (1998).
The Martin Luther King Jr. Companion: Quotations from the Speeches, Essays, and Books of Martin Luther King, Jr. St. Martin's Press. p. 39. ISBN 0-312-19990-2. ^ a b c Zinn, Howard (2002). The Power of Nonviolence: Writings by Advocates of Peace. Beacon Press. pp. 122–123. ISBN 0-8070-1407-9. ^ Engler, Mark; Engler, Paul (January 18, 2016). "Why Martin Luther King Didn't Run for President". Rolling Stone.
Retrieved March 16, 2017. ^ "1967 Year In Review". United Press International. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved November 30, 2010. ^ a b Martin L. King on hippies, A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King Jr., Accessed September 15, 2014 ^ a b Kurlansky, Mark (2004). 1968. Jonathan Cape (Random House). p. 46. ISBN 0-224-06251-4. ^ a b Robinson, Douglas (January 13, 1968).
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^ "Statue unveiled in honour of Martin Luther King Jr". 13 November 2017. ^ "New name for Newcastle University's Student Union Mensbar revealed". 11 March 2017. ^ "Martin Luther King Jr., Justice Without Violence – April 3, 1957". Mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu. Retrieved July 9, 2013. ^ The Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute. Why Jesus Called A Man A Fool. Delivered at Mount Pisgah Missionary Baptist Church, Chicago, Illinois, on 27 August 1967.
^ The Huffington Post. 2013. 'A Gift Of Love': Martin Luther King's Sermons From Strength To Love (EXCERPT). ^ Farrell, James J. (1997). The Spirit of the Sixties: Making Postwar Radicalism. Routledge. p. 90. ISBN 0-415-91385-3. ^ a b "Wofford, Harris Llewellyn (1926– )". ^ Kahlenberg, Richard D. (1997). "Book Review: Bayard Rustin: Troubles I've Seen". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on October 5, 2008.
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, Martin Luther; Clayborne Carson; et al. (2005). The Papers of Martin Luther King Jr., Volume V: Threshold of a New Decade, January 1959 – December 1960 (PDF). University of California Press. p. 231. ISBN 0-520-24239-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2013. ^ "India Trip (1959)". ^ King 1992, p. 13. ^ Arsenault, Raymond (2006). Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice.
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Retrieved May 17, 2015. ^ King Jr., Martin Luther (2000). Carson, Clayborne; Holloran, Peter; Luker, Ralph; Russell, Penny A., eds. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr: Symbol of the Movement, January 1957 – December 1958. University of California Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-520-22231-1. ^ King Jr., Martin Luther (1992). Carson, Clayborne; Holloran, Peter; Luker, Ralph; Russell, Penny A., eds. The papers of Martin Luther King Jr.
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^ Washington 1991, p. 366. ^ Washington 1991, pp. 365–67. ^ Washington 1991, pp. 367–68. ^ "Quotes". worldpopulationbalance.org. Retrieved 9 July 2014. ^ "Family Planning – A Special and Urgent Concern". Planned Parenthood. Retrieved July 9, 2014. ^ a b Honey, Michael K. (2007). "Standing at the Crossroads". Going down Jericho Road the Memphis strike, Martin Luther King's last campaign (1 ed.
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Human Events. Archived from the original on October 4, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2008. ^ Kotz 2005. ^ Herst 2007, p. 372. ^ a b c d Christensen, Jen (April 7, 2008). "FBI tracked King's every move". CNN. Retrieved June 14, 2008. ^ Glick, Brian (1989). War at Home: Covert Action Against U.S. Activists and What We Can Do About It. South End Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-89608-349-3. ^ a b The Guardian, September 26, 2013, "Declassified NSA Files Show Agency Spied on Muhammad Ali and MLK Operation Minaret Set Up in 1960s to Monitor Anti-Vietnam Critics, Branded 'Disreputable If Not Outright Illegal' by NSA Itself," The Guardian ^ Downing, Frederick L.
(1986). To See the Promised Land: The Faith Pilgrimage of Martin Luther King, Jr. Mercer University Press. pp. 246–7. ISBN 0-86554-207-4. ^ Kotz 2005, p. 233. ^ Kotz 2005, pp. 70–74. ^ Woods, Jeff (2004). Black Struggle, Red Scare: Segregation and Anti-communism in the South, 1948–1968. LSU Press. p. 126. ISBN 0-8071-2926-7. See also: Wannall, Ray (2000). The Real J. Edgar Hoover: For the Record.
Turner Publishing. p. 87. ISBN 1-56311-553-0. ^ Washington 1991, p. 362. ^ Bruns, Roger (2006). Martin Luther King Jr.: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing. p. 67. ISBN 0-313-33686-5. ^ Kotz 2005, p. 83. ^ Gilbert, Alan (1990). Democratic Individuality: A Theory of Moral Progress. Cambridge University Press. p. 435. ISBN 0-521-38709-4. ^ Washington 1991, p. 363. ^ CIA (November 5, 1967). "Martin Luther King" (PDF).
Retrieved February 13, 2018. ^ Sidey, Hugh (February 10, 1975). "L.B.J., Hoover and Domestic Spying". Time. Archived from the original on September 21, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2008. ^ Abernathy, Ralph (1989). And the walls came tumbling down: an autobiography. Harper & Row. p. 471. ISBN 978-0-06-016192-7. ^ a b c d Abernathy, Ralph David (October 29, 1989). "And the Walls Came Tumbling Down".
Booknotes. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2008. ^ Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. William Morrow & Co. 1986. pp. 375–6. ^ Frady 2002, p. 67. ^ Raines, Howell (November 30, 1986). "Driven to Martyrdom". The New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2013. ^ Burnett, Thom (2005). Conspiracy Encyclopedia.
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Oxford University Press. p. 466. ISBN 0-19-511633-X. ^ Phillips, Geraldine N. (Summer 1997). "Documenting the Struggle for Racial Equality in the Decade of the Sixties". Prologue. The National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved June 15, 2008. ^ Polk, Jim (December 29, 2008). "Black In America – Behind the Scenes: 'Eyewitness to Murder: The King Assassination'". CNN. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
^ McKnight, Gerald (1998). The Last Crusade: Martin Luther King Jr., the FBI, and the Poor People's Crusade. Westview Press. p. 76. ISBN 0-8133-3384-9. ^ Martin Luther King Jr.: The FBI Files. Filiquarian Publishing. 2007. pp. 40–2. ISBN 1-59986-253-0. See also: Polk, James (April 7, 2008). "King conspiracy theories still thrive 40 years later". CNN. Retrieved June 16, 2008. and "King's FBI file Part 1 of 2" (PDF).
FBI. Retrieved January 16, 2012. and "King's FBI file Part 2 of 2" (PDF). FBI. Retrieved January 16, 2012. ^ Knight, Peter (2003). Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 408–9. ISBN 1-57607-812-4. ^ a b Warren, Mervyn A. (2001). King Came Preaching: The Pulpit Power of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. InterVarsity Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-8308-2658-0. ^ Wintle, Justin (2001).
Makers of Modern Culture: Makers of Culture. Routledge. p. 272. ISBN 0-415-26583-5. ^ Engel, Irving M. "Commemorating Martin Luther King Jr.: Presentation of American Liberties Medallion". American Jewish Committee. Retrieved June 13, 2008. ^ King Jr., Martin Luther. "Commemorating Martin Luther King Jr.: Response to Award of American Liberties Medallion". American Jewish Committee. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
^ "Spingarn Medal Winners: 1915 to Today". NAACP. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved January 16, 2013. ^ "Martin Luther King Jr". Anisfield-Wolf Book Awards. Retrieved October 2, 2011. ^ "The Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. upon accepting The Planned Parenthood Federation Of America Margaret Sanger Award". PPFA. Archived from the original on February 24, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
^ "SCLC Press Release". SCLC via the King Center. May 16, 1966. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2012. ^ Ward, Brian. "A King in Newcastle; Martin Luther King Jr. And British Race Relations, 1967–1968." The Georgia Historical Quarterly 79, no. 3 (1995): 599–632. ^ "Martin Luther King Honorary Ceremony – Congregations – Newcastle University". ncl.ac.uk. Archived from the original on December 12, 2013.
^ Gates, Henry Louis; Appiah, Anthony (1999). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. Basic Civitas Books. p. 1348. ISBN 0-465-00071-1. ^ Carter, Jimmy (July 11, 1977). "Presidential Medal of Freedom Remarks on Presenting the Medal to Dr. Jonas E. Salk and to Martin Luther King Jr". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013.
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Associated Press. Retrieved January 20, 2013. ^ "Reagan voted 'greatest American'". BBC. June 28, 2005. Retrieved August 27, 2008. ^ "Anti-slavery activist Harriet Tubman to replace Jackson on the front of the $20 bill". USAToday.com. April 21, 2016. Retrieved August 28, 2017. Sources Abernathy, Ralph (1989). And the Walls Came Tumbling Down: An Autobiography. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-016192-2.
Branch, Taylor (2006). At Canaan's Edge: America In the King Years, 1965–1968. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-85712-X. Cohen, Adam Seth; Taylor, Elizabeth (2000). Pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley: His Battle for Chicago and the Nation. Back Bay. ISBN 0-316-83489-0. Frady, Marshall (2002). Martin Luther King Jr.: A Life. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303648-7. Garrow, David J. (1981). The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr.
Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-006486-9. Garrow, David. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1989). Pulitzer Prize. ISBN 978-0-06-056692-0 "James L. Bevel, The Strategist of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement", a 1984 paper by Randall Kryn, published with a 1988 addendum by Kryn in Prof. David Garrow's We Shall Overcome, Volume II (Carlson Publishing Company, 1989).
Glisson, Susan M. (2006). The Human Tradition in the Civil Rights Movement. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-4409-5. Herst, Burton (2007). Bobby and J. Edger. Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1982-6. Jackson, Thomas F. (2006). From Civil Rights to Human Rights: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Struggle for Economic Justice. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-3969-0. King, Martin Luther, Jr.
(1998). Carson, Clayborne, ed. Autobiography. Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-52412-3. King, Martin Luther, Jr. (1992). Carson, Clayborne; Luker, Ralph E.; Russell, Penny A.; Harlan, Louis R., eds. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., Volume I: Called to Serve, January 1929–June 1951. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07950-7. Kotz, Nick (2005). Judgment Days: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Martin Luther King Jr.
, and the Laws that Changed America. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 0-618-08825-3. Lawson, Steven F.; Payne, Charles M.; Patterson, James T. (2006). Debating the Civil Rights Movement, 1945–1968. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-5109-1. Robbins, Mary Susannah (2007). Against the Vietnam War: Writings by Activists. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-5914-9. Washington, James M. (1991). A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr.
HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-064691-8. Further reading Ayton, Mel (2005). A Racial Crime: James Earl Ray And The Murder Of Martin Luther King Jr. Archebooks Publishing. ISBN 1-59507-075-3. Branch, Taylor (1988). Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–1963. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-46097-8. Branch, Taylor (1998). Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963–1965. Simon & Schuster.
ISBN 0-684-80819-6. King, Coretta Scott (1993) . My Life with Martin Luther King, Jr. Henry Holth & Co. ISBN 0-8050-2445-X. King Jr., Martin Luther (2015). Cornel West, ed. The Radical King. Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-1282-3. Kirk, John A., ed. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement: Controversies and Debates (2007). pp. 224 Schulke, Flip; McPhee, Penelope. King Remembered, Foreword by Jesse Jackson (1986).
ISBN 978-1-4039-9654-1 Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta. Dreams and Nightmares: Martin Luther King Jr. Malcolm X, and the Struggle for Black Equality. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2012. ISBN 0-8130-3723-9. External links Find more aboutMartin Luther King Jr.at Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Learning resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata Bibliowiki has original media or text related to this article: Martin Luther King Jr.
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at Internet Archive Westminster Abbey: Martin Luther King Jr. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. at Buffalo, digital collection of Dr. King's visit and speech in Buffalo, New York on November 9, 1967, from the University at Buffalo Libraries King and Parks at Highlander Folk School. The Rebellious Life of Mrs. Rosa Parks. Speeches and interviews Audio from April 1961 King, "The Church on the Frontier of Racial Tensions", speech at Southern Seminary "Martin Luther King Jr.
Historic Speeches and Interviews" The New Negro, King interviewed by J. Waites Waring "Interview with Dr. Kenneth Clark", PBS "Beyond Vietnam" speech text and audio King Institute Encyclopedia multimedia "Why I Am Opposed to the War in Vietnam", sermon at the Ebenezer Baptist Church on April 30, 1967 (audio of speech with video 23:31) "Walk to Freedom", Detroit, June 23, 1963. Walter P. Reuther Library of Labor and Urban Affairs.
Wayne State University. Chiastic outline of Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech Digitized images of Jim Curtis photograph collection on Civil Rights in Kentucky, 1964. March on Frankfort led by Martin Luther King Jr. and Jackie Robinson. Housed at the University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center Martin Luther King Jr. on IMDb Appearances on C-SPAN Awards and achievements Preceded byInternational Committee of the Red Cross andLeague of Red Cross Societies Nobel Peace Prize Laureate 1964 Succeeded byUNICEF v t e Martin Luther King Jr.
Speeches, movements, and protests Speeches "Give Us the Ballot" (1957) "I Have a Dream" (1963) "How Long, Not Long" (1965) "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence" (1967) "I've Been to the Mountaintop" (1968) Writings Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story (1958) The Measure of a Man (1959) "What Is Man?" "Second Emancipation Proclamation" Strength to Love (1963) Letter from Birmingham Jail (1963) Why We Can't Wait (1964) Conscience for Change (1967) Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? (1967) Movements and protests Montgomery bus boycott (1955–1956) Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom (1957) Albany Movement (1961–1962) Birmingham campaign (1963) March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom (1963) St.
Augustine movement (1963–1964) Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) Chicago Freedom Movement (1966) Mississippi March Against Fear (1966) Anti-Vietnam War movement (1967) Memphis sanitation strike (1968) Poor People's Campaign (1968) People Family Martin Luther King Sr. (father) Alberta Williams King (mother) Christine King Farris (sister) A. D. King (brother) Coretta Scott King (wife) Yolanda King (daughter) Martin Luther King III (son) Dexter Scott King (son) Bernice King (daughter) Alveda King (niece) Other leaders Ralph Abernathy (colleague) Ella Baker (colleague) James Bevel (strategist / colleague) Dorothy Cotton (colleague) Jesse Jackson (protégé) Bernard Lafayette (colleague) James Lawson (colleague) John Lewis (colleague) Joseph Lowery (colleague) Benjamin Mays (mentor) Diane Nash (colleague) James Orange (colleague) Bayard Rustin (advisor) Fred Shuttlesworth (colleague) C.
T. Vivian (colleague) Wyatt Walker (colleague) Hosea Williams (colleague) Andrew Young (colleague) Assassination James Earl Ray Lorraine Motel (now National Civil Rights Museum) Funeral MLK Records Act Riots Loyd Jowers trial United States House Select Committee on Assassinations Media Film King: A Filmed Record... Montgomery to Memphis (1970 documentary) Our Friend, Martin (1999 animated) Boycott (2001 film) The Witness: From the Balcony of Room 306 (2008 documentary) Alpha Man: The Brotherhood of MLK (2011 documentary) Selma (2014 film) All the Way (2016 film) Television King (1978 miniseries) "The First Store" (The Jeffersons episode, 1980) "Great X-Pectations" (A Different World episode, 1993) "The Promised Land" (New York Undercover episode, 1997) "Return of the King" (The Boondocks episode, 2006) Plays The Meeting (1987) The Mountaintop (2009) I Dream (2010) All the Way (2012) Illustrated Martin Luther King and the Montgomery Story (1957 comic book) Music "Abraham, Martin and John" (Dion) "March! For Martin Luther King" (John Fahey) "Martin Luther King's Dream" (Strawbs) "Happy Birthday" (Stevie Wonder) "Pride (In the Name of Love)" (U2) "MLK" (U2) "King Holiday" (King Dream Chorus and Holiday Crew) "By The Time I Get To Arizona" (Public Enemy) "Shed a Little Light" (James Taylor) "Up to the Mountain" (Patti Griffin) "Never Alone Martin" (Jason Upton) "Symphony Of Brotherhood" (Miri Ben-Ari) Joseph Schwantner: New Morning for the World; Nicolas Flagello: The Passion of Martin Luther King (1995 album) "A Dream" (Common featuring Will.
i.am) "Glory" (Common and John Legend) Related topics Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Martin Luther King Jr. Day Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial National Historical Park King Center for Nonviolent Social Change Dexter Avenue Baptist Church National Civil Rights Museum Authorship issues Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity Season for Nonviolence U.S. Capitol Rotunda sculpture Oval Office bust Homage to King sculpture, Atlanta Dr.
Martin Luther King Jr. sculpture, Houston Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial, San Francisco Landmark for Peace Memorial, Indianapolis Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. statue, Milwaukee The Dream sculpture, Portland, Oregon Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Library Memorials to Martin Luther King Jr. Eponymous streets America in the King Years Civil Rights Movement in popular culture Lee–Jackson–King Day Martin Luther King High School (disambiguation) Lycée Martin Luther King (disambiguation) v t e Presidents of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference Martin Luther King Jr.
(1957–68) Ralph Abernathy (1968–77) Joseph Lowery (1977–97) Martin Luther King III (1997–2004) Fred Shuttlesworth (2004) Charles Steele Jr. (2004–09) Howard W. Creecy Jr. (2009–11) Charles Steele Jr. (2012–present) v t e Civil Rights Movement Notable events (timeline) 1954–1959 Brown v. Board of Education Bolling v. Sharpe Briggs v. Elliott Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County Gebhart v.
Belton White America, Inc. Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company Emmett Till Montgomery bus boycott Browder v. Gayle Tallahassee bus boycott Mansfield school desegregation 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom "Give Us the Ballot" Royal Ice Cream sit-in Little Rock Nine National Guard blockade Civil Rights Act of 1957 Kissing Case Biloxi wade-ins 1960–1963 Greensboro sit-ins Nashville sit-ins Sit-in movement Civil Rights Act of 1960 Gomillion v.
Lightfoot Boynton v. Virginia Rock Hill sit-ins Robert F. Kennedy's Law Day Address Freedom Rides attacks Garner v. Louisiana Albany Movement University of Chicago sit-ins "Second Emancipation Proclamation" Meredith enrollment, Ole Miss riot "Segregation now, segregation forever" Stand in the Schoolhouse Door 1963 Birmingham campaign Letter from Birmingham Jail Children's Crusade Birmingham riot 16th Street Baptist Church bombing John F.
Kennedy's Report to the American People on Civil Rights March on Washington "I Have a Dream" St. Augustine movement 1964–1968 Twenty-fourth Amendment Bloody Tuesday Freedom Summer workers' murders Civil Rights Act of 1964 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches "How Long, Not Long" Voting Rights Act of 1965 Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections March Against Fear White House Conference on Civil Rights Chicago Freedom Movement/Chicago open housing movement Memphis sanitation strike King assassination funeral riots Poor People's Campaign Civil Rights Act of 1968 Green v.
County School Board of New Kent County Activist groups Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights Atlanta Student Movement Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Committee on Appeal for Human Rights Council for United Civil Rights Leadership Dallas County Voters League Deacons for Defense and Justice Georgia Council on Human Relations Highlander Folk School Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights Montgomery Improvement Association Nashville Student Movement NAACP Youth Council Northern Student Movement National Council of Negro Women National Urban League Operation Breadbasket Regional Council of Negro Leadership Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Southern Regional Council Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) The Freedom Singers Wednesdays in Mississippi Women's Political Council Activists Ralph Abernathy Victoria Gray Adams Zev Aelony Mathew Ahmann William G.
Anderson Gwendolyn Armstrong Arnold Aronson Ella Baker Marion Barry Daisy Bates Harry Belafonte James Bevel Claude Black Gloria Blackwell Randolph Blackwell Unita Blackwell Ezell Blair Jr. Joanne Bland Julian Bond Joseph E. Boone William Holmes Borders Amelia Boynton Raylawni Branch Ruby Bridges Aurelia Browder H. Rap Brown Guy Carawan Stokely Carmichael Johnnie Carr James Chaney J. L. Chestnut Colia Lafayette Clark Ramsey Clark Septima Clark Xernona Clayton Eldridge Cleaver Kathleen Cleaver Charles E.
Cobb Jr. Annie Lee Cooper Dorothy Cotton Claudette Colvin Vernon Dahmer Jonathan Daniels Joseph DeLaine Dave Dennis Annie Devine Patricia Stephens Due Joseph Ellwanger Charles Evers Medgar Evers Myrlie Evers-Williams Chuck Fager James Farmer Walter E. Fauntroy James Forman Marie Foster Golden Frinks Andrew Goodman Fred Gray Jack Greenberg Dick Gregory Lawrence Guyot Prathia Hall Fannie Lou Hamer William E.
Harbour Vincent Harding Dorothy Height Lola Hendricks Aaron Henry Oliver Hill Donald L. Hollowell James Hood Myles Horton Zilphia Horton T. R. M. Howard Ruby Hurley Jesse Jackson Jimmie Lee Jackson Richie Jean Jackson T. J. Jemison Esau Jenkins Barbara Rose Johns Vernon Johns Frank Minis Johnson Clarence Jones J. Charles Jones Matthew Jones Vernon Jordan Tom Kahn Clyde Kennard A. D. King C.B. King Coretta Scott King Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Sr. Bernard Lafayette James Lawson Bernard Lee Sanford R. Leigh Jim Letherer Stanley Levison John Lewis Viola Liuzzo Z. Alexander Looby Joseph Lowery Clara Luper Malcolm X Mae Mallory Vivian Malone Thurgood Marshall Benjamin Mays Franklin McCain Charles McDew Ralph McGill Floyd McKissick Joseph McNeil James Meredith William Ming Jack Minnis Amzie Moore Douglas E. Moore William Lewis Moore Irene Morgan Bob Moses William Moyer Elijah Muhammad Diane Nash Charles Neblett Edgar Nixon Jack O'Dell James Orange Rosa Parks James Peck Charles Person Homer Plessy Adam Clayton Powell Jr.
Fay Bellamy Powell Al Raby Lincoln Ragsdale A. Philip Randolph George Raymond Jr. Bernice Johnson Reagon Cordell Reagon James Reeb Frederick D. Reese Gloria Richardson David Richmond Bernice Robinson Jo Ann Robinson Bayard Rustin Bernie Sanders Michael Schwerner Cleveland Sellers Charles Sherrod Alexander D. Shimkin Fred Shuttlesworth Modjeska Monteith Simkins Glenn E. Smiley A. Maceo Smith Kelly Miller Smith Mary Louise Smith Maxine Smith Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson Charles Kenzie Steele Hank Thomas Dorothy Tillman A.
P. Tureaud Hartman Turnbow Albert Turner C. T. Vivian Wyatt Tee Walker Hollis Watkins Walter Francis White Roy Wilkins Hosea Williams Kale Williams Robert F. Williams Andrew Young Whitney Young Sammy Younge Jr. James Zwerg Influences Nonviolence Padayatra Sermon on the Mount Mohandas K. Gandhi Ahimsa Satyagraha The Kingdom of God Is Within You Frederick Douglass W. E. B. Du Bois Related Jim Crow laws Plessy v.
Ferguson Separate but equal Buchanan v. Warley Hocutt v. Wilson Sweatt v. Painter Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States Katzenbach v. McClung Loving v. Virginia Fifth Circuit Four Brown Chapel Holt Street Baptist Church Edmund Pettus Bridge March on Washington Movement African-American churches attacked Journey of Reconciliation Freedom Songs "Kumbaya" "Keep Your Eyes on the Prize" "Oh, Freedom" "This Little Light of Mine" "We Shall Not Be Moved" "We Shall Overcome" Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence" Watts riots Voter Education Project 1960s counterculture In popular culture King Memorial Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument Freedom Riders National Monument Civil Rights Memorial Noted historians Taylor Branch Clayborne Carson John Dittmer Michael Eric Dyson Chuck Fager Adam Fairclough David Garrow David Halberstam Vincent Harding Steven F.
Lawson Doug McAdam Diane McWhorter Charles M. Payne Timothy Tyson Akinyele Umoja Movement photographers v t e Civil Rights Memorial Louis Allen Willie Brewster Benjamin Brown Johnnie Mae Chappell James Chaney Addie Mae Collins Vernon Dahmer Jonathan Daniels Henry Hezekiah Dee Roman Ducksworth Jr. Willie Edwards Medgar Evers Andrew Goodman Paul Guihard Samuel Hammond Jr. Jimmie Lee Jackson Wharlest Jackson Martin Luther King Jr.
Bruce W. Klunder George W. Lee Herbert Lee Viola Liuzzo Carol Denise McNair Delano Herman Middleton Charles Eddie Moore Oneal Moore William Lewis Moore Mack Charles Parker Lemuel Penn James Reeb John Earl Reese Carole Robertson Michael Schwerner Henry Ezekial Smith Lamar Smith Emmett Till Clarence Triggs Virgil Lamar Ware Cynthia Wesley Ben Chester White Sammy Younge Jr. Maya Lin Southern Poverty Law Center Civil Rights Movement v t e Coretta Scott King April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006 Life Childhood and education Civil Rights Movement 1967 San Francisco anti-war march King Center for Nonviolent Social Change 2004 Gandhi Peace Prize Death and funeral Books My Life with Martin Luther King, Jr.
(1969 autobiography) Other Martin Luther King, Jr. Day Reaction Recognition and tributes Namesakes Coretta Scott King Award Coretta Scott King Young Women's Leadership Academy Family Martin Luther King Jr. (husband) Yolanda King (daughter) Martin Luther King III (son) Dexter Scott King (son) Bernice King (daughter) Edythe Scott Bagley (sister) Cultural depictions King (1978 miniseries) Our Friend, Martin (1999 animated) Selma (2014 film) Betty and Coretta (2013 film) Commons Wikiquote v t e Mahatma Gandhi Life events and movements Indian Ambulance Corps Bardoli Satyagraha Champaran Satyagraha Kheda Satyagraha Indian independence movement Gandhi cap Non-cooperation Movement Chauri Chaura incident Purna Swaraj flag Salt March Dharasana Satyagraha Vaikom Satyagraha Aundh Experiment Gandhi–Irwin Pact Second Round Table Conference Padayatra Poona Pact Natal Indian Congress Quit India speech Gujarat Vidyapith University Harijan Sevak Sangh Ashrams (Kochrab Tolstoy Farm Sabarmati Sevagram) List of fasts Assassination Philosophy Gandhism Economics trusteeship Education Sarvodaya Satyagraha Swadeshi Swaraj Publications Harijan Hind Swaraj (Indian Home Rule) Indian Opinion The Story of My Experiments with Truth Young India Seven Social Sins (Gandhi Heritage Portal) Influences A Letter to a Hindu Ahimsa nonviolence Bhagavad Gita Henry David Thoreau Civil Disobedience (essay) Civil disobedience Fasting Harishchandra Hinduism John Ruskin Parsee Rustomjee Leo Tolstoy The Kingdom of God Is Within You The Masque of Anarchy Muhammad Narmad Pacifism Sermon on the Mount Shravan Shrimad Rajchandra Henry Stephens Salt Tirukkural Unto This Last Gandhi's translation "Vaishnava Jana To" Vegetarianism Associates Swami Anand C.
F. Andrews Jamnalal Bajaj Shankarlal Banker Sarla Behn Vinoba Bhave Brij Krishna Chandiwala Sudhakar Chaturvedi Jugatram Dave Mahadev Desai Dada Dharmadhikari Kanu Gandhi Shiv Prasad Gupta Umar Hajee Ahmed Jhaveri J. C. Kumarappa Hermann Kallenbach Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Acharya Kripalani Mirabehn Mohanlal Pandya Vallabhbhai Patel Narhari Parikh Mithuben Petit Chakravarti Rajagopalachari Bibi Amtus Salam Sonja Schlesin Anugrah Narayan Sinha Sri Krishna Sinha Rettamalai Srinivasan V.
A. Sundaram Abbas Tyabji Ravishankar Vyas Legacy Artistic depictions Gandhigiri Gandhi Peace Award Gandhi Peace Prize Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith Indian currency Family Karamchand Gandhi (father) Kasturba (wife) Harilal (son) Manilal (son) Ramdas (son) Devdas (son) Maganlal (cousin) Samaldas (nephew) Arun (grandson) Ela (granddaughter) Rajmohan (grandson) Gopalkrishna (grandson) Ramchandra (grandson) Kanu (grandson) Kanu (grandnephew) Tushar (great-grandson) Leela (great-granddaughter) Influenced James Bevel Steve Biko 14th Dalai Lama Gopaldas Ambaidas Desai Morarji Desai Eknath Easwaran Maria Lacerda de Moura James Lawson Martin Luther King Jr.
Nelson Mandela Brajkishore Prasad Rajendra Prasad Ramjee Singh Aung San Suu Kyi Lanza del Vasto Abhay Bang Sane Guruji Memorials Statues Houston Johannesburg London (Parliament Square) New York Patna Pietermaritzburg Washington Observances Gandhi Jayanti International Day of Non-Violence Martyrs' Day Season for Nonviolence Other Aga Khan Palace Gandhi Bhawan Gandhi Mandapam Gandhi Market Gandhi Promenade Gandhi Smriti Gandhi Memorial Gandhi Memorial Museum, Madurai Kaba Gandhi No Delo Kirti Mandir Mahatma Gandhi College Mohandas Gandhi High School National Gandhi Museum Raj Ghat Sabarmati Ashram Satyagraha House Roads named after Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Centre, Matale v t e Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize 1901–1925 1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A.
M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes 1926–1950 1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B.
Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche 1951–1975 1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B.
Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov 1976–2000 1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F.
W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung 2001–present 2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons v t e Time Persons of the Year 1927–1950 Charles Lindbergh (1927) Walter Chrysler (1928) Owen D.
Young (1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval (1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932) Hugh S. Johnson (1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1934) Haile Selassie (1935) Wallis Simpson (1936) Chiang Kai-shek / Soong Mei-ling (1937) Adolf Hitler (1938) Joseph Stalin (1939) Winston Churchill (1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1941) Joseph Stalin (1942) George Marshall (1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1944) Harry S. Truman (1945) James F.
Byrnes (1946) George Marshall (1947) Harry S. Truman (1948) Winston Churchill (1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950) 1951–1975 Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II (1952) Konrad Adenauer (1953) John Foster Dulles (1954) Harlow Curtice (1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev (1957) Charles de Gaulle (1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A.
Glaser / Joshua Lederberg / Willard Libby / Linus Pauling / Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè / William Shockley / Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen / Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy (1961) Pope John XXIII (1962) Martin Luther King Jr. (1963) Lyndon B. Johnson (1964) William Westmoreland (1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson (1967) The Apollo 8 Astronauts: William Anders / Frank Borman / Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt (1970) Richard Nixon (1971) Henry Kissinger / Richard Nixon (1972) John Sirica (1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly / Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford / Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King / Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975) 1976–2000 Jimmy Carter (1976) Anwar Sadat (1977) Deng Xiaoping (1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan (1980) Lech Wałęsa (1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan / Yuri Andropov (1983) Peter Ueberroth (1984) Deng Xiaoping (1985) Corazon Aquino (1986) Mikhail Gorbachev (1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev (1989) George H.
W. Bush (1990) Ted Turner (1991) Bill Clinton (1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat / F. W. de Klerk / Nelson Mandela / Yitzhak Rabin (1993) Pope John Paul II (1994) Newt Gingrich (1995) David Ho (1996) Andrew Grove (1997) Bill Clinton / Ken Starr (1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush (2000) 2001–present Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley / Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W.
Bush (2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono / Bill Gates / Melinda Gates (2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin (2007) Barack Obama (2008) Ben Bernanke (2009) Mark Zuckerberg (2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama (2012) Pope Francis (2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly / Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah (2014) Angela Merkel (2015) Donald Trump (2016) The Silence Breakers (2017) Book v t e Pacem in Terris Peace and Freedom Award laureates 1960s 1964 John Howard Griffin / John F.
Kennedy 1965 Martin Luther King Jr. 1966 R. Sargent Shriver 1967 A. Philip Randolph 1968 James Groppi 1969 Saul Alinsky 1970s 1971 Dorothy Day 1974 Harold Hughes 1975 Hélder Câmara 1976 Mother Teresa 1979 Thomas Gumbleton 1980s 1980 Crystal Lee Sutton / Ernest Leo Unterkoefler 1982 George F. Kennan 1983 Helen Caldicott 1985 Joseph Bernardin 1986 Maurice John Dingman 1987 Desmond Tutu 1989 Eileen Egan 1990s 1990 Mairead Maguire 1991 María Julia Hernández 1992 César Chávez 1993 Daniel Berrigan 1995 Jim Wallis 1996 Samuel Ruiz 1997 Jim and Shelley Douglass 2000s 2000 George G.
Higgins 2001 Lech Wałęsa 2002 Gwen Hennessey / Dorothy Hennessey 2004 Arthur Simon 2005 Donald Mosley 2007 Salim Ghazal 2008 Marvin Mottet 2009 Hildegard Goss-Mayr 2010s 2010 John Dear 2011 Álvaro Leonel Ramazzini Imeri 2012 Kim Bobo 2013 Jean Vanier 2014 Simone Campbell 2015 Thích Nhất Hạnh 2016 Gustavo Gutiérrez 2017 Widad Akreyi Catholicism portal v t e Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album (1970s) 1970 Art Linkletter, Diane Linkletter - We Love You Call Collect 1971 Martin Luther King Jr.
- Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam 1972 Les Crane - Desiderata 1973 Bruce Botnick (producer) - Lenny performed by the original Broadway cast 1974 Richard Harris - Jonathan Livingston Seagull 1975 Peter Cook, Dudley Moore - Good Evening 1976 James Whitmore - Give 'em Hell, Harry! 1977 Henry Fonda, Helen Hayes, James Earl Jones, Orson Welles - Great American Documents 1978 Julie Harris - The Belle of Amherst 1979 Orson Welles - Citizen Kane Original Motion Picture Soundtrack Complete list (1959 & 1960s) (1970s) (1980s) (1990s) (2000s) (2010s) Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100170140 LCCN: n79084324 ISNI: 0000 0001 2145 0746 GND: 118562215 SELIBR: 201480 SUDOC: 026949814 BNF: cb11909768k (data) MusicBrainz: 80f23097-a035-4409-84d7-7caa855f53a8 NLA: 35116159 NDL: 00469568 NKC: jn20000700891 NARA: 1358262 BNE: XX879954 SNAC: w6qs5m3z Retrieved from "https://en.
Distinctive Crucial Art Principles have advanced comprehensive different eras, along with the changing artists' perceptions of processing, analyzing, and responding to various artwork varieties. Their imaginative expressions are already explored by their development, functionality, and participation in arts. Each individual historical era has supplied novel contribution of historical and cultural contexts for producing the key Arts Fundamentals with the appropriate interval. Visual Arts assist artists assimilate the key Arts Ideas of Symmetry, Colour, Pattern, Distinction along with the discrepancies between 1 or maybe more components during the composition. The crucial element Artwork Ideas of Visual Arts support have an understanding of and distinguish concerning the dimensions for instance, Symmetry & Asymmetry, Positive & Negative Space, Light & Dark, Solid & Transparent, and Large & Small.See Also: Art Classes Kansas City
Art plays a vibrant role during the personal life with the individual as well as within the social and economic development of the nation. The study of Visible arts encourages personal development as well as awareness of both our cultural heritage and also the role of artwork inside the society. The learner acquires personal knowledge, skills and competencies through activities in Visible arts. When one studies Visible arts, he/she would come to appreciate or realize that artwork is an integral part of everyday life.
Civil Rights - Segregation Free Presentations in PowerPoint format about Martin Luther King, Jr Games & Activities for Martin Luther King Jr's Birthday See Also: Black History Month Background About Martin Luther King, Jr (Seattle Times) Scholastic for Teachers CNN - Birthplace of a Leader The King Center Classes in Conversation (3rd grade students) Honoring Dr King Interactive Timeline I Have a Dream speech Martin Luther King Day (2 mini-units, scroll down) Lesson Plans Martin Luther King Lesson Plan (3/4 grades) Martin Luther King Lesson Plan (4/5 grades) Let Freedom Ring - Life and Legacy Teaching with Primary Documents Martin Luther King Non-Violent Protest Through The Ages (MLK, Jr, Gandhi, Karamch, Thoreau) Teaching King Idea Exchange - MLK Civil Rights Movement UNITS & Lesson Plans K-12 (Donn) News Art Box of Crayons Activity Breaking the Color Barrier (science lesson.
K-2) Bulletin Board Ideas Unity Wreath Free Worksheets, Printables Many Free Worksheets (Teachology) Martin Luther King, Jr (Sheryl's Holiday Page) Print out a poster
Title: Martin Luther King Day Clip Art Free