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"Mimetic" redirects here. For the mimetic muscles, see Facial muscles. For other uses of the word Mimesis, see Mimesis (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Memetics. Mimesis (/maɪˈmiːsəs/; Ancient Greek: μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), "to imitate", from μῖμος (mimos), "imitator, actor") is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.
 In ancient Greece, mimesis was an idea that governed the creation of works of art, in particular, with correspondence to the physical world understood as a model for beauty, truth, and the good. Plato contrasted mimesis, or imitation, with diegesis, or narrative. After Plato, the meaning of mimesis eventually shifted toward a specifically literary function in ancient Greek society, and its use has changed and been reinterpreted many times since.
One of the best-known modern studies of mimesis, understood as a form of realism in literature, is Erich Auerbach's Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature, which opens with a famous comparison between the way the world is represented in Homer's Odyssey and the way it appears in the Bible. From these two seminal Western texts, Auerbach builds the foundation for a unified theory of representation that spans the entire history of Western literature, including the Modernist novels being written at the time Auerbach began his study.
In art history, "mimesis", "realism" and "naturalism" are used, often interchangeably, as terms for the accurate, even "illusionistic", representation of the visual appearance of things. Mimesis has been theorised by thinkers as diverse as Plato, Aristotle, Philip Sidney, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Adam Smith, Sigmund Freud, Walter Benjamin, Paul Ross, Theodor Adorno, Erich Auerbach, Luce Irigaray, Jacques Derrida, René Girard, Nikolas Kompridis, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Michael Taussig, Merlin Donald, and Homi Bhabha.
The Frankfurt school critical theorist T. W. Adorno made use of mimesis as a central philosophical term, interpreting it as a way in which works of art embodied a form of reason that was non-repressive and non-violent. Classical definitions Plato Both Plato and Aristotle saw in mimesis the representation of nature. Plato wrote about mimesis in both Ion and The Republic (Books II, III, and X).
In Ion, he states that poetry is the art of divine madness, or inspiration. Because the poet is subject to this divine madness, instead of possessing "art" or "knowledge" (techne) of the subject (532c), the poet does not speak truth (as characterized by Plato's account of the Forms). As Plato has it, only truth is the concern of the philosopher. As culture in those days did not consist in the solitary reading of books, but in the listening to performances, the recitals of orators (and poets), or the acting out by classical actors of tragedy, Plato maintained in his critique that theatre was not sufficient in conveying the truth (540c).
He was concerned that actors or orators were thus able to persuade an audience by rhetoric rather than by telling the truth (535b). In Book II of The Republic, Plato describes Socrates' dialogue with his pupils. Socrates warns we should not seriously regard poetry as being capable of attaining the truth and that we who listen to poetry should be on our guard against its seductions, since the poet has no place in our idea of God.
 In developing this in Book X, Plato told of Socrates' metaphor of the three beds: one bed exists as an idea made by God (the Platonic ideal); one is made by the carpenter, in imitation of God's idea; one is made by the artist in imitation of the carpenter's. So the artist's bed is twice removed from the truth. The copiers only touch on a small part of things as they really are, where a bed may appear differently from various points of view, looked at obliquely or directly, or differently again in a mirror.
So painters or poets, though they may paint or describe a carpenter or any other maker of things, know nothing of the carpenter's (the craftsman's) art, and though the better painters or poets they are, the more faithfully their works of art will resemble the reality of the carpenter making a bed, nonetheless the imitators will still not attain the truth (of God's creation). The poets, beginning with Homer, far from improving and educating humanity, do not possess the knowledge of craftsmen and are mere imitators who copy again and again images of virtue and rhapsodise about them, but never reach the truth in the way the superior philosophers do.
Aristotle Similar to Plato's writings about mimesis, Aristotle also defined mimesis as the perfection, and imitation of nature. Art is not only imitation but also the use of mathematical ideas and symmetry in the search for the perfect, the timeless, and contrasting being with becoming. Nature is full of change, decay, and cycles, but art can also search for what is everlasting and the first causes of natural phenomena.
Aristotle wrote about the idea of four causes in nature. The first formal cause is like a blueprint, or an immortal idea. The second cause is the material, or what a thing is made out of. The third cause is the process and the agent, in which the artist or creator makes the thing. The fourth cause is the good, or the purpose and end of a thing, known as telos. Aristotle's Poetics is often referred to as the counterpart to this Platonic conception of poetry.
Poetics is his treatise on the subject of mimesis. Aristotle was not against literature as such; he stated that human beings are mimetic beings, feeling an urge to create texts (art) that reflect and represent reality. Aristotle considered it important that there be a certain distance between the work of art on the one hand and life on the other; we draw knowledge and consolation from tragedies only because they do not happen to us.
Without this distance, tragedy could not give rise to catharsis. However, it is equally important that the text causes the audience to identify with the characters and the events in the text, and unless this identification occurs, it does not touch us as an audience. Aristotle holds that it is through "simulated representation", mimesis, that we respond to the acting on the stage which is conveying to us what the characters feel, so that we may empathise with them in this way through the mimetic form of dramatic roleplay.
It is the task of the dramatist to produce the tragic enactment in order to accomplish this empathy by means of what is taking place on stage. In short, catharsis can only be achieved if we see something that is both recognisable and distant. Aristotle argued that literature is more interesting as a means of learning than history, because history deals with specific facts that have happened, and which are contingent, whereas literature, although sometimes based on history, deals with events that could have taken place or ought to have taken place.
Aristotle thought of drama as being "an imitation of an action" and of tragedy as "falling from a higher to a lower estate" and so being removed to a less ideal situation in more tragic circumstances than before. He posited the characters in tragedy as being better than the average human being, and those of comedy as being worse. Michael Davis, a translator and commentator of Aristotle writes: “ At first glance, mimesis seems to be a stylizing of reality in which the ordinary features of our world are brought into focus by a certain exaggeration, the relationship of the imitation to the object it imitates being something like the relationship of dancing to walking.
Imitation always involves selecting something from the continuum of experience, thus giving boundaries to what really has no beginning or end. Mimêsis involves a framing of reality that announces that what is contained within the frame is not simply real. Thus the more "real" the imitation the more fraudulent it becomes. ” Contrast to diegesis It was also Plato and Aristotle who contrasted mimesis with diegesis (Greek διήγησις).
Mimesis shows, rather than tells, by means of directly represented action that is enacted. Diegesis, however, is the telling of the story by a narrator; the author narrates action indirectly and describes what is in the characters' minds and emotions. The narrator may speak as a particular character or may be the "invisible narrator" or even the "all-knowing narrator" who speaks from above in the form of commenting on the action or the characters.
In Book III of his Republic (c. 373 BCE), Plato examines the style of poetry (the term includes comedy, tragedy, epic and lyric poetry): All types narrate events, he argues, but by differing means. He distinguishes between narration or report (diegesis) and imitation or representation (mimesis). Tragedy and comedy, he goes on to explain, are wholly imitative types; the dithyramb is wholly narrative; and their combination is found in epic poetry.
When reporting or narrating, "the poet is speaking in his own person; he never leads us to suppose that he is any one else"; when imitating, the poet produces an "assimilation of himself to another, either by the use of voice or gesture". In dramatic texts, the poet never speaks directly; in narrative texts, the poet speaks as himself or herself. In his Poetics, Aristotle argues that kinds of poetry (the term includes drama, flute music, and lyre music for Aristotle) may be differentiated in three ways: according to their medium, according to their objects, and according to their mode or manner (section I); "For the medium being the same, and the objects the same, the poet may imitate by narration—in which case he can either take another personality, as Homer does, or speak in his own person, unchanged—or he may present all his characters as living and moving before us" (section III).
Though they conceive of mimesis in quite different ways, its relation with diegesis is identical in Plato's and Aristotle's formulations. In ludology, mimesis is sometimes used to refer to the self-consistency of a represented world, and the availability of in-game rationalisations for elements of the gameplay. In this context, mimesis has an associated grade: highly self-consistent worlds that provide explanations for their puzzles and game mechanics are said to display a higher degree of mimesis.
This usage can be traced back to the essay "Crimes Against Mimesis". Dionysian imitatio Main article: Dionysian imitatio Dionysian imitatio is the influential literary method of imitation as formulated by Greek author Dionysius of Halicarnassus in the 1st century BCE, which conceived it as technique of rhetoric: emulating, adaptating, reworking and enriching a source text by an earlier author.
 Dionysius' concept marked a significant depart from the concept of mimesis formulated by Aristotle's in the 4th century BCE, which was only concerned with "imitation of nature" instead of the "imitation of other authors". Latin orators and rhetoricians adopted the literary method of Dionysius' imitatio and discarded Aristotle's mimesis. Samuel Taylor Coleridge Mimesis, or imitation, as he referred to it, was a crucial concept for Samuel Taylor Coleridge's theory of the imagination.
Coleridge begins his thoughts on imitation and poetry from Plato, Aristotle, and Philip Sidney, adopting their concept of imitation of nature instead of other writers. His middling departure from the earlier thinkers lies in his arguing that art does not reveal a unity of essence through its ability to achieve sameness with nature. Coleridge claims: [T]he composition of a poem is among the imitative arts; and that imitation, as opposed to copying, consists either in the interfusion of the SAME throughout the radically DIFFERENT, or the different throughout a base radically the same.
 Here, Coleridge opposes imitation to copying, the latter referring to William Wordsworth's notion that poetry should duplicate nature by capturing actual speech. Coleridge instead argues that the unity of essence is revealed precisely through different materialities and media. Imitation, therefore, reveals the sameness of processes in nature. Luce Irigaray The Belgian feminist Luce Irigaray used the term to describe a form of resistance where women imperfectly imitate stereotypes about themselves so as to show up these stereotypes and undermine them.
 Michael Taussig Further information: Cultural appropriation and Appropriation (sociology) In Mimesis and Alterity (1993), the anthropologist Michael Taussig examines the way that people from one culture adopt another's nature and culture (the process of mimesis) at the same time as distancing themselves from it (the process of alterity). He describes how a legendary tribe, the "white Indians", or Cuna, have adopted in various representations figures and images reminiscent of the white people they encountered in the past (without acknowledging doing so).
Taussig, however, criticises anthropology for reducing yet another culture, that of the Cuna, for having been so impressed by the exotic technologies of the whites, that they raised them to the status of gods. To Taussig, this reductionism is suspect, and he argues thus from both sides in his Mimesis and Alterity to see values in the anthropologists' perspective, at the same time as defending the independence of a lived culture from anthropological reductionism.
 See also Illusionistic tradition Life imitating art Girard's mimetic double bind Diegesis Paratext Pastiche Notes ^ Gebauer and Wulf (1992, 1). ^ Karla L. Schultz (1990) Mimesis on the move: Theodor W. Adorno's concept of imitation, Peter Lang AG, ISBN 3-261-04208-7 ^ The Republic, 377. ^ The Republic, 596–599. ^ a b Plato. Book X. The Republic. ^ Davis (1993, 3). ^ An etext of Plato's Republic is available from Project Gutenberg.
The most relevant section is the following: "You are aware, I suppose, that all mythology and poetry is a narration of events, either past, present, or to come? / Certainly, he replied. / And narration may be either simple narration, or imitation, or a union of the two? / [...] / And this assimilation of himself to another, either by the use of voice or gesture, is the imitation of the person whose character he assumes? / Of course.
/ Then in this case the narrative of the poet may be said to proceed by way of imitation? / Very true. / Or, if the poet everywhere appears and never conceals himself, then again the imitation is dropped, and his poetry becomes simple narration." (Plato, Republic, Book III.) ^ Plato, Republic, Book III. ^ See also Pfister (1977, 2–3) and Elam: "classical narrative is always oriented towards an explicit there and then, towards an imaginary 'elsewhere' set in the past and which has to be evoked for the reader through predication and description.
Dramatic worlds, on the other hand, are presented to the spectator as 'hypothetically actual' constructs, since they are 'seen' in progress 'here and now' without narratorial mediation. [...] This is not merely a technical distinction but constitutes, rather, one of the cardinal principles of a poetics of the drama as opposed to one of narrative fiction. The distinction is, indeed, implicit in Aristotle's differentiation of representational modes, namely diegesis (narrative description) versus mimesis (direct imitation)" (1980, 110–1).
^ Giner-Sorolla, Roger (April 2006). "Crimes Against Mimesis". Archived from the original on 19 June 2005. Retrieved 2006-12-17. This is a reformatted version of a set of articles originally posted to Usenet: Giner-Sorolla, Roger (11 April 2006). "Crimes Against Mimesis, Part 1". Retrieved 2006-12-17. Giner-Sorolla, Roger (18 April 2006). "Crimes Against Mimesis, Part 2". Retrieved 2006-12-17. Giner-Sorolla, Roger (25 April 2006).
"Crimes Against Mimesis, Part 3". Retrieved 2006-12-17. Giner-Sorolla, Roger (29 April 2006). "Crimes Against Mimesis, Part 4". Retrieved 2006-12-17. ^ a b c Ruthven (1979) pp. 103–4 ^ Jansen (2008) ^ Coleridge, S.T. (1983) Biographia Literaria. v.1 eds. James Engell and W. Jackson Bate. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 72. ISBN 0-691-09874-3. ^ See . ^ Taussig, 1993:47, 48. References Auerbach, Erich.
1953. Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature. Princeton: Princeton UP. ISBN 0-691-11336-X. Coleridge, S.T. 1983. Biographia Literaria. v.1 eds. James Engell and W. Jackson Bate. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. ISBN 0-691-09874-3. Davis, Michael. 1999. The Poetry of Philosophy: On Aristotle's Poetics. South Bend, Indiana: St Augustine's P. ISBN 1-890318-62-0. Elam, Keir. 1980.
The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. New Accents Ser. London and New York: Methuen. ISBN 0-416-72060-9. Gebauer, Gunter, and Christoph Wulf. 1992. Mimesis: Culture—Art—Society. Trans. Don Reneau. Berkeley and London: U of California P, 1995. ISBN 0-520-08459-4. René Girard. 2008. Mimesis and Theory: Essays on Literature and Criticism, 1953–2005. Ed. by Robert Doran. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-8047-5580-1. Halliwell, Stephen, The Aesthetics of Mimesis. Ancient Texts and Modern Problems, Princeton 2002. ISBN 0-691-09258-3. Kaufmann, Walter. 1992. Tragedy and Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton UP. ISBN 0-691-02005-1. Lacoue-Labarthe, Philippe. 1989. Typography: Mimesis, Philosophy, Politics, ed. Christopher Fynsk. Cambridge: Harvard UP. ISBN 9780804732826. Lawtoo, Nidesh. 2013.
The Phantom of the Ego: Modernism and the Mimetic Unconscious. East Lansing: Michigan State UP. ISBN 9781611860962. Miller, Gregg Daniel. 2011. Mimesis and Reason: Habermas's Political Philosophy. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-3740-8 Pfister, Manfred. 1977. The Theory and Analysis of Drama. Trans. John Halliday. European Studies in English Literature Ser. Cambridige: Cambridge UP, 1988.
ISBN 0-521-42383-X. Potolsky, Matthew. 2006. Mimesis. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415700302. Prang, Christoph. 2010. Semiomimesis: The influence of semiotics on the creation of literary texts. Peter Bichsel's Ein Tisch ist ein Tisch and Joseph Roth's Hotel Savoy. In: Semiotica. Vol. 2010, Issue 182, S. 375–96. Sörbom, Göran, Mimesis and Art, Uppsala 1966. Snow, Kim; Crethar, Hugh; Robey, Patricia & Carlson, John.
2005. "Theories of Family Therapy (Part 1)". As cited in "Family Therapy Review: Preparing for Comprehensive Licensing Examination." 2005. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-4312-4. Sen, R. K., Mimesis, Calcutta: Syamaprasad College, 2001 Sen, R. K., Aesthetic Enjoyment: Its Background in Philosophy and Medicine, Calcutta: University of Calcutta, 1966. Tatarkiewicz, Władysław. 1980. A History of Six Ideas: An Essay in Aesthetics.
Trans. Christopher Kasparek. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 90-247-2233-0. Taussig, Michael. 1993. Mimesis and Alterity: A Particular History of the Senses. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-90686-5. Tsitsiridis, Stavros, "Mimesis and Understanding. An Interpretation of Aristotle's Poetics 4.1448b4-19", In: Classical Quarterly 55 (2005) 435-46. External links Look up mimesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Plato's Republic II, transl. Benjamin Jowell Plato's Republic III, transl. Benjamin Jowell Plato's Republic X, transl. Benjamin Jowell INFINITE REGRESS OF FORMS Plato's recounting of the "bedness" theory involved in the bed metaphor The University of Chicago, Theories of Media Keywords University of Barcelona Mimesi (Research on Poetics & Rhetorics in Catalan Literature) Mimesislab, Laboratory of Pedagogy of Expression of the Department of Educational Design of the University "Roma Tre" "Mimesis", an article by Władysław Tatarkiewicz for the Dictionary of History of Ideas v t e Appropriation in the arts By field Music Appropriation Bootleg recording Contrafact List Contrafactum Cover version Interpolation List of musical medleys Music mashup Music plagiarism Musical quotation Parody music Pasticcio Plunderphonics Potpourri DJ mix Quodlibet Remix Sampling Sound collage Trope Variation Literature / theatre Assemblage Cut-up technique Joke theft Trope Found poetry Flarf poetry Verbatim theatre Painting / comics / photography Collage Swipe Comic strip switcheroo Photographic mosaic Combine painting By source material Mona Lisa Michelangelo's David Michelangelo's Pietà Cinema / television / video Video mashup Re-cut trailer TV format Found footage Remake Parody film Collage film General concepts Intertextual figures Allusion Calque Plagiarism Pastiche Parody Quotation Translation Adaptation Drama Film Literary Theatre Other concepts Assemblage (art) Bricolage Citation Derivative work Détournement Found object Homage Imitation in art Mashup Reprise Source criticism in the arts Related artistic concepts Originality Artistic inspiration Afflatus Genius (literature) Genre Genre studies Parody advertisement In-joke Tribute act Fan fiction Simulacrum Archetypal literary criticism Readymades of Marcel Duchamp Anti-art Pop art Aesthetic interpretation Western canon Standard blocks and forms Jazz standard Stock character Plot device Dramatic structure Formula fiction Monomyth Archetype Epoch-marking works L.
H.O.O.Q. (1919) "Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote" (1939) Reality Hunger: A Manifesto (2010) Theorization Mimesis Dionysian imitatio De Copia Rerum Romantic movement Russian formalism Modernist movement Postmodern movement Palimpsests: Literature in the Second Degree Related non-artistic concepts Cultural appropriation Appropriation in sociology Articulation in sociology Trope (literature) Academic dishonesty Authorship Genius Intellectual property Recontextualisation v t e Literary composition General topics Literature Fiction writing Writer Characterization Exposition Description Writer's block Techniques / devices Linguistic contrast Literary contrast Trope Idiom Cliché Methods Writing process Mimesis Plagiarism Cut-up technique Pastiche Assemblage Features Writing style Stylistics Writer's voice Setting tone Grammatical mood Tone Register Rhetorical modes Forms Novel Screenplay Short story Poetry Essay Joke Creative nonfiction Beyond the arts Composition studies Technical writing Articulation (sociological) v t e Ancient Greek philosophical concepts Adiaphora (nonmoral) Anamnesis (recollection) Apatheia (equanimity) Apeiron (the unlimited) Aponia (pleasure) Aporia (impasse) Arche (first principle) Arete (excellence) Ataraxia (tranquility) Becoming Being Cosmos (order) Demiurge (creator) Diairesis (division) Differentia / Genus Doxa (common opinion) Dunamis / Energeia (potentiality / actuality) Episteme (knowledge) Epoché (suspension) Ethos (character) Eudaimonia (flourishing) Henosis (oneness) Hexis (active condition) Hyle (matter) Hylomorphism (matter and form) Hylozoism (matter and life) Hypokeimenon (substratum) Hypostasis (underpinning) Idee (Idea) Katalepsis (comprehension) Kathēkon (proper function) Logos (reasoned discourse) Metempsychosis (reincarnation) Mimesis (imitation) Monad (unit) Nous (intellect) Oikeiôsis (affinity) Ousia (substance) Pathos (emotional) Phronesis (practical wisdom) Physis (natural law) Sophia (wisdom) Telos (purpose) Tetractys (fourth triangular number) v t e Aristotelianism Overview Peripatetic school Physics Ethics Term logic Theology (unmoved mover) Ideas and interests Correspondence theory of truth Hexis Virtue ethics (golden mean) Four causes Telos Phronesis Eudaimonia Arete Temporal finitism Antiperistasis Philosophy of nature (sublunary sphere) Potentiality and actuality Universals (substantial form) Aristotle's biology Hylomorphism Mimesis Catharsis Substance (hypokeimenon, ousia, transcendentals) Essence–accident Category of being Minima naturalia Magnanimity Sensus communis Rational animal Genus–differentia Corpus Aristotelicum Physics Organon Nicomachean Ethics Politics Metaphysics On the Soul Rhetoric Poetics Followers Plato Alexander the Great Theophrastus Avicenna Averroes Maimonides Thomas Aquinas Alasdair MacIntyre Martha Nussbaum Related topics Platonism Commentaries on Aristotle Scholasticism Conimbricenses Pseudo-Aristotle Views on women Philosophy portal Retrieved from "https://en.
Different Key Art Principles have developed extensive distinctive eras, together with the altering artists' perceptions of processing, analyzing, and responding to various art types. Their imaginative expressions are already explored by their development, general performance, and participation in arts. Every historic period has specified novel contribution of historic and cultural contexts for building the crucial element Arts Fundamentals with the pertinent period of time. Visual Arts support artists assimilate the true secret Arts Concepts of Symmetry, Shade, Sample, Contrast along with the differences concerning one or even more factors in the composition. The crucial element Artwork Principles of Visual Arts help comprehend and distinguish among the scale which include, Symmetry & Asymmetry, Positive & Negative Space, Light & Dark, Solid & Transparent, and Large & Small.See Also: Art Classes Long Island
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Theory History Compiled by Daniel Robbins for PhD Qualifying Exam from tutorial sessions. Figured Bass General concepts of the Figured Bass school: A. Development of the Basso Continuo. B. Rule of the octave. C. Importance ofthe consonant triad: Heinichen's Trias Harmonica. D. Inversion of chords: Rameau's clarification of Harmonic Inversion, Fundamental Bass, and Harmonic Generation. Johann David Heinichen: Der Generalbass in der Komposition,1728.
A. Fundamental clavis and the intervallic arrangement of chords. B. Classificaton of intervals. C. Two systems of chordal classification. D. Reform of key signature notation relevant to the modern major and minor system. Johann Mattheson: Kleine Generalbass Schule, 1735. A. The perfect harmonic triad. B. Methods of chordal classification: 1. Consonant and dissonant chords distinguished according to interval.
2. Chords of most and least common usage. 3. Chords at the diminished, minor, major, and augmented second. C. Rules of chordal resolutions. D. Modal system. Johann Philippe Kirnberger: Grundsatze des Generalbasses; Die wahren Grundsatze zum Gebrauch der Harmonie, (1773); Die Kunst des reinen Satzes in der Musik, (1774-79). A. Chord origins not based on chordal generation. B. Method of harmonizing the major scale according to rule of the octave principles.
C. Distinction of ascending leading-note (Rameau's major dissonance) from the descending leading-note (Rameau's minor dissonance). D. The consonant triad. E. The dissonant essential chord of the seventh. F. Accidental (zufallige), non-essential dissonant combinations. G. The passing seventh. H. Chord of the augmented sixth. I. Consonant and dissonant form of the six-four chord. C.P.E. Bach: Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments, (1753, 1762).
A. The Triad as the perfect consonant chord. 1. Intervallic structure. 2. FIgured bass indication. 3. Distribution of chord tones. 4. Doublings. 5. Voice leading. B. The diminished triad. 1. Intervallic structure. 2. Figured bass indication. 3. Distribution and doubling of chord tones. C. THe augmented triad. 1. Intervallic structure. 2. Figured bass indication. 3. Doublings. 4. Resolution of the augmented fifth as a dissonance.
D. Chord of the second. 1. Intervallic stucture. 2. Resolution of the second as a dissonance. a. Tied note. b. Passing tone. F.W. Marpurg: Systematische Einleitung in die musikalische Setzkunst nach den Lehrsatzen des Herrn Rameau, (1757). Handbuch bei dem Generalbass und der Komposition, (1755-58). A. Marpurg as a disciple of Ramesu. B. The combined Rameau-Marpurg system. C. Harmony as developed from the scale.
D. Harmonic significance of intervals. Daniel Gottlieb Turk: Kurze Anweisung zum Generalba$spielen, (1791, 1800). Klavierschule (1789). Klavierschule 1. Exceeds its precursors by C.P.E. Bach and Marpurg in its range and thoroughness. 2. The last textbook of the first generation of teaching manuals of keyboard instruments before the era of the hammerklavier. Kurze Anweisung 1. One of the last textbooks in the declining tradition of thoroughbass.
2. Underwent a 5th edition through the efforts of J.F. Naue some 50 years after it first appeared and was used by Beethoven in 1808. C. Unfinished Violinschule, (ca. 1799). Georg Muffat: Regulae Concentuum Partiturae, (ca. 1699). A. Outstanding for its large quantity of fully figured and realized examples. B. Although Muffat has a concern for generally applicable rules, he does no lose sight of actual practice.
1. Sounding, mi agains fa is accep[table in certain circumstances. 2. Full harpsichord doubling not strictly according to the rules. C. The common chord. 1. Intervallic structure. 2. Doubling. 3. Resolution of the third. D. The prepared seventh. E. The unprepared seventh. F. The passing seventh. G. The augmented sixth. Jean-Philippe Rameau: Traite de L'Harmonie Reduite a ses Principes naturels, (1722).
A. Scenario. B. Mathematical manipulation of thirds. C. Intervals arising from the partial series in an order of decreasing perfection. 1. Octave provides for inversion of intervals and chords by serving as a central bounday. 2. Fifth is the basis for all harmony. E. Inversion theory. 1. Primary consonance can never be regarded as the inversion of a secondary consonance. 2. The secondary depends on the primary for its definition.
F. Explanation of dissonance. 1. The difference between consecutive consonances. 2. Alteration of consonances chromatically. G. Principles for defining a chord. 1. Chord may not exceed the range of an octave. 2. Fifth is the basis of all chords. 3. Either of the two thirds may determine the construction of the chord. H. Augmented and diminished chords not recognized because they do not contain a perfect fifth and two thrids.
I. The dominant seventh chord serves as a model for the treatment of dissonance. 1. Minor dissonance: dissonance between the root and seventh. 2. Major dissonance: dissonance between the major 3rd and the 7th. 3. The major third ascends. 4. The minor third ascends. J. All chords derived from the perfect major triad and the dominant seventh by manipulating the different kinds of thirds. K. Bass represents the lowest and heaviest sound but not necessarily the root of chords (that is fundamental bass).
L. Voice leading. 1. Bass should proceed by consonant intervals. 2. Upper parts should move diatonically and more quickly than the bass. M. Cadences. 1. Perfect cadence: Five7-one. 2. Irregular cadence: bass ascends a fifth. 3. Broken cadence: Five7-six. 4. Interrupted cadence: Five7-Five7 of six. N. Tonic note alone bearing the perfect chord serves as the basis of tonality. O. The perfect cadence builds the major mode from a movement of tension to repose (from less perfect to perfect).
P. Notes contained within the octave according to an established proportion of tones and semitones (scale degrees). Q. Same tonic note may bear two modes, distinguished as major or minor, depending on the type of third within the tonic chord. R. Rule of the octave. S. Chromaticism used as chains of dominant-seventh resolutions. T. Harmony is the sole basis for music and produces the greatest effect on the listener (as opposed to Gasparini, who felt that melody was the sole basis).
Counterpoint Johann Josef Fux: Gradus ad Parnassum, (1725). A. The study of fugue as central to Fux's work. B. THe church modes. 1. The diatonic system based on the mi/fa half-tone step. 2. Fux as a disciple of Palestrina. 3. the 16th Century polyphony as the ultimate standard of musical strictness and purity. 4. Construction and illustration of the modal system. C. Imitation. 1. Definition. 2. Examples.
D. Fugue. 1. Fugue, as distinguished from imitation. 2. Entrances of the voices and thematic construction according to the nature of the modes. Giambattista Martini: Essemplare o sia saggio fondamentale prattico di contrappunto fugato, (1774, 1775). A. THe didactic method of Martini. B. Two-part fugue. 1. Clarification of the definitions of duo and duet (differences). 2. Duo by Giacomo Antonio Perti.
C. Three-part fugue: Solfeggiamenti by Cristoforo Baresana. D. Four-part fugue: Four-part Dixit for voices and instruments by Angelo Predieri. Friedrich Wilhem Marpurg: Abhandlung von der Fuge, (1753, 1754). A. Marpurg as an interpreter of Bach. B. Imitation as distinguished from repetition and transposition. C. Registers of voices. D. Species of imitation. 1. Imitation at the unison: imitatio homophonia.
2. Imitation at the upper or lower second: imitatio in secundo superiori ossia inferiori. 3. Imitation at the upper or lower third: imitatio in hyperitono ossia in hypoditono. 4. Imitation at the upper or lower fourth: imitatio in hyperdiatessaron ossia in hypodiatessaron. 5. Imitation at the upper or lower fifth: imitatio in hyperdiapente ossia in hypodiapente. 6. Imitation at the upper or lower sixth: imitation in hexacordo superiori ossia inferiori.
7. Imitation at the upper or lower seventh: imitatio inheptacordo superiori ossia inferiori. 8. Imitation at the upper or lower octave: imitatio in hyperdiapason ossia in hypodiapason. E. Types of harmonic motion. 1. Direct or similar: modus rectus. 2. Indirect or dissimilar: modus contrarius. 3. Oblique: modus obliquus. F> Types of melodic motion. 1. Similar: imitatio aequalis motus. 2. Dissimilar or inverted: imitatio inaequalis motus.
a. Strict: al contrario riverso. b. Free: al rovescio. 3. Retrograde: cancrizans. 4. Inverted retrograde: imitatio cancrizans in motu contrario. G. Rhythmic proportions of imitation. 1. Augmentation: imitatio per augmentationem. 2. Diminution: imitatio per diminutionem. 3. Interrupted imitation: imitatio interrupta. 4. Imitation in contrary rhythm: imitatio per arsib et thesin. H. Imitation in double counterpoint Iinvertible imitation): imitatio invertibilis.
I. General categories of imitation. 1. Periodic: imitatio periodica (incidental or formal). 2. Canonic: imitatio canonica. J. Fugue: generla definition and number of voices. K. Formal proportions of the fugue. 1. Opening statement: phonagogos. 2. The Answer: comes, vox consequens. 3. The exposition: repercussio. 4. Counterpart or counterpoints. 5. Episodes. L. Types of fugue. 1. Regular: fuga propria a.
Strict: fuga obbligata b. Free: fuga libera. 2. Irregular: fuga impropria. M. Simple and multiple fugues. N. Fugues distinguished according to the type of imitation. 1. By the interval of the answer. 2. By melodic motion of the answer. 3. By change of note values of the answer. a. Fugues by augmentation. b. Fugues by diminution. 4. Fugues by imitation in contrary rhythm. 5. Fugues with interrupted imitation.
6. Fugues combining all the mentioned devices: fuga mixta. O. Ordinary and extraordinary fugues. P. Types of fugue according to the note progressions within the theme. 1. Stepwise motion: fuga composita. 2. Motion by skip: fuga incomposita. 3. Ascending note direction: fuga authentica. 4. Descending note direction: fuga plagalis. Johann Mattheson: Der volkommene Kapellmeister, (1739). A. Basic approach aimed at both the professional and amateur.
1. Diagram for the construction of the tonal answer. 2. Conciliato modorum. 3. Ratio between frequency of entrances and the basic tempo of the composition. 4. Duple meter yielding to a certain element of seriousness. B. Themata. C. Moduli. D. Loci topici: locus natationis. 1. Time value of the notes. 2. The interchange or exchange of notes: evolutio. 3. Repetition: clausula synonyma; answer: Wiederschlag / repercussio.
4. Canonic imitation. Ornamentation General concepts of the Ornamentation school of music theorists. A. Later Baroque ornamentation, harmonic as well as melodic: long appoggiaturas give rise to harmonic discrepancies when ornament is sounded with the original note. B. Vocal ornamentation in later Baroque music. 1. Ornamentation mainly empoyed in declamatory sections. 2. In simple strophic songs and all songs built around repeat structures, gradually increased ornamentation builds interest.
3. Dr. Burney: History of Music (summary of ornamentation). C. Instrumental ornamentation in later Baroque music. 1. Slow movements require ornamentation for enrichment and diversification; quick movements, if at all, for additional virtuosity. 2. C.P.E. Bach: Essay treatment of ornamentation. 3. Burney. D. Concerted ornamentation in chamber and orchestral music. 1. Joachim Quantz: Essay (flute playing).
a. In a trio sonata, little ornamentation is used, and the second part must not be ornamentally overshadowed by the first part. b. In a trio, both parts must sound the same embellishment at the same time. c. In a quartet there is even less opportunity for overly florid ornamentation. d. There is more freedom in a concerto for ornamentation, especially in the Adagio. E.National differences in embellishments.
1. Quantz: a. Pieces composed in the French style encompass composed appoggiaturas and trills, leaving little opportunity for improvised embellishment. b. The simpler music of the Italian School leaves greater room for spontaneous ornamentation. 2. General comments concerning late Baroque ornamentation: Tosi. Opinioni. a. Keep embellishments idiomatic to the instrumentation b. Seek simple and natural solutions for all ornamentation.
F. Jean-Henri D'Anglebert 1. Harpsichord music represents the French school between Chambonniere's two Livres de clavecin in the early 1670's and the publications of the first decade of the 18th century. 2. Major contribution to the evolution of French keyboard ornamentation. 3. His table of ornaments is the most complete in the French classical repertory and contains many new signs that later became common to Baroque music in general.
G. Giuseppe Tartini l. Pre-Classical style as setting for ornamentation. a. Growing upper voice supremacy. b. Increasing harmonic support function of bass lines. c. Gradual shift from motivic interest to the complete phrase. d. Frequent echo effects. e. Elaborate cadential formulae. 2. Il Trattato, (1754). a. Attempt to reconcile empirical observation with classical harmonics and the laws of physics and geometry.
b. Difference tone (terzo suono). c. Melody. d. Cadence types. e. Dissonance. f. Scale structure. g. Harmonization. Francois-Joseph Fetis: bringing the tradition into the 19th century. A. Through his writings he tried to develop the concept that art does not progress, it simply changes. B. Biographie universelle des musiciens, (1835-44) contains a large amount of information about his contemporaries.
C. Equisse de l"Histoire de l'harmonie consideree comm art et comme science systematique, (1840) shows the historical sequence of musical events as the development of a musical language. D. Philosophie generale de la musique (unfinished). E. Concerts Historiques: important concerts at which Fetis gave commentaries on performance practices and ornamentation. F. Numerous studies that remain unfinished.
1. Edition of early theoretical writings. 2. Anthology of organ music. 3. Historical anthology of piano music. 4. Collection of vocal music from all countries. G. Methode des methodes de chant: inventory of didactic 18th and 19th century Italian, French, and German works from which he extracted material for the training of singers and for the categorization of vocal embellishments. H. Methode des methodes de piano: utilizes performance practice and examples of keyboard ornamentation from Bach, Scarlatti, Clementi, Hummel, Beethoven, and Liszt in an attempt to revitalize virtuosity.
Other theorists: Vogler, Sechter, and Czerny have some peripheral roles in the development of keyboard performance practice.
Title: Imitation Theory Of Art