Is Photography Art Essay with the graphic earlier mentioned is an element of the Is Photography Art Essay classification on The Art Evangelist posts. Obtain this picture for free in High definition resolution the choice by right clicking "save image as" about the
"Photographic" redirects here. For the image obtained, see Photograph. For other uses, see Photography (disambiguation). Photography Lens and mounting of a large-format camera Other names Science or Art of creating durable images Types Recording light or other electromagnetic radiation Inventor Thomas Wedgwood (1800) Related Stereoscopic, Full-spectrum, Light field, Electrophotography, Photograms, Scanner Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
 Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing.
A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing. Photography is employed in many fields of science, manufacturing (e.g., photolithography), and business, as well as its more direct uses for art, film and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication.
Etymology The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός (phōtos), genitive of φῶς (phōs), "light" and γραφή (graphé) "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light". Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, Brazil, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834.
 This claim is widely reported but apparently has never been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled Photographie, discussing several priority claims - especially Talbot's - regarding Daguerre's claim of invention. The article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print. It was signed "J.
M.", believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler. Credit has traditionally been given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public. His uses of it in private correspondence prior to 25 February 1839 and at his Royal Society lecture on the subject in London on 14 March 1839 have long been amply documented and accepted as settled facts. The inventors Niépce, Talbot and Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word "photography", but referred to their processes as "Heliography" (Niépce), "Photogenic Drawing" / "Talbotype" / "Calotype" (Talbot) and "Daguerreotype" (Daguerre).
 History Main article: History of photography See also: History of the camera Precursor technologies A camera obscura used for drawing Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, ancient Han Chinese philosopher Mo Di from the Mohist School of Logic was the first to discover and develop the scientific principles of optics, camera obscura, and pinhole camera.
Later Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid also independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments. Both the Han Chinese polymath Shen Kuo (1031–95) and Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1040) independently invented the camera obscura and pinhole camera,Albertus Magnus (1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate, and Georg Fabricius (1516–71) discovered silver chloride.
Shen Kuo explains the science of camera obscura and optical physics in his scientific work Dream Pool Essays while the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566.Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.
 The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography. The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper.
So the birth of photography was primarily concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura. Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. The camera obscura literally means "dark chamber" in Latin. It is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.
Invention of photography Earliest known surviving heliographic engraving, 1825, printed from a metal plate made by Nicéphore Niépce. The plate was exposed under an ordinary engraving and copied it by photographic means. This was a step towards the first permanent photograph taken with a camera. Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance.
He used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, and even made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that "the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver." The shadow images eventually darkened all over.
 The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a later attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature (i.e., of the image of a real-world scene, as formed in a camera obscura by a lens).
 View from the Window at Le Gras, 1826 or 1827, the earliest surviving camera photograph Because Niépce's camera photographs required an extremely long exposure (at least eight hours and probably several days), he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more light-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were still required.
With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre then redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent. Daguerre's efforts culminated in what would later be named the daguerreotype process.
The essential elements—a silver-plated surface sensitized by iodine vapor, developed by mercury vapor, and "fixed" with hot saturated salt water—were in place in 1837. The required exposure time was measured in minutes instead of hours. Daguerre took the earliest confirmed photograph of a person in 1838 while capturing a view of a Paris street: unlike the other pedestrian and horse-drawn traffic on the busy boulevard, which appears deserted, one man having his boots polished stood sufficiently still throughout the several-minutes-long exposure to be visible.
The existence of Daguerre's process was publicly announced, without details, on 7 January 1839. The news created an international sensation. France soon agreed to pay Daguerre a pension in exchange for the right to present his invention to the world as the gift of France, which occurred when complete working instructions were unveiled on 19 August 1839. In that same year, American photographer Robert Cornelius is credited with taking the earliest surviving photographic self-portrait.
A latticed window in Lacock Abbey, England, photographed by William Fox Talbot in 1835. Shown here in positive form, this may be the oldest extant photographic negative made in a camera. In Brazil, Hercules Florence had apparently started working out a silver-salt-based paper process in 1832, later naming it Photographie. Meanwhile, a British inventor, William Fox Talbot, had succeeded in making crude but reasonably light-fast silver images on paper as early as 1834 but had kept his work secret.
After reading about Daguerre's invention in January 1839, Talbot published his hitherto secret method and set about improving on it. At first, like other pre-daguerreotype processes, Talbot's paper-based photography typically required hours-long exposures in the camera, but in 1840 he created the calotype process, which used the chemical development of a latent image to greatly reduce the exposure needed and compete with the daguerreotype.
In both its original and calotype forms, Talbot's process, unlike Daguerre's, created a translucent negative which could be used to print multiple positive copies; this is the basis of most modern chemical photography up to the present day, as Daguerreotypes could only be replicated by rephotographing them with a camera. Talbot's famous tiny paper negative of the Oriel window in Lacock Abbey, one of a number of camera photographs he made in the summer of 1835, may be the oldest camera negative in existence.
 British chemist John Herschel made many contributions to the new field. He invented the cyanotype process, later familiar as the "blueprint". He was the first to use the terms "photography", "negative" and "positive". He had discovered in 1819 that sodium thiosulphate was a solvent of silver halides, and in 1839 he informed Talbot (and, indirectly, Daguerre) that it could be used to "fix" silver-halide-based photographs and make them completely light-fast.
He made the first glass negative in late 1839. In the March 1851 issue of The Chemist, Frederick Scott Archer published his wet plate collodion process. It became the most widely used photographic medium until the gelatin dry plate, introduced in the 1870s, eventually replaced it. There are three subsets to the collodion process; the Ambrotype (a positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (a positive image on metal) and the glass negative, which was used to make positive prints on albumen or salted paper.
Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made during the rest of the 19th century. In 1891, Gabriel Lippmann introduced a process for making natural-color photographs based on the optical phenomenon of the interference of light waves. His scientifically elegant and important but ultimately impractical invention earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1908. Glass plates were the medium for most original camera photography from the late 1850s until the general introduction of flexible plastic films during the 1890s.
Although the convenience of the film greatly popularized amateur photography, early films were somewhat more expensive and of markedly lower optical quality than their glass plate equivalents, and until the late 1910s they were not available in the large formats preferred by most professional photographers, so the new medium did not immediately or completely replace the old. Because of the superior dimensional stability of glass, the use of plates for some scientific applications, such as astrophotography, continued into the 1990s, and in the niche field of laser holography, it has persisted into the 2010s.
Film photography Main article: Photographic film Undeveloped Arista black-and-white film, ISO 125/22° Hurter and Driffield began pioneering work on the light sensitivity of photographic emulsions in 1876. Their work enabled the first quantitative measure of film speed to be devised. The first flexible photographic roll film was marketed by George Eastman in 1885, but this original "film" was actually a coating on a paper base.
As part of the processing, the image-bearing layer was stripped from the paper and transferred to a hardened gelatin support. The first transparent plastic roll film followed in 1889. It was made from highly flammable nitrocellulose ("celluloid"), now usually called "nitrate film". Although cellulose acetate or "safety film" had been introduced by Kodak in 1908, at first it found only a few special applications as an alternative to the hazardous nitrate film, which had the advantages of being considerably tougher, slightly more transparent, and cheaper.
The changeover was not completed for X-ray films until 1933, and although safety film was always used for 16 mm and 8 mm home movies, nitrate film remained standard for theatrical 35 mm motion pictures until it was finally discontinued in 1951. Films remained the dominant form of photography until the early 21st century when advances in digital photography drew consumers to digital formats. Although modern photography is dominated by digital users, film continues to be used by enthusiasts and professional photographers.
The distinctive "look" of film based photographs compared to digital images is likely due to a combination of factors, including: (1) differences in spectral and tonal sensitivity (S-shaped density-to-exposure (H&D curve) with film vs. linear response curve for digital CCD sensors)  (2) resolution and (3) continuity of tone. Black-and-white Main article: Monochrome photography A photographic darkroom with safelight Originally, all photography was monochrome, or black-and-white.
Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its "classic" photographic look. The tones and contrast between light and dark areas define black-and-white photography. It is important to note that monochromatic pictures are not necessarily composed of pure blacks, whites, and intermediate shades of gray but can involve shades of one particular hue depending on the process.
The cyanotype process, for example, produces an image composed of blue tones. The albumen print process first used more than 170 years ago, produces brownish tones. Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images, sometimes because of the established archival permanence of well-processed silver-halide-based materials. Some full-color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black-and-white results, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome.
Monochrome printing or electronic display can be used to salvage certain photographs taken in color which are unsatisfactory in their original form; sometimes when presented as black-and-white or single-color-toned images they are found to be more effective. Although color photography has long predominated, monochrome images are still produced, mostly for artistic reasons. Almost all digital cameras have an option to shoot in monochrome, and almost all image editing software can combine or selectively discard RGB color channels to produce a monochrome image from one shot in color.
Color Main article: Color photography The first color photograph made by the three-color method suggested by James Clerk Maxwell in 1855, taken in 1861 by Thomas Sutton. The subject is a colored, tartan patterned ribbon. Color photography was explored beginning in the 1840s. Early experiments in color required extremely long exposures (hours or days for camera images) and could not "fix" the photograph to prevent the color from quickly fading when exposed to white light.
The first permanent color photograph was taken in 1861 using the three-color-separation principle first published by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1855. The foundation of virtually all practical color processes, Maxwell's idea was to take three separate black-and-white photographs through red, green and blue filters. This provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image.
Transparent prints of the images could be projected through similar color filters and superimposed on the projection screen, an additive method of color reproduction. A color print on paper could be produced by superimposing carbon prints of the three images made in their complementary colors, a subtractive method of color reproduction pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron in the late 1860s. Color photography was possible long before Kodachrome, as this 1903 portrait by Sarah Angelina Acland demonstrates, but in its earliest years, the need for special equipment, long exposures, and complicated printing processes made it extremely rare.
Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii made extensive use of this color separation technique, employing a special camera which successively exposed the three color-filtered images on different parts of an oblong plate. Because his exposures were not simultaneous, unsteady subjects exhibited color "fringes" or, if rapidly moving through the scene, appeared as brightly colored ghosts in the resulting projected or printed images.
Implementation of color photography was hindered by the limited sensitivity of early photographic materials, which were mostly sensitive to blue, only slightly sensitive to green, and virtually insensitive to red. The discovery of dye sensitization by photochemist Hermann Vogel in 1873 suddenly made it possible to add sensitivity to green, yellow and even red. Improved color sensitizers and ongoing improvements in the overall sensitivity of emulsions steadily reduced the once-prohibitive long exposure times required for color, bringing it ever closer to commercial viability.
Autochrome, the first commercially successful color process, was introduced by the Lumière brothers in 1907. Autochrome plates incorporated a mosaic color filter layer made of dyed grains of potato starch, which allowed the three color components to be recorded as adjacent microscopic image fragments. After an Autochrome plate was reversal processed to produce a positive transparency, the starch grains served to illuminate each fragment with the correct color and the tiny colored points blended together in the eye, synthesizing the color of the subject by the additive method.
Autochrome plates were one of several varieties of additive color screen plates and films marketed between the 1890s and the 1950s. Kodachrome, the first modern "integral tripack" (or "monopack") color film, was introduced by Kodak in 1935. It captured the three color components in a multi-layer emulsion. One layer was sensitized to record the red-dominated part of the spectrum, another layer recorded only the green part and a third recorded only the blue.
Without special film processing, the result would simply be three superimposed black-and-white images, but complementary cyan, magenta, and yellow dye images were created in those layers by adding color couplers during a complex processing procedure. Agfa's similarly structured Agfacolor Neu was introduced in 1936. Unlike Kodachrome, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the processing.
Currently, available color films still employ a multi-layer emulsion and the same principles, most closely resembling Agfa's product. Instant color film, used in a special camera which yielded a unique finished color print only a minute or two after the exposure, was introduced by Polaroid in 1963. Color photography may form images as positive transparencies, which can be used in a slide projector, or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper.
The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photo printing equipment. After a transition period centered around 1995–2005, color film was relegated to a niche market by inexpensive multi-megapixel digital cameras. Film continues to be the preference of some photographers because of its distinctive "look". Digital photography Main article: Digital photography See also: Digital camera In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica.
While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In 1991, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital single lens reflex camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born. Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film.
 An important difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists photo manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications.
Digital photography dominates the 21st century. More than 99% of photographs taken around the world are through digital cameras, increasingly through smartphones. Synthesis photography Synthesis photography is part of computer-generated imagery (CGI) where the shooting process is modeled on real photography. The CGI, creating digital copies of real universe, requires a visual representation process of these universes.
Synthesis photography is the application of analog and digital photography in digital space. With the characteristics of the real photography but not being constrained by the physical limits of real world, synthesis photography allows to get away from real photography. Photographic techniques Angles such as vertical, horizontal, or as pictured here diagonal are considered important photographic techniques A large variety of photographic techniques and media are used in the process of capturing images for photography.
These include the camera; stereoscopy; dualphotography; full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared media; light field photography; and other imaging techniques. Cameras Main article: Camera The camera is the image-forming device, and a photographic plate, photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the capture medium. The respective recording medium can be the plate or film itself, or a digital magnetic or electronic memory.
 Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material to the required amount of light to form a "latent image" (on plate or film) or RAW file (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.
The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on a paper. The camera (or 'camera obscura') is a dark room or chamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the light that forms the image. It was discovered and used in the 16th century by painters. The subject being photographed, however, must be illuminated. Cameras can range from small to very large, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed is in another room where it is properly illuminated.
This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used (see Process camera). As soon as photographic materials became "fast" (sensitive) enough for taking candid or surreptitious pictures, small "detective" cameras were made, some actually disguised as a book or handbag or pocket watch (the Ticka camera) or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a tie pin that was really the lens.
The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on recording medium. In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a "frame". This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the "frame rate" (number of frames per second).
While viewing, a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures together to create the illusion of motion. Stereoscopic Main article: Stereoscopy Photographs, both monochrome and color, can be captured and displayed through two side-by-side images that emulate human stereoscopic vision. Stereoscopic photography was the first that captured figures in motion. While known colloquially as "3-D" photography, the more accurate term is stereoscopy.
Such cameras have long been realized by using film and more recently in digital electronic methods (including cell phone cameras). Dualphotography Main article: Dualphotography An example of a dualphoto using a smartphone based app Dualphotography consists of photographing a scene from both sides of a photographic device at once (e.g. camera for back-to-back dualphotography, or two networked cameras for portal-plane dualphotography).
The dualphoto apparatus can be used to simultaneously capture both the subject and the photographer, or both sides of a geographical place at once, thus adding a supplementary narrative layer to that of a single image. Full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared Main article: Full spectrum photography This image of the rings of Saturn is an example of the application of ultraviolet photography in astronomy Ultraviolet and infrared films have been available for many decades and employed in a variety of photographic avenues since the 1960s.
New technological trends in digital photography have opened a new direction in full spectrum photography, where careful filtering choices across the ultraviolet, visible and infrared lead to new artistic visions. Modified digital cameras can detect some ultraviolet, all of the visible and much of the near infrared spectrum, as most digital imaging sensors are sensitive from about 350 nm to 1000 nm.
An off-the-shelf digital camera contains an infrared hot mirror filter that blocks most of the infrared and a bit of the ultraviolet that would otherwise be detected by the sensor, narrowing the accepted range from about 400 nm to 700 nm. Replacing a hot mirror or infrared blocking filter with an infrared pass or a wide spectrally transmitting filter allows the camera to detect the wider spectrum light at greater sensitivity.
Without the hot-mirror, the red, green and blue (or cyan, yellow and magenta) colored micro-filters placed over the sensor elements pass varying amounts of ultraviolet (blue window) and infrared (primarily red and somewhat lesser the green and blue micro-filters). Uses of full spectrum photography are for fine art photography, geology, forensics and law enforcement. Light field photography See also: Light-field camera Digital methods of image capture and display processing have enabled the new technology of "light field photography" (also known as synthetic aperture photography).
This process allows focusing at various depths of field to be selected after the photograph has been captured. As explained by Michael Faraday in 1846, the "light field" is understood as 5-dimensional, with each point in 3-D space having attributes of two more angles that define the direction of each ray passing through that point. These additional vector attributes can be captured optically through the use of microlenses at each pixel point within the 2-dimensional image sensor.
Every pixel of the final image is actually a selection from each sub-array located under each microlens, as identified by a post-image capture focus algorithm. Devices other than cameras can be used to record images. Trichome of Arabidopsis thaliana seen via scanning electron microscope. Note that image has been edited by adding colors to clarify structure or to add an aesthetic effect. Heiti Paves from Tallinn University of Technology.
Other imaging techniques Besides the camera, other methods of forming images with light are available. For instance, a photocopy or xerography machine forms permanent images but uses the transfer of static electrical charges rather than photographic medium, hence the term electrophotography. Photograms are images produced by the shadows of objects cast on the photographic paper, without the use of a camera.
Objects can also be placed directly on the glass of an image scanner to produce digital pictures. Modes of production Amateur An amateur photographer is one who practices photography as a hobby/passion and not necessarily for profit. The quality of some amateur work is comparable to that of many professionals and may be highly specialized or eclectic in choice of subjects. Amateur photography is often pre-eminent in photographic subjects which have little prospect of commercial use or reward.
Amateur photography grew during the late 19th century due to the popularization of the hand-held camera. Nowadays it has spread widely through social media and is carried out throughout different platforms and equipment, switching to the use of cell phone as a key tool for making photography more accessible to everyone. A photograph taken by an amateur photographer in Lebanon. Indianapolis as a panorama and a modified fisheye image by an amateur photographer with image editing software Downtown Indianapolis in a large panorama image The same image but modified with a fisheye lens-style technique into a circle Commercial Example of a studio-made food photograph.
Commercial photography is probably best defined as any photography for which the photographer is paid for images rather than works of art. In this light, money could be paid for the subject of the photograph or the photograph itself. Wholesale, retail, and professional uses of photography would fall under this definition. The commercial photographic world could include: Advertising photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product.
These images, such as packshots, are generally done with an advertising agency, design firm or with an in-house corporate design team. Fashion and glamour photography usually incorporates models and is a form of advertising photography. Fashion photography, like the work featured in Harper's Bazaar, emphasizes clothes and other products; glamour emphasizes the model and body form. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and men's magazines.
Models in glamour photography sometimes work nude. Concert Photography focuses on capturing candid images of both the artist or band as well as the atmosphere (including the crowd). Many of these photographers work freelance and are contracted through an artist or their management to cover a specific show. Concert photographs are often used to promote the artist or band in addition to the venue. Crime scene photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such as robberies and murders.
A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details. Still life photography usually depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made. Still life is a broader category for food and some natural photography and can be used for advertising purposes. Food photography can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising use.
Food photography is similar to still life photography but requires some special skills. Editorial photography illustrates a story or idea within the context of a magazine. These are usually assigned by the magazine and encompass fashion and glamour photography features. Photojournalism can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs made in this context are accepted as a documentation of a news story.
Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold directly to the end user of the images. Landscape photography depicts locations. Wildlife photography demonstrates the life of animals. Paparazzi is a form of photojournalism in which the photographer captures candid images of athletes, celebrities, politicians, and other prominent people. Pet photography involves several aspects that are similar to traditional studio portraits.
It can also be done in natural lighting, outside of a studio, such as in a client's home. Landscape 360-degree panoramic picture of the Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama Desert, Chile. In the center is Cerro Chajnantor itself. To the right, on the plateau, is the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope with Cerro Chascon behind it. The market for photographic services demonstrates the aphorism "A picture is worth a thousand words", which has an interesting basis in the history of photography.
Magazines and newspapers, companies putting up Web sites, advertising agencies and other groups pay for photography. Many people take photographs for commercial purposes. Organizations with a budget and a need for photography have several options: they can employ a photographer directly, organize a public competition, or obtain rights to stock photographs. Photo stock can be procured through traditional stock giants, such as Getty Images or Corbis; smaller microstock agencies, such as Fotolia; or web marketplaces, such as Cutcaster.
Art Classic Alfred Stieglitz photograph, The Steerage shows unique aesthetic of black-and-white photos. During the 20th century, both fine art photography and documentary photography became accepted by the English-speaking art world and the gallery system. In the United States, a handful of photographers, including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, John Szarkowski, F. Holland Day, and Edward Weston, spent their lives advocating for photography as a fine art.
At first, fine art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This movement is called Pictorialism, often using soft focus for a dreamy, 'romantic' look. In reaction to that, Weston, Ansel Adams, and others formed the Group f/64 to advocate 'straight photography', the photograph as a (sharply focused) thing in itself and not an imitation of something else. The aesthetics of photography is a matter that continues to be discussed regularly, especially in artistic circles.
Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an image. If photography is authentically art, then photography in the context of art would need redefinition, such as determining what component of a photograph makes it beautiful to the viewer. The controversy began with the earliest images "written with light"; Nicéphore Niépce, Louis Daguerre, and others among the very earliest photographers were met with acclaim, but some questioned if their work met the definitions and purposes of art.
Clive Bell in his classic essay Art states that only "significant form" can distinguish art from what is not art. There must be some one quality without which a work of art cannot exist; possessing which, in the least degree, no work is altogether worthless. What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giotto's frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one answer seems possible — significant form.
In each, lines and colors combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions. On 7 February 2007, Sotheby's London sold the 2001 photograph 99 Cent II Diptychon for an unprecedented $3,346,456 to an anonymous bidder, making it the most expensive at the time. Conceptual photography turns a concept or idea into a photograph. Even though what is depicted in the photographs are real objects, the subject is strictly abstract.
Photojournalism Main article: Photojournalism Photojournalism is a particular form of photography (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that employs images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (e.
g., documentary photography, social documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work be both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media, and help communities connect with one other. Photojournalists must be well informed and knowledgeable about events happening right outside their door.
They deliver news in a creative format that is not only informative, but also entertaining. Science and forensics Wootton bridge collapse in 1861 The camera has a long and distinguished history as a means of recording scientific phenomena from the first use by Daguerre and Fox-Talbot, such as astronomical events (eclipses for example), small creatures and plants when the camera was attached to the eyepiece of microscopes (in photomicroscopy) and for macro photography of larger specimens.
The camera also proved useful in recording crime scenes and the scenes of accidents, such as the Wootton bridge collapse in 1861. The methods used in analysing photographs for use in legal cases are collectively known as forensic photography. Crime scene photos are taken from three vantage point. The vantage points are overview, mid-range, and close-up. In 1845 Francis Ronalds, the Honorary Director of the Kew Observatory, invented the first successful camera to make continuous recordings of meteorological and geomagnetic parameters.
Different machines produced 12- or 24- hour photographic traces of the minute-by-minute variations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, atmospheric electricity, and the three components of geomagnetic forces. The cameras were supplied to numerous observatories around the world and some remained in use until well into the 20th century.Charles Brooke a little later developed similar instruments for the Greenwich Observatory.
 Science uses image technology that has derived from the design of the Pin Hole camera. X-Ray machines are similar in design to Pin Hole cameras with high-grade filters and laser radiation. Photography has become ubiquitous in recording events and data in science and engineering, and at crime scenes or accident scenes. The method has been much extended by using other wavelengths, such as infrared photography and ultraviolet photography, as well as spectroscopy.
Those methods were first used in the Victorian era and improved much further since that time. The first photographed atom was discovered in 2012 by physicists at Griffith University, Australia. They used an electric field to trap an "Ion" of the element, Ytterbium. The image was recorded on a CCD, an electronic photographic film. Social and cultural implications Photography may be used both to capture reality and to produce a work of art.
While photo manipulation was often frowned upon at first, it was eventually used to great extent to produce artistic effects. Nude composition 19 from 1988 by Jaan Künnap. The Musée de l'Élysée, founded in 1985 in Lausanne, was the first photography museum in Europe. There are many ongoing questions about different aspects of photography. In her writing "On Photography" (1977), Susan Sontag discusses concerns about the objectivity of photography.
This is a highly debated subject within the photographic community. Sontag argues, "To photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. It means putting one's self into a certain relation to the world that feels like knowledge, and therefore like power." Photographers decide what to take a photo of, what elements to exclude and what angle to frame the photo, and these factors may reflect a particular socio-historical context.
Along these lines, it can be argued that photography is a subjective form of representation. Modern photography has raised a number of concerns on its effect on society. In Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window (1954), the camera is presented as promoting voyeurism. 'Although the camera is an observation station, the act of photographing is more than passive observing'. The camera doesn't rape or even possess, though it may presume, intrude, trespass, distort, exploit, and, at the farthest reach of metaphor, assassinate – all activities that, unlike the sexual push and shove, can be conducted from a distance, and with some detachment.
 Digital imaging has raised ethical concerns because of the ease of manipulating digital photographs in post-processing. Many photojournalists have declared they will not crop their pictures or are forbidden from combining elements of multiple photos to make "photomontages", passing them as "real" photographs. Today's technology has made image editing relatively simple for even the novice photographer.
However, recent changes of in-camera processing allow digital fingerprinting of photos to detect tampering for purposes of forensic photography. Photography is one of the new media forms that changes perception and changes the structure of society. Further unease has been caused around cameras in regards to desensitization. Fears that disturbing or explicit images are widely accessible to children and society at large have been raised.
Particularly, photos of war and pornography are causing a stir. Sontag is concerned that "to photograph is to turn people into objects that can be symbolically possessed." Desensitization discussion goes hand in hand with debates about censored images. Sontag writes of her concern that the ability to censor pictures means the photographer has the ability to construct reality. One of the practices through which photography constitutes society is tourism.
Tourism and photography combine to create a "tourist gaze" in which local inhabitants are positioned and defined by the camera lens. However, it has also been argued that there exists a "reverse gaze" through which indigenous photographees can position the tourist photographer as a shallow consumer of images. Additionally, photography has been the topic of many songs in popular culture. Law Main article: Photography and the law Photography is both restricted as well as protected by the law in many jurisdictions.
Protection of photographs is typically achieved through the granting of copyright or moral rights to the photographer. In the United States, photography is protected as a First Amendment right and anyone is free to photograph anything seen in public spaces as long as it is in plain view. In the UK a recent law (Counter-Terrorism Act 2008) increases the power of the police to prevent people, even press photographers, from taking pictures in public places.
 See also Outline of photography Science of photography List of photographers Image Editing Photolab and minilab References ^ Spencer, D A (1973). The Focal Dictionary of Photographic Technologies. Focal Press. p. 454. ISBN 978-0133227192. ^ φάος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ γραφή, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ Harper, Douglas.
"photograph". Online Etymology Dictionary. ^ Boris Kossoy (2004). Hercule Florence: El descubrimiento de la fotografía en Brasil. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. ISBN 968-03-0020-X. ^ Template:Cite periodical ^ a b Eder, J.M (1945) . History of Photography, 4th. edition [Geschichte der Photographie]. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. pp. 258–259. ISBN 0-486-23586-6. ^ Campbell, Jan (2005) Film and cinema spectatorship: melodrama and mimesis.
Polity. p. 114. ISBN 0-7456-2930-X ^ a b Krebs, Robert E. (2004). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 20. ISBN 0-313-32433-6. ^ Alistair Cameron Crombie, Science, optics, and music in medieval and early modern thought, p. 205 ^ Wade, Nicholas J.; Finger, Stanley (2001). "The eye as an optical instrument: from camera obscura to Helmholtz's perspective".
Perception. 30 (10): 1157–77. doi:10.1068/p3210. PMID 11721819. ^ Davidson, Michael W; National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at The Florida State University (1 August 2003). "Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics and You – Timeline – Albertus Magnus". The Florida State University. Archived from the original on 30 March 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2009. ^ Potonniée, Georges (1973). The history of the discovery of photography.
Arno Press. p. 50. ISBN 0-405-04929-3 ^ Allen, Nicholas P. L. (11 November 1993). "Is the Shroud of Turin the first recorded photograph?" (PDF). The South African Journal of Art History: 23–32. ^ Allen, Nicholas P. L. (1994). "A reappraisal of late thirteenth-century responses to the Shroud of Lirey-Chambéry-Turin: encolpia of the Eucharist, vera eikon or supreme relic?". The Southern African Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies.
4 (1): 62–94. ^ Allen, Nicholas P. L. "Verification of the Nature and Causes of the Photo-negative Images on the Shroud of Lirey-Chambéry-Turin". unisa.ac.za ^ a b Gernsheim, Helmut (1986). A concise history of photography. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-486-25128-4 ^ Gernsheim, Helmut and Gernsheim, Alison (1955) The history of photography from the earliest use of the camera obscura in the eleventh century up to 1914.
Oxford University Press. p. 20. ^ a b "The First Photograph – Heliography". Retrieved 29 September 2009. from Helmut Gernsheim's article, "The 150th Anniversary of Photography," in History of Photography, Vol. I, No. 1, January 1977: ...In 1822, Niépce coated a glass plate... The sunlight passing through... This first permanent example... was destroyed... some years later. ^ Litchfield, R. 1903.
"Tom Wedgwood, the First Photographer: An Account of His Life." London, Duckworth and Co. See Chapter XIII. Includes the complete text of Humphry Davy's 1802 paper, which is the only known contemporary record of Wedgwood's experiments. (Retrieved 7 May 2013 via archive.org). ^ Hirsch, Robert (1999). Seizing the light: a history of photography. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-697-14361-7. ^ William Henry Fox Talbot (1800–1877).
BBC ^ Feldman, Anthony and Ford, Peter (1989) Scientists & inventors. Bloomsbury Books, p. 128, ISBN 1870630238. ^ Fox Talbot, William Henry and Jammes, André (1973) William H. Fox Talbot, inventor of the negative-positive process, Macmillan, p. 95. ^ History of Kodak, Milestones-chronology: 1878-1929. kodak.com ^ Peres, Michael R. (2008). The Concise Focal Encyclopedia of Photography: from the first photo on paper to the digital revolution.
Burlington, Mass.: Focal Press/Elsevier. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-240-80998-4. ^ "H&D curve of film vs digital". Retrieved August 11, 2015. ^ Jacobson, Ralph E. (2000). The Focal Manual of Photography: photographic and digital imaging (9th ed.). Boston, Mass.: Focal Press. ISBN 978-0-240-51574-8. ^ "Black & White Photography". PSA Journal. 77 (12): 38–40. 2011. ^ a b "1861: James Clerk Maxwell's greatest year".
King's College London. 3 January 2017. ^ a b "From Charles Mackintosh's waterproof to Dolly the sheep: 43 innovations Scotland has given the world". The independent. January 2, 2016. ^ Schewe, Jeff (2012). The Digital Negative: Raw Image Processing In Lightroom, Camera Raw, and Photoshop. Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press, ISBN 0321839579, p. 72 ^ Paux, Marc-Olivier (1 February 2011). Synthesis photography and architecture.
Imagina. Monaco. ^ "Glossary: Digital Photography Review". Dpreview.com. Retrieved 24 June 2013. ^ Anderson, Joseph; Anderson, Barbara (Spring 1993). "The Myth of Persistence of Vision Revisited". Journal of Film and Video. 45 (1): 3–12. Archived from the original on 24 November 2009. ^ Belisle, Brooke (2013). "The Dimensional Image: Overlaps In Stereoscopic, Cinematic, And Digital Depth." Film Criticism 37/38 (3/1): 117–137.
Academic Search Complete. Web. 3 October 2013. ^ "An introduction to Dualphotography". Medium.com Dual.Photo publication. ^ Twede, David. Introduction to Full-Spectrum and Infrared photography. surrealcolor.110mb.com ^ Ng, Ren (July 2006) Digital Light Field Photography. PhD Thesis, Stanford University ^ Peterson, C. A. (2011). "Home Portraiture". History of Photography. 35 (4): 374. doi:10.1080/03087298.
2011.606727. ^ "All Around Chajnantor – A 360-degree panorama". ESO Picture of the Week. Retrieved 13 April 2012. ^ Clive Bell. "Art", 1914. Retrieved 2 September 2006. ^ The first $3M photograph ^ Rohde, R. R. (2000). Crime Photography. PSA Journal, 66(3), 15. ^ Ronalds, B.F. (2016). Sir Francis Ronalds: Father of the Electric Telegraph. London: Imperial College Press. ISBN 978-1-78326-917-4. ^ Ronalds, B.
F. (2016). "The Beginnings of Continuous Scientific Recording using Photography: Sir Francis Ronalds' Contribution". European Society for the History of Photography. Retrieved 2 June 2016. ^ "Photographic self-registering magnetic and meteorological apparatus: Invented by Mr. Brooke of Keppel-Street, London". The Illustrated Magazine of Art. New York: Alexander Montgomery. 1: 308–311. 1853. ^ Upadhyay, J.
; Chakera, J. A.; Navathe, C. P.; Naik, P. A.; Joshi, A. S.; Gupta, P. D. (2006). "Development of single frame X-ray framing camera for pulsed plasma experiments". Sadhana. 31 (5): 613. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.570.172 . doi:10.1007/BF02715917. ^ Blitzer, Herbert L.; Stein-Ferguson, Karen; Huang, Jeffrey (2008). Understanding forensic digital imaging. Academic Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-12-370451-1.
^ Glenday, Craig (2013). Guinness Book of Records 2014. p. 192. ISBN 978-1-908843-15-9. ^ Bissell, K.L. (2000) Photography and Objectivity. ^ a b c d Sontag, S. (1977) On Photography, Penguin, London, pp. 3–24, ISBN 0312420099. ^ Levinson, P. (1997) The Soft Edge: a Natural History and Future of the Information Revolution, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 37–48, ISBN 0415157854. ^ Urry, John (2002).
The tourist gaze (2nd ed.). SAGE. ISBN 978-0-7619-7347-8. ^ Gillespie, Alex. "Tourist Photography and the Reverse Gaze". ^ "You Have Every Right to Photograph That Cop". American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 2016-02-18. ^ "Jail for photographing police?". British Journal of Photography. 28 January 2009. Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Further reading Introduction Photography. A Critical Introduction [Paperback], ed.
by Liz Wells, 3rd edition, London [etc.]: Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-30704-X History A New History of Photography, ed. by Michel Frizot, Köln : Könemann, 1998 Franz-Xaver Schlegel, Das Leben der toten Dinge – Studien zur modernen Sachfotografie in den USA 1914–1935, 2 Bände, Stuttgart/Germany: Art in Life 1999, ISBN 3-00-004407-8. Reference works Tom Ang (2002). Dictionary of Photography and Digital Imaging: The Essential Reference for the Modern Photographer.
Watson-Guptill. ISBN 0-8174-3789-4. Hans-Michael Koetzle: Das Lexikon der Fotografen: 1900 bis heute, Munich: Knaur 2002, 512 p., ISBN 3-426-66479-8 John Hannavy (ed.): Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, 1736 p., New York: Routledge 2005 ISBN 978-0-415-97235-2 Lynne Warren (Hrsg.): Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century Photography, 1719 p., New York, NY [et.] : Routledge, 2006 The Oxford Companion to the Photograph, ed.
by Robin Lenman, Oxford University Press 2005 "The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography", Richard Zakia, Leslie Stroebel, Focal Press 1993, ISBN 0-240-51417-3 Other books Photography and The Art of Seeing by Freeman Patterson, Key Porter Books 1989, ISBN 1-55013-099-4. The Art of Photography: An Approach to Personal Expression by Bruce Barnbaum, Rocky Nook 2010, ISBN 1-933952-68-7. Image Clarity: High Resolution Photography by John B.
Williams, Focal Press 1990, ISBN 0-240-80033-8. External links Find more aboutPhotographyat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Photography at Curlie (based on DMOZ) World History of Photography From The History of Art. Daguerreotype to Digital: A Brief History of the Photographic Process From the State Library & Archives of Florida.
Photography Changes Everything is a collection of original essays, stories and images—contributed by experts from a spectrum of professional worlds and members of the project's online audience—that explore the many ways photography shapes our culture and our lives, by the Smithsonian Institution. v t e Photography Outline Terminology 35 mm equivalent focal length Angle of view Aperture Black and white Chromatic aberration Circle of confusion Color balance Color temperature Depth of field Depth of focus Exposure Exposure compensation Exposure value Zebra patterning F-number Film format Large Medium Film speed Focal length Guide number Hyperfocal distance Metering mode Orb (optics) Perspective distortion Photograph Photographic printing Photographic processes Reciprocity Red-eye effect Science of photography Shutter speed Sync Zone System Genres Abstract Aerial Architectural Astrophotography Banquet Conceptual Conservation Cloudscape Documentary Ethnographic Erotic Fashion Fine-art Fire Forensic Glamour High-speed Landscape Lomography Nature Neues Sehen Nude Photojournalism Pornography Portrait Post-mortem Selfie Social documentary Sports Still life Stock Street Vernacular Underwater Wedding Wildlife Techniques Afocal Bokeh Brenizer Burst mode Contre-jour Cyanotype ETTR Fill flash Fireworks Harris shutter HDRI High-speed Holography Infrared Intentional camera movement Kirlian Kite aerial Long-exposure Macro Mordançage Multiple exposure Night Panning Panoramic Photogram Print toning Redscale Rephotography Rollout Scanography Schlieren photography Sabatier effect Stereoscopy Stopping down Strip Slit-scan Sun printing Tilt–shift Miniature faking Time-lapse Ultraviolet Vignetting Xerography Composition Diagonal method Framing Headroom Lead room Rule of thirds Simplicity Equipment Camera light-field field instant pinhole press rangefinder SLR still TLR toy view Darkroom enlarger safelight Film base format holder stock Filter Flash beauty dish cucoloris gobo hood hot shoe monolight Reflector snoot Softbox Lens Wide-angle lens Zoom lens Telephoto lens Manufacturers Monopod Movie projector Slide projector Tripod head Zone plate History Timeline of photography technology Analog photography Autochrome Lumière Box camera Calotype Camera obscura Daguerreotype Dufaycolor Heliography Painted photography backdrops Photography and the law Glass plate Visual arts Digital photography Digital camera D-SLR comparison MILC camera back Digiscoping Digital versus film photography Film scanner Image sensor CMOS APS CCD Three-CCD camera Foveon X3 sensor Image sharing Pixel Color photography Color Print film Reversal film Color management color space primary color CMYK color model RGB color model Photographic processing Bleach bypass C-41 process Cross processing Developer Digital image processing Dye coupler E-6 process Fixer Gelatin silver process Gum printing Instant film K-14 process Print permanence Push processing Stop bath Lists Most expensive photographs Photographers Norwegian Polish street women Category Portal v t e Visual arts Architecture Art Ceramics Craft Drawing Design Painting Photography Public art Sculpture Site-specific art Street art Computer art Filmmaking Printmaking List of artistic media Authority control GND: 4045895-7 HDS: 11171 NDL: 00571967 Retrieved from "https://en.
Distinct Essential Artwork Concepts have developed comprehensive diverse eras, together with the modifying artists' perceptions of processing, examining, and responding to numerous artwork varieties. Their innovative expressions have already been explored by their creation, efficiency, and participation in arts. Each individual historic era has specified novel contribution of historical and cultural contexts for creating the crucial element Arts Fundamentals of your pertinent period of time. Visible Arts support artists assimilate the important thing Arts Ideas of Symmetry, Color, Pattern, Distinction and the differences between one or more components in the composition. The main element Art Concepts of Visible Arts assist understand and distinguish among the size for example, Symmetry & Asymmetry, Positive & Negative Space, Light & Dark, Solid & Transparent, and Large & Small.See Also: After School Arts Program
Art plays a vibrant role in the personal life with the individual as well as during the social and economic development with the nation. The study of Visible arts encourages personal development as well as awareness of both our cultural heritage plus the role of art from the society. The learner acquires personal knowledge, skills and competencies through activities in Visible arts. When one studies Visual arts, he/she would come to appreciate or understand that artwork is an integral part of everyday life.
Aesthetics of Photography:Combining the Viewer's and the Artist's StandpointsPrinted in (2004) Art Criticism, 19(1), 63-74 Status of Photography Audience's Standpoint to Art Expression of Idea of Emotion Imitation of Reality Photos by Non-Artists Appreciation of Process Previsualization Conclusion Notes Bibliography Status of Photography Paul Weiss, in his book Nine Basic Arts, classifies the nine basic arts as architecture, sculpture, painting, musicry, story, poetry, music, theater, and dance.
Obviously, photography is not highly regarded by Weiss. In the last chapter he says, "They (photographers) have little and sometimes even no appreciation of the aesthetic values of experience. And when they do have such appreciation it is rarely relevant to their purposes. One need not...be an artist to use a camera with brilliance."1 Despite the fact that painters such as Manet and Degas were highly influenced by photography, throughout art history photography has been considered less valuable and less important than painting, sculpture, dance, and drama.
When photography appeared in the last two centuries, it was hardly recognized as fine art. Around the l850s a cartoonist named Nadar drew a humorous spoof of photography in which Mr. Photography asks for just a little place in the exhibition of fine arts and Mr. Painting kicks Mr. Photography out angrily.2 In 1859 the French government finally yielded to consistent pressure from the Society of French Photographers and its supporters, and a salon of photography became part of the yearly exhibitions held in Paris.
The photographs were described as though they were works created by hand, compared with paintings and held to the same standards of appraisal. A landscape photograph, noted one critic, had the elegant look of a Theodore Rousseau. Another Photographer's work was likened to the pictures of Holman Hunt.3 The status of photography as fine art continued to be challenged in the late 19th and early 20th century.
When Alfred Stieglitz introduced photography as a form of fine art, a director of a major art museum was skeptical: "Mr. Stieglitz, do you seriously think that photography is fine art?"4 The rejection of Stieglitz's work by painters was even more blatant. Stieglitz said, "Artists who saw my early photographs began to tell me that they envied me; that my photographs were superior to their paintings, but that unfortunately photography was not an art.
..I could not understand why the artists should envy me for my work, yet, in the same breath, decry it because it was machine-made."5 In order to free photography from the shadow of painting, Stieglitz encouraged photographers to use their work to emphasize what the medium of photography could do best, and not "prostitute" the medium by trying to do what other media could do easily.6 Besides Stieglitz, some other photographers also defended photography as a type of fine art.
In the beginning of the 20th century, Man Ray went even further, abandoning painting and devoting himself entirely to photography. He said, "I began as a painter. In photographing my canvases I discovered the value of reproduction in black and white. The day came when I destroyed the painting and kept the reproduction."7 Henri Cartier-Bresson is another example. At first he was trained to be a painter, but after taking pictures in Africa, he switched his medium to photography because "the adventure in me felt obligated to testify with a quicker instrument than a brush to the scars of the world.
"8 Undoubtedly, Alfred Stieglitz, Man Ray, Henri Cartier-Bresson, and many others deserve credit for making photography a school of art. Today many art history books have little or no mention of those great masters. If I ask art majors or art history majors to what school Picasso belongs, every one of them can answer "Cubism" immediately. But if the same question is asked about Henri Cartier-Bresson, few of them have ever heard of "Photography of Decisive Moment.
" Further, it is currently acceptable if an art school does not offer a photography emphasis, but painting is required. When photography courses are offered, they are electives, whereas painting courses are mandatory. Painting overwhelmingly dominates many art magazines such as American Artists and Art in America. Although there are several photographic magazines such as Popular Photographer and Outdoor Photographer in the market, they feature the technical aspects instead of the aesthetic.
Taking all of the above into consideration, it is necessary to build a theory of the aesthetics of photography. Few philosophers of art address the aesthetics of photography. Even if the topic is addressed, the way of studying photography by most photographers relies mainly upon showing. For example, in 1977 a group of photographers held an exhibition and published a book entitled Reading Photographs: Understanding the Aesthetics of Photography.
They proclaimed that "what we need, above everything else, is an informed and interested public that is aware of the scope and the nature of photography and consequently cares to go and see the best examples."9 In fact, the lower status of photography is not due to the lack of good examples, but to the lack of an aesthetic theory that describes the nature and scope of photography in terms of its relations with the artist's inner life, symbols, and reality.
Since the last decade of the 20th century, the advance of digital photography has added more complexity to this issue. Digital photography is perceived as hindering rather than helping the status of photography. While conventional photography is regarded as the result of a mechanical process, digital photography is considered the result of an electronic process. Many believe that with more advanced machines, the creativity in the work declines.
While further discussion of digital photography is out of the scope of this article, the preceding misperception, which can be found in both conventional and digital photography, will be a focal point here. Throughout history, many philosophers of art have aimed to develop universal theories that could be applied well to all arts. However, when those philosophers developed a "universal" theory, they relied on only one or two media, thus creating biases .
For instance, Aristotle based his theory on tragedy and claimed it as the highest form of art. Susanne Langer, one of the most prominent philosophers of art in the 20th century, says in her book Feeling and Form that the symbolic function of arts is the same in every kind of artistic expression, though she realizes that every art is different.10 Scholz argues that Langer's theory of art would have been very different if she had used music instead of poetry as her starting point.
11 Nevertheless, in Problems of Art Langer says that her approach to interrelation among the arts has been to look at each art autonomously and ask what it creates, what its principles of creation are, and what its scope and possible materials are.12 A close cousin of universal aesthetical theory is "pictorialism," in which photographs are judged in the same way that other pictures are.13 Unlike universal aesthetic theory that can be applied to visual art, performing art, and literature, pictorialism confines the criteria of judgment within pictures.
Pictorialism views photography as a means and art as the end, and de-emphasizes the unique intrinsic value of photography. To rectify the situation, this paper will describe the uniqueness of photography as a medium. Audience's Standpoint on Art There are two ways to approach the aesthetics of photography: we can look at photography from the perspective of the audience or from the viewpoint of the artist.
Collingwood tends to evaluate art in terms of its effect on the viewer. He states that art is not simply amusement but a "magic" that can bring the audience an emotional current to keep their lives going.14 I appreciate Collingwood's effort to distinguish amusement-focused art that only emphasizes mere sensuous pleasure from the genuine arts--art proper. However, how can we measure an emotional current? How can we know how the audience's lives have been moved by the art? A picture that is an amusement for one person may be art proper to another.
Furthermore, Collingwood asserts that art is the primary and fundamental activity of the mind. Art arises of itself and does not depend on the previous development of any other activity. It is not a modified perception. He is disappointed at the nature of our education because it is an education in facing facts; it is designed to lead us away from the world of imagination in which the child lives.
In his view, imagination is sharply opposed to thinking. To imagine is to isolate the object; to think is to place it in a world of objects with which it is continuous. He concludes that each work of art is an object of imagination.15 The point Collingwood makes about imagination can be applied to both artists and viewers, but he emphasizes the audience. He says that an object is only beautiful to a person who looks at it imaginatively, and that the kind of beauty that he finds there depends on the intensity and character of his own imaginative activity.
I agree that art is an activity of the imagination. A perceiver needs to imagine the implications beyond the words, the sound, or the scene bound by the frame. However, it is questionable to regard thinking as the opposite of imagination. This theory can hardly be applied to journalistic and high tech photography, such as that capturing images of the subatomic world. His assertion is inevitably contradictory: his purpose in writing books on aesthetics is likely to discover proper ways for the reader to appreciate art; therefore his writing is philosophical and the result of thinking! Also, I do not agree that Western education reduces imagination.
From my own standpoint as an artist, imagination and thinking are complementary rather than mutually exclusive. Imagination must be based on facts. No matter how "otherworldly" artistic creation is, it must rely on the facts of our real world order. As I mentioned, the viewer's standpoint is one-sided. I suggest that combining the audience's and the artist's standpoints will improve the study of the aesthetics of photography.
Expression of Idea of Emotion Langer tends to view art from the artist's standpoint. She declares that art is an expression of the idea or the knowledge of emotion through symbols.16 However, my experience as a photographer leads me to believe that expression through the camera is based on the knowledge of both my emotion and the emotion of others. For instance, in my photograph "Japanese girl," a girl was blowing bubbles while I took her picture.
The image of the girl and the bubbles conveys both emotion and meaning. Although her emotion dominates, my perception of her emotion drove me to add a Hoya Fog B filter on the lenses to amplify her emotion, and thus, the photo is an expression of the idea of both her and my emotions. Langer holds that neither the external world nor the inner life of humans is itself intelligible and therefore comfortable: one comes to terms with the world and oneself by imposing symbolic forms, or patterns, which are themselves orderly and therefore intelligible.
She asserts that every work of art, in whatever medium, is a "semblance" or an "appearance" through symbols.17 As mentioned in the discussion regarding thinking and imagination, I hold the position that they are not mutually exclusive. Langer seems to concur that emotive expression and logical conception can coexist. She regards artistic expression as a form of "logical expression." To be specific, "emotion is logically expressed when symbols are devised through which the emotion can be conceived, and the emotion is conceived when it is contemplated objectively so that its form becomes apparent.
"18 Sparspott argues that Langer's theory "just leaves us right where we started in our quest for the proper way of describing a work of art."19 Although the concept of "symbol" seems to be a tautology, it is still a usable term for understanding the aesthetics of photography. Because the photographic image looks real, many viewers tend to forget that it is a semblance and overlook the symbolic nature of photography.
Many times I have heard tourists complain, "The pictures of the place are very beautiful, but when I went there, I was very disappointed." Sontag points out that photography is a "semblance of knowledge" or a "semblance of wisdom." The camera's rendering of reality must always hide more than it discloses. Thus, photography is "knowledge at bargain price."20 In regarding photography as art, we must not engage the "tourist attitude" of viewing photos; rather, we must regard photos as a semblance or a symbol.
To be specific, a photographer cannot take the subject as it is, and the viewer should not assume that what s/he sees is what it seems. In art there is something more than the appearance--the power of symbol. As Turner said, "Photography can use fact as a metaphor to create new fact."21 Another well-known photographer, Jonathan Bayer, said, "Good photographic images intrigue, present a mystery, or demand to be read.
They are constructs of frustrations and ambiguities which force the viewer to actively interact with the photograph."22 Prominent art critic Berger holds a similar view that photography is a "quotation from appearance rather than a translation," because extraction from context produces a discontinuity, which is reflected in the ambiguity of a photograph's meaning.23 Imitation of Reality Humans tend to organize the disorderly world in an intelligible way, as Langer says, but sometimes we reverse the process in an attempt to disintegrate the world order into disorder.
Sigmund Freud made an insightful point that humans have both life and death instincts--the tendency to create and to destroy. Does the world have an order? What is the relation between art and reality? These questions are important for us in defining what photography should be. In Bell's well-known book Art, he refers to painting as creation and to photography as imitation.24 However, imitation is a strength of photography rather than a weakness.
When painters regard painting as a creation, they treat the artistic realm as a self-sufficient world without any reference to reality. Painters dare to ignore the existing world order and form their own. There is a controversy as to whether a universal world order exists, as Kant, Hegel and Leibniz found, or there is no order and all things "just happen," as Humes and the existentialists suggested.
Nevertheless, in everyday life we must assume that there is an order in reality or we cannot function in this world at all. Although modern artists are so revolutionary as to break many traditional rules of composition and color harmony and do strange things such as gluing broken glass on a canvas, they cannot make paint float in the air, use paper as a stretched bar, or thin oil paint with water.
In fact, nature, or the spatial reality, is full of order, though it has terror and ugliness. Artistic creation should be based on the real world rather than ignoring it. Photography is an imitation of reality. No matter how non-representational a photographic image is, the photographer must take a subject from reality. For example, once Grobe made a fabulous abstract image of a matrix of circles, which is actually a magnification of integrated circuits .
25 The image of a painting can be constructed through a pure mental process, but when a picture has been taken, it means that the subject represented by the image really existed. Therefore, the beauty of photography is derived from the existing world. A photographer can distort the scene with various filters, lenses, darkroom techniques, and/or digital retouching, but the skills are only enhancing the natural order--making the color more saturated, polarizing the contrast, and so forth.
Art, especially photography, has the power to show the terror, ugliness, disorder and absurdity of the world. Sontag says that photography can reveal an "anti-hero.26 In her view, American photography aspires to demystify; some photographers use the medium to level the gaps between the beautiful and the ugly. A picture of an athlete could be taken at the moment that he falls. A photo of a beautiful woman could be taken while her makeup is messed up by rain.
The camera has the power to catch so-called normal people in such a way as to make them look abnormal. However, even if you want to expose the terror and ugliness of reality, there will still be an order to that terror and ugliness. Collingwood goes even further to say, "It is impossible to imagine anything that is not beautiful...ugliness is a low degree of beauty."27 For example, war is terrible, but Wessing presented the horror in an order.
One of his famous pictures is a scene of soldiers and nuns walking in different directions, which constructs a beautiful composition and implies a political or even a philosophical theme. In another picture showing a corpse and his weeping mother, Wessing wisely uses a high angle to form two diagonal lines amplifying the helplessness of the people. "Death of a Loyalist Soldier" by Capa is another good example of how the terror of death can be presented in a beautiful and orderly manner.
The off-center composition and the decisive moment of the soldier's falling reveals that it is a picture by control rather than by luck. When one judges a photographic image, reality should be as a reference. It doesn't mean that the viewer should look at how sharp the picture is or how well the skin tone on the photo matches the real person. Instead, one should ask, "If the image on the photograph occurred in reality, will the viewer think the image is beautiful and prefer it to the original one?" For instance, I have added a polarizer and a sepia filter on the lenses to shoot a sunset scene; the contrast is sharper and the red is more saturated.
I love a sunset like that, though this enhanced scene would never happen in the physical world. One may question, "Do you want the terror of war and the pain of death shown in Koen Wessing and Robert Capa to occur in this world again?" In photography showing tragic subjects, I don't wish the incident to occur again, but the judgment should still refer to reality. Do we want to reduce war and death to "just happen," or do we want to know why it happens and what we can do to prevent them from occurring? The order, composition, contrast, and color of the picture give meaning to the incident and invite us to think about our world deeply.
Unlike the mere imagination that Collingwood spoke of, it is imagination with philosophical contemplation. Photos by Non-Artists Besides the reality that can be perceived by our eyes, there are other levels of "reality," which are revealed by high technology such as thermography and microscopic photography. However, can these photos made by non-artists for practical purposes qualify as art? News photos taken by reporters, microscopic photos taken by doctors, thermography made by physicists, mapping satellite pictures for geographical study, and computer enhanced pictures of planets taken by the probe "Voyager" and the Hubble telescope all fall into this category.
Although these pictures are extraordinarily beautiful, certainly they are made by scientists for non-artistic purposes. First, we look for the answer from the artist's standpoint. According to Langer, art is the creation of expressive forms to present ideas of feeling, or what is called inner life. A work of art will carry "vital import," which is the element of felt life objectified in the work.28 The high tech photographic methods such as thermography and micrography are applied by a few special effects photographers.
Although they may do it for illustration, they still have a "vital import," for their fabulous images demonstrate the confidence of human wisdom, as well as the courage of exploring and demystifying the deeper structure of reality. Every kind of art should have "vital import," but certainly high tech photography imports the felt life of solid facts, a reference to reality that is beyond our eyes. When we see those photos created by non-artists through the viewer's perspective, the answer is still the same.
Barthes discussed photography in his book Camera Lucida, which overwhelmingly centers on journalistic or realist photography. He says that the attraction certain photographs have for him is adventure. As a spectator he is interested in photography for sentimental reasons. He states that some journalistic pictures, such as the one by Koen Wessing showing soldiers and nuns marching in Nicaragua, urges him to think about ethics and politics.
Barthes uses the Latin term "Studium" to describe this kind of enthusiastic commitment.29 As Collingwood says, art proper is a magic that stimulates our morale to keep our lives going. Some journalistic photos can provoke us to think about our existence and our world. Moreover, scientific photos made with high technology undoubtedly increase our morale tremendously. Mythology is an expression of our dreams and desires, and science fiction is considered a modern mythology.
If science fiction, though we know that it is not real, can inspire us to human wisdom and courage, then scientific photos, which bring us closer to reality and expand our imagination in the form of Langer's "logical expression," should lead to a positive psychological impact. With high tech photographic equipment, we are able to see where no one has seen before on both micro and macro scales. We can magnify a cell 50,000 times, detect the variation of heat of any surface, scan the inner structure of a human brain, see the earth in a high latitude, and even reach out to the galaxy.
It is apparent that those are surrealist pictures because we cannot see them with our naked eyes only. They are actually realist pictures and they give us "emotional current" more than science fiction. Appreciation of Process By looking closely at the nature of photography, we might question whether art appreciation is only limited to what the work is, or extended to how it is made. The former concern is more from the viewer's side while the latter is more on the artist's side.
Interestingly enough, photography is more likely to stimulate the viewer to ask about the artist's process than painting is. When viewers look at my painting, they rarely ask me what brushes and paints I used. However, when people look at my photographs, they tend to ask, "What lenses did you use? What film is that? Did you retouch it on the computer?" Probably they think that the credit of a good painting should go to the painter, while the photographic and computing equipment did the work in photography.
Some of them even go further to think that if they have the same equipment, they can make the same pictorial effect. Actually, better equipment does not necessarily produce a better picture, although it increases the chances of creating a good photograph. Prominent photographer Middleton made a valid point: "I'll get better photos with a more expensive camera. Wouldn't this be nice if it was true? Then all the best photographers would be the ones with the most money.
Wouldn't that be simple? Alas, the world of photography doesn't work this way. Give John Shaw a $200 camera outfit, and his photos would still be phenomenal. Remember, it's not the equipment, it's the operator. No one ever asked Van Gogh what kind of brush he was using and, if you're always asking pros what kind of cameras they're using, you're missing the point."30 Because some people credit the photographic equipment, they regard those who do their own processing and printing as "advanced photographers.
" When I was a painter, no one asked me whether I framed my works. However, after people noticed that I was a photographer, almost every of them asked me whether I did my own processing and printing. Indeed, to my experience, the darkroom work could be as routine and non-creative as using a one-touch camera. Nonetheless, when one assesses the aesthetic value of a photo, is it wrong to ask such questions as "What lenses did you use?" "What film is that?" "Do you use Adobe PhotoShop?" or "Do you do your own processing and printing?" One could ask those questions if one doesn¡¦t give the credit to the equipment and the photo lab.
The technical information can enrich our aesthetic experience. This suggestion contradicts the aesthetic theory that insists on feeling the art instead of thinking about it. However, the mind of the audience has both functions: feeling and thinking. It is absurd to demand the viewer to shut off the intellectual faculty and just feel the art. Even if it could be done, the viewer might reorganize the feeling by thinking after he/she had felt the art! If the viewer wants to share feelings about the art with his/her friends, he/she will present it in a systematic or at least comprehensible way.
The process of conveying the feeling is no doubt an intellectual activity! Likewise, one must comprehend technical information in a scientific mode of thinking, but the thought may turn into a feeling, and eventually, an aesthetic experience. The technical information of photography is the process of production, which qualifies as an art itself. The quotations "love is an art" and "management is an art" do not mean that love or management creates any physical appearance.
Instead, these phrases suggest that the process creates the appearance. Consider cooking as a metaphor. In an authentic Chinese restaurant, especially those that provide Beijing dishes, the chef cooks in front of customers. The ends (the food) and the means (the cooking techniques) are equally appreciable to the Chinese. Besides the effect on the picture, the skill of operating the equipment is also beautiful.
Most people do not see how I make a picture. When I describe the process, you only can imagine it. The fascination of the skills could be viewed as an aesthetic experience. Previsualization The above observation is from the viewer's standpoint. Now we switch to the artist's viewpoint to see the role of technical knowledge in photography. Edman defines art as "the realm of all controlled treatment of material, practical or other".
31 Good art reveals the artist's control. Compared with other media such as painting, writing and composing music, photography may involve more difficulty in gaining precise control. If a painter works on a painting, he/she will postvisualize the image--he/she sees what he/she is doing immediately. If the color is not good, he/she can paint over it. A composer and a writer can also enjoy the same kind of advantage.
For a photographer, the story is entirely different. Often someone asks me, "The image looks great on the viewfinder; why is the print so terrible?" I always answer, "Don't trust the viewfinder. You must previsualize the image by technical know-how." For instance, a sunset or a sunrise scene carries high color contrast. The range of brightness will not fit into the film's latitude. In this case, I should add a neutral density filter for compensation.
The eyes, hair and skin of a white model are very reflective. In order to create a nice looking skin tone on the picture and avoid the red eye effect, I should use off-camera flashing, or umbrella lighting. The above examples are simple ones for the convenience of illustration. I often encounter more complicated situations and have to consider many factors to predict what the picture will look like.
Darkroom work, by the same principle, is also a work of previsualization backed by technical knowledge. There are two exceptions. A Hasselblad camera can attach to a Polaroid magazine. With this configuration, the photographer can take an instant picture to preview the possible outcome of the image before he has used the print or slide film. Also, photographers who use a digital camera can preview the just-taken picture on a LCD display.
Aesthetics is not simply a judgment of beauty. As I mentioned before, the more control the artist has, the more respectable his work. Technical information may seem irrelevant to aesthetics, but in fact it is important for us to judge whether the photograph is a work of control or a work of chance. It is a serious challenge for the artist when he/she cannot see what he/she is doing. Conclusion Affirming the status of photography in fine arts should be accomplished by exploring its aesthetics rather than by only showing good photos.
Neither constructing a universal theory of art nor applying pictoralism to claim that photography is like painting can help. Collingwood's theory of art as emotion and imagination is the view of only the audience; thus it fails to analyze the medium's uniqueness. Combining the viewer's and the artist's standpoints is a more appropriate approach for the study of aesthetics of photography. Unlike the claim by Collingwood that imagination and thinking are mutually exclusive, Langer views art as a logical expression of the idea of emotion.
This is certainly true. A photographer must start with knowledge or ideas. Besides the knowledge of emotions, s/he should also have the knowledge of world order and technical information. The former helps both the photographer and the viewer to use reality as a reference, while the latter empowers the photographer to previsualize the image and lead the audience to an appreciation of the process. Notes 1.
Paul Weiss, Nine Basic Arts (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1961), 216, 218. See also Patrick Maynard , "Photography," The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics. ed. Berys Gaut & Dominic Mclver Lopes (London: Routledge, 2001), 477-490. Maynard described how photography as a form of fine art is neglected by saying, "a bibliography of philosophical writing on photography could be printed on a single page, with little of that about art photography.
Not only in philosophy, but in aesthetics generally, cinema is a far more developed topic: indeed, some of the better known 'aesthetic' essay on photography are prefaces to film theories" (p. 477). 2. Naom Rosenblum, A World History of Photography (New York: Abbeville, 1984). 3. Aaron Scharf, Art and Photography (New York: Penguin, 1986). 4. Public Broadcasting Services, American Photography: A Century of Image (Alexandria, VA: Public Broadcasting Services, 2000).
5. Robert Leggat, A history of Photography. (2001) [On-line] Available: http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/ 6. Kathleen Kadon Desmond, Photography as a Function of Visual Aesthetic Judgement, 1976, p.54. 7. National Museum of Art/Aperture, Man Ray's Man Ray (West Palm Beach, FL, 1994), 7. 8. Carel Squies, "HCB--The Decisive Moment," American Photography, September/October 1997, 48. 9. Photographers' Gallery, Reading Photography: Understanding the Aesthetics of Photography (New York: Pantheon Books, 1977), 7.
10. Susanne Langer, Feeling and Form: A Theory of Art (New York: Scriber, 1957). 11. Bernhard Scholz, "Discourse and Intuition in Susanne Langer's Aesthetics of Literature," The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 31 (1972). 12. Susanne Langer, Problems of Art: Ten Philosophical Lectures (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1957). 13. Kathleen Kadon Desmond, Photography as a Function of Visual Aesthetic Judgement, 1976, & Albert Sadler, "Objective vs Subjective.
" PSA Journal, 61, (1995): 10-11. 14. R.G. Collingwood, The Principles of Art (Oxford: Clarendon, 1950). 15. R.G. Collingwood, Essays in the Philosophy of Art (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1964). 16. Susanne Langer, Feeling and Form: A Theory of Art (New York: Scriber, 1957). 17. Susanne Langer, Feeling and Form: A Theory of Art (New York: Scriber, 1957). 18. A. Berndtson, "Semblance, Symbol, and Expression in the Aesthetics of Susanne Langer," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 14 (1956): 498.
19. F.E. Sparshott, The Structure of Aesthetics (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965), 425. 20. Susan Sontag, On Photography (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1977), 23-24. 21. Photographer's Gallery, 77. 22. Photographer's Gallery, 9. 23. John Berger and Mohr Berger, Another Way of Telling (New York: Pantheon Books, 1982), 128. 24. Clive Bell, Art (New York: Frederick Strokes, 1921).
25. Kathryn Livingston, Special Effects Photography: The Art and Techniques of Eight Modern Masters (New York: American Photographic Book, 1985). 26. Sontag, 29. 27. Collingwood, Essays, 61-62. 28. Langer, Feeling and Form, 60. 29. Roland Barthes, Camera Lucids: Reflections on Photography (New York: Hill and Wang, 1981). 30. Maynard, Patrick , "Photography," The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics.
ed. Berys Gaut & Dominic Mclver Lopes (London: Routledge, 2001), 477-490 . 30. David Middleton, "Subdue These Creativity Killers," Outdoor Photography 13, no. 3 (1997): 47. 31. Susanne Langer, Problems of Art: Ten Philosophical Lectures. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1957). Bibliography Barthes, Roland. Camera Lucids: Reflections on Photography. New York: Hill and Wang, 1981. Bell, Clive.
Art. New York: Frederick Strokes, 1921. Berger, John, and Mohr Berger. Another Way of Telling. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982. Berndtson, A. "Semblance, Symbol, and Expression in the Aesthetics of Susanne Langer." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 14 (1956): 489-502. Collingwood, R.G. The Principles of Art. Oxford: Clarendon, 1950. Collingwood, R.G. Essays in the Philosophy of Art. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1964.
Desmond, Kathleen Kadon. Photography as a Function of Visual Aesthetic Judgement, 1976, unpublished Master¡¦s thesis. Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ. Langer, Susanne. Feeling and Form: A Theory of Art. New York: Scriber, 1957. Langer, Susanne. Problems of Art: Ten Philosophical Lectures. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1957. Leggat, Robert. (2001). A history of Photography. [On-line] Available: http://www.
rleggat.com/photohistory/ Livingston, Kathryn. Special Effects Photography: The Art and Techniques of Eight Modern Masters. New York: American Photographic Book, 1985. Middleton, David. "Subdue These Creativity Killers." Outdoor Photography 13, no. 3 (1997): 44-47. National Museum of Art/Aperture. Man Ray's Man Ray. West Palm Beach, FL, 1994. Photographers' Gallery. Reading Photography: Understanding the Aesthetics of Photography.
New York: Pantheon Books, 1977. Public Broadcasting Services American Photography: A Century of Image. Alexandria, VA: Public Broadcasting Services, 2000. Rosenblum, Naom. A World History of Photography. New York: Abbeville, 1984. Sadler, Albert. "Objective vs Subjective." PSA Journal, 61, (1995): 10-11. Scharf, Aaron. Art and Photography. New York: Penguin, 1986. Scholz, Bernhard. "Discourse and Intuition in Susanne Langer's Aesthetics of Literature.
" The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 31 (1972): 215-226. Sontag, Susan. On Photography. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1977. Sparshott, F.E. The Structure of Aesthetics. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965. Squies, Carel. "HCB--The Decisive Moment." American Photography, September/October 1997, 47-92. Weiss, Paul. Nine Basic Arts. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1961.
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Title: Is Photography Art Essay