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This article is about the art movement. For other uses, see Pop art (disambiguation). Eduardo Paolozzi, I was a Rich Man's Plaything (1947). Part of his Bunk! series, this is considered the initial bearer of "pop art" and the first to display the word "pop". Andy Warhol, Campbell's Tomato Juice Box, 1964. Synthetic polymer paint and silkscreen ink on wood, 10 inches × 19 inches × 9½ inches (25.
4 × 48.3 × 24.1 cm), Museum of Modern Art, New York City Pop art is an art movement that emerged in Britain and the United States during the mid- to late-1950s. The movement presented a challenge to traditions of fine art by including imagery from popular and mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects. One of its aims is to use images of popular (as opposed to elitist) culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any culture, most often through the use of irony.
 It is also associated with the artists' use of mechanical means of reproduction or rendering techniques. In pop art, material is sometimes visually removed from its known context, isolated, or combined with unrelated material. Among the early artists that shaped the pop art movement were Eduardo Paolozzi and Richard Hamilton in Britain, and Larry Rivers, Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns among others in the United States.
Pop art is widely interpreted as a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism, as well as an expansion of those ideas. Due to its utilization of found objects and images, it is similar to Dada. Pop art and minimalism are considered to be art movements that precede postmodern art, or are some of the earliest examples of postmodern art themselves. Pop art often takes imagery that is currently in use in advertising.
Product labeling and logos figure prominently in the imagery chosen by pop artists, seen in the labels of Campbell's Soup Cans, by Andy Warhol. Even the labeling on the outside of a shipping box containing food items for retail has been used as subject matter in pop art, as demonstrated by Warhol's Campbell's Tomato Juice Box, 1964 (pictured). Origins The origins of pop art in North America developed differently from Great Britain.
 In the United States, pop art was a response by artists; it marked a return to hard-edged composition and representational art. They used impersonal, mundane reality, irony, and parody to "defuse" the personal symbolism and "painterly looseness" of abstract expressionism. In the U.S., some artwork by Larry Rivers, Alex Katz and Man Ray anticipated pop art. By contrast, the origins of pop art in post-War Britain, while employing irony and parody, were more academic.
Britain focused on the dynamic and paradoxical imagery of American pop culture as powerful, manipulative symbolic devices that were affecting whole patterns of life, while simultaneously improving the prosperity of a society. Early pop art in Britain was a matter of ideas fueled by American popular culture when viewed from afar. Similarly, pop art was both an extension and a repudiation of Dadaism.
 While pop art and Dadaism explored some of the same subjects, pop art replaced the destructive, satirical, and anarchic impulses of the Dada movement with a detached affirmation of the artifacts of mass culture. Among those artists in Europe seen as producing work leading up to pop art are: Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, and Kurt Schwitters. Proto-pop Charles Demuth, I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold 1928, collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City Although both British and American pop art began during the 1950s, Marcel Duchamp and others in Europe like Francis Picabia and Man Ray predate the movement; in addition there were some earlier American proto-pop origins which utilized "as found" cultural objects.
 During the 1920s, American artists Gerald Murphy, Charles Demuth and Stuart Davis created paintings that contained pop culture imagery (mundane objects culled from American commercial products and advertising design), almost "prefiguring" the pop art movement. United Kingdom: the Independent Group Richard Hamilton's collage Just what is it that makes today's homes so different, so appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered "pop art".
The Independent Group (IG), founded in London in 1952, is regarded as the precursor to the pop art movement. They were a gathering of young painters, sculptors, architects, writers and critics who were challenging prevailing modernist approaches to culture as well as traditional views of fine art. Their group discussions centered on pop culture implications from elements such as mass advertising, movies, product design, comic strips, science fiction and technology.
At the first Independent Group meeting in 1952, co-founding member, artist and sculptor Eduardo Paolozzi presented a lecture using a series of collages titled Bunk! that he had assembled during his time in Paris between 1947 and 1949. This material of "found objects" such as advertising, comic book characters, magazine covers and various mass-produced graphics mostly represented American popular culture.
One of the collages in that presentation was Paolozzi's I was a Rich Man's Plaything (1947), which includes the first use of the word "pop", appearing in a cloud of smoke emerging from a revolver. Following Paolozzi's seminal presentation in 1952, the IG focused primarily on the imagery of American popular culture, particularly mass advertising. According to the son of John McHale, the term "pop art" was first coined by his father in 1954 in conversation with Frank Cordell, although other sources credit its origin to British critic Lawrence Alloway.
 (Both versions agree that the term was used in Independent Group discussions by mid-1955.) "Pop art" as a moniker was then used in discussions by IG members in the Second Session of the IG in 1955, and the specific term "pop art" first appeared in published print in the article "But Today We Collect Ads" by IG members Alison and Peter Smithson in Ark magazine in 1956. However, the term is often credited to British art critic/curator Lawrence Alloway for his 1958 essay titled The Arts and the Mass Media, even though the precise language he uses is "popular mass culture".
 "Furthermore, what I meant by it then is not what it means now. I used the term, and also 'Pop Culture' to refer to the products of the mass media, not to works of art that draw upon popular culture. In any case, sometime between the winter of 1954-55 and 1957 the phrase acquired currency in conversation..." Nevertheless, Alloway was one of the leading critics to defend the inclusion of the imagery of mass culture in the fine arts.
Alloway clarified these terms in 1966, at which time Pop Art had already transited from art schools and small galleries to a major force in the artworld. But its success had not been in England. Practically simultaneously, and independently, New York City had become the hotbed for Pop Art. In London, the annual Royal Society of British Artists (RBA) exhibition of young talent in 1960 first showed American pop influences.
In January 1961, the most famous RBA-Young Contemporaries of all put David Hockney, the American R B Kitaj, New Zealander Billy Apple, Allen Jones, Derek Boshier, Joe Tilson, Patrick Caulfield, Peter Phillips and Peter Blake on the map; Apple designed the posters and invitations for both the 1961 and 1962 Young Contemporaries exhibitions. Hockney, Kitaj and Blake went on to win prizes at the John-Moores-Exhibition in Liverpool in the same year.
Apple and Hockney traveled together to New York during the Royal College's 1961 summer break, which is when Apple first made contact with Andy Warhol – both later moved to the United States and Apple became involved with the New York pop art scene. United States Jasper Johns, Flag, 1954–55 (dated on reverse 1954) Although pop art began in the early 1950s, in America it was given its greatest impetus during the 1960s.
The term "pop art" was officially introduced in December 1962; the occasion was a "Symposium on Pop Art" organized by the Museum of Modern Art. By this time, American advertising had adopted many elements and inflections of modern art and functioned at a very sophisticated level. Consequently, American artists had to search deeper for dramatic styles that would distance art from the well-designed and clever commercial materials.
 As the British viewed American popular culture imagery from a somewhat removed perspective, their views were often instilled with romantic, sentimental and humorous overtones. By contrast, American artists, bombarded every day with the diversity of mass-produced imagery, produced work that was generally more bold and aggressive. Roy Lichtenstein, Drowning Girl, 1963, on display at the Museum of Modern Art, New York.
Two important painters in the establishment of America's pop art vocabulary were Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg. While the paintings of Rauschenberg have relationships to the earlier work of Kurt Schwitters and other Dada artists, his concern was for the social issues of the moment. His approach was to create art out of ephemeral materials. By using topical events in the life of everyday America, he gave his work a unique quality.
 Johns' and Rauschenberg's work of the 1950s is classified as Neo-Dada, and is visually distinct from the prototypical American pop art which exploded in the early 1960s. The Cheddar Cheese canvas from Andy Warhol's Campbell's Soup Cans, 1962. Roy Lichtenstein is of equal importance to American pop art. His work, and its use of parody, probably defines the basic premise of pop art better than any other.
 Selecting the old-fashioned comic strip as subject matter, Lichtenstein produces a hard-edged, precise composition that documents while also parodying in a soft manner. Lichtenstein used oil and Magna paint in his best known works, such as Drowning Girl (1963), which was appropriated from the lead story in DC Comics' Secret Hearts #83. (Drowning Girl is part of the collection of the Museum of Modern Art.
) His work features thick outlines, bold colors and Ben-Day dots to represent certain colors, as if created by photographic reproduction. Lichtenstein said, "[abstract expressionists] put things down on the canvas and responded to what they had done, to the color positions and sizes. My style looks completely different, but the nature of putting down lines pretty much is the same; mine just don't come out looking calligraphic, like Pollock's or Kline's.
" Pop art merges popular and mass culture with fine art while injecting humor, irony, and recognizable imagery/content into the mix. The paintings of Lichtenstein, like those of Andy Warhol, Tom Wesselmann and others, share a direct attachment to the commonplace image of American popular culture, but also treat the subject in an impersonal manner clearly illustrating the idealization of mass production.
 Andy Warhol is probably the most famous figure in pop art. In fact, art critic Arthur Danto once called Warhol "the nearest thing to a philosophical genius the history of art has produced". Warhol attempted to take pop beyond an artistic style to a life style, and his work often displays a lack of human affectation that dispenses with the irony and parody of many of his peers. Early U.
S. exhibitions Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine and Tom Wesselmann had their first shows in the Judson Gallery in 1959 and 1960 and later in 1960 through 1964 along with James Rosenquist, George Segal and others at the Green Gallery on 57th Street in Manhattan. In 1960, Martha Jackson showed installations and assemblages, New Media - New Forms featured Hans Arp, Kurt Schwitters, Jasper Johns, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, Jim Dine and May Wilson.
1961 was the year of Martha Jackson's spring show, Environments, Situations, Spaces. Andy Warhol held his first solo exhibition in Los Angeles in July 1962 at Irving Blum's Ferus Gallery, where he showed 32 paintings of Campell's soup cans, one for every flavor. Warhol sold the set of paintings to Blum for $1,000; in 1996, when the Museum of Modern Art acquired it, the set was valued at $15 million.
 Donald Factor, the son of Max Factor, Jr., and an art collector and co-editor of avant garde literary magazine Nomad, wrote an essay in the magazine's last issue, Nomad/New York. The essay was one of the first on what would become known as pop art, though Factor did not use the term. The essay, "Four Artists", focused on Roy Lichtenstein, James Rosenquist, Jim Dine, and Claes Oldenburg. In the 1960s, Oldenburg, who became associated with the pop art movement, created many happenings, which were performance art-related productions of that time.
The name he gave to his own productions was "Ray Gun Theater". The cast of colleagues in his performances included: artists Lucas Samaras, Tom Wesselman, Carolee Schneemann, Oyvind Fahlstrom and Richard Artschwager; dealer Annina Nosei; art critic Barbara Rose; and screenwriter Rudy Wurlitzer. His first wife, Patty Mucha, who sewed many of his early soft sculptures, was a constant performer in his happenings.
This brash, often humorous, approach to art was at great odds with the prevailing sensibility that, by its nature, art dealt with "profound" expressions or ideas. In December 1961, he rented a store on Manhattan's Lower East Side to house The Store, a month-long installation he had first presented at the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York, stocked with sculptures roughly in the form of consumer goods.
 Opening in 1962, Willem de Kooning's New York art dealer, the Sidney Janis Gallery, organized the groundbreaking International Exhibition of the New Realists, a survey of new-to-the-scene American, French, Swiss, Italian New Realism, and British pop art. The fifty-four artists shown included Richard Lindner, Wayne Thiebaud, Roy Lichtenstein (and his painting Blam), Andy Warhol, Claes Oldenburg, James Rosenquist, Jim Dine, Robert Indiana, Tom Wesselmann, George Segal, Peter Phillips, Peter Blake (The Love Wall from 1961), Yves Klein, Arman, Daniel Spoerri, Christo and Mimmo Rotella.
The show was seen by Europeans Martial Raysse, Niki de Saint-Phalle and Jean Tinguely in New York, who were stunned by the size and look of the American artwork. Also shown were Marisol, Mario Schifano, Enrico Baj and Öyvind Fahlström. Janis lost some of his abstract expressionist artists when Mark Rothko, Robert Motherwell, Adolph Gottlieb and Philip Guston quit the gallery, but gained Dine, Oldenburg, Segal and Wesselmann.
 At an opening-night soiree thrown by collector Burton Tremaine, Willem de Kooning appeared and was turned away by Tremaine, who ironically owned a number of de Kooning's works. Rosenquist recalled: "at that moment I thought, something in the art world has definitely changed". Turning away a respected abstract artist proved that, as early as 1962, the pop art movement had begun to dominate art culture in New York.
A bit earlier, on the West Coast, Roy Lichtenstein, Jim Dine and Andy Warhol from New York City; Phillip Hefferton and Robert Dowd from Detroit; Edward Ruscha and Joe Goode from Oklahoma City; and Wayne Thiebaud from California were included in the New Painting of Common Objects show. This first pop art museum exhibition in America was curated by Walter Hopps at the Pasadena Art Museum. Pop art was ready to change the art world.
New York followed Pasadena in 1963, when the Guggenheim Museum exhibited Six Painters and the Object, curated by Lawrence Alloway. The artists were Jim Dine, Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, Robert Rauschenberg, James Rosenquist, and Andy Warhol. Another pivotal early exhibition was The American Supermarket organised by the Bianchini Gallery in 1964. The show was presented as a typical small supermarket environment, except that everything in it—the produce, canned goods, meat, posters on the wall, etc.
—was created by prominent pop artists of the time, including Apple, Warhol, Lichtenstein, Wesselmann, Oldenburg, and Johns. This project was recreated in 2002 as part of the Tate Gallery's Shopping: A Century of Art and Consumer Culture. By 1962, pop artists started exhibiting in commercial galleries in New York and Los Angeles; for some, it was their first commercial one-man show. The Ferus Gallery presented Andy Warhol in Los Angeles (and Ed Ruscha in 1963).
In New York, the Green Gallery showed Rosenquist, Segal, Oldenburg, and Wesselmann. The Stable Gallery showed R. Indiana and Warhol (in his first New York show). The Leo Castelli Gallery presented Rauschenberg, Johns, and Lichtenstein. Martha Jackson showed Jim Dine and Allen Stone showed Wayne Thiebaud. By 1966, after the Green Gallery and the Ferus Gallery closed, the Leo Castelli Gallery represented Rosenquist, Warhol, Rauschenberg, Johns, Lichtenstein and Ruscha.
The Sidney Janis Gallery represented Oldenburg, Segal, Dine, Wesselmann and Marisol, while Allen Stone continued to represent Thiebaud, and Martha Jackson continued representing Robert Indiana. In 1968, the São Paulo 9 Exhibition – Environment U.S.A.: 1957–1967 featured the "Who's Who" of pop art. Considered as a summation of the classical phase of the American pop art period, the exhibit was curated by William Seitz.
The artists were Edward Hopper, James Gill, Robert Indiana, Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, Andy Warhol and Tom Wesselmann. France Nouveau réalisme refers to an artistic movement founded in 1960 by the art critic Pierre Restany and the artist Yves Klein during the first collective exposition in the Apollinaire gallery in Milan. Pierre Restany wrote the original manifesto for the group, titled the "Constitutive Declaration of New Realism," in April 1960, proclaiming, "Nouveau Réalisme—new ways of perceiving the real.
" This joint declaration was signed on 27 October 1960, in Yves Klein's workshop, by nine people: Yves Klein, Arman, Martial Raysse, Pierre Restany, Daniel Spoerri, Jean Tinguely and the Ultra-Lettrists, Francois Dufrêne, Raymond Hains, Jacques de la Villeglé; in 1961 these were joined by César, Mimmo Rotella, then Niki de Saint Phalle and Gérard Deschamps. The artist Christo showed with the group.
It was dissolved in 1970. Contemporary of American Pop Art—often conceived as its transposition in France—new realism was along with Fluxus and other groups one of the numerous tendencies of the avant-garde in the 1960s. The group initially chose Nice, on the French Riviera, as its home base since Klein and Arman both originated there; new realism is thus often retrospectively considered by historians to be an early representative of the École de Nice movement.
 In spite of the diversity of their plastic language, they perceived a common basis for their work; this being a method of direct appropriation of reality, equivalent, in the terms used by Restany; to a "poetic recycling of urban, industrial and advertising reality". Spain In Spain, the study of pop art is associated with the "new figurative", which arose from the roots of the crisis of informalism.
Eduardo Arroyo could be said to fit within the pop art trend, on account of his interest in the environment, his critique of our media culture which incorporates icons of both mass media communication and the history of painting, and his scorn for nearly all established artistic styles. However, the Spanish artist who could be considered most authentically part of "pop" art is Alfredo Alcaín, because of the use he makes of popular images and empty spaces in his compositions.
Also in the category of Spanish pop art is the "Chronicle Team" (El Equipo Crónica), which existed in Valencia between 1964 and 1981, formed by the artists Manolo Valdés and Rafael Solbes. Their movement can be characterized as "pop" because of its use of comics and publicity images and its simplification of images and photographic compositions. Filmmaker Pedro Almodóvar emerged from Madrid's "La Movida" subculture of the 1970s making low budget super 8 pop art movies, and he was subsequently called the Andy Warhol of Spain by the media at the time.
In the book Almodovar on Almodovar, he is quoted as saying that the 1950s film "Funny Face" was a central inspiration for his work. One pop trademark in Almodovar's films is that he always produces a fake commercial to be inserted into a scene. Japan In Japan, pop art evolved from the nation's prominent avant-garde scene. The use of images of the modern world, copied from magazines in the photomontage-style paintings produced by Harue Koga in the late 1920s and early 1930s, foreshadowed elements of pop art.
 The work of Yayoi Kusama contributed to the development of pop art and influenced many other artists, including Andy Warhol. In the mid-1960s, graphic designer Tadanori Yokoo became one of the most successful pop artists and an international symbol for Japanese pop art. He is well known for his advertisements and creating artwork for pop culture icons such as commissions from The Beatles, Marilyn Monroe, and Elizabeth Taylor, among others.
 Another leading pop artist at that time was Keiichi Tanaami. Iconic characters from Japanese manga and anime have also become symbols for pop art, such as Speed Racer and Astro Boy. Japanese manga and anime also influenced later pop artists such as Takashi Murakami and his superflat movement. Italy In Italy, by 1964, pop art was known and took different forms, such as the "Scuola di Piazza del Popolo" in Rome, with pop artists such as Mario Schifano, Franco Angeli, Giosetta Fioroni, Tano Festa, Claudio Cintoli, and some artworks by Piero Manzoni, Lucio Del Pezzo, Mimmo Rotella and Valerio Adami.
Italian pop art originated in 1950s culture – the works of the artists Enrico Baj and Mimmo Rotella to be precise, rightly considered the forerunners of this scene. In fact, it was around 1958–1959 that Baj and Rotella abandoned their previous careers (which might be generically defined as belonging to a non-representational genre, despite being thoroughly post-Dadaist), to catapult themselves into a new world of images, and the reflections on them, which was springing up all around them.
Rotella's torn posters showed an ever more figurative taste, often explicitly and deliberately referring to the great icons of the times. Baj's compositions were steeped in contemporary kitsch, which turned out to be a "gold mine" of images and the stimulus for an entire generation of artists. The novelty came from the new visual panorama, both inside "domestic walls" and out-of-doors. Cars, road signs, television, all the "new world", everything can belong to the world of art, which itself is new.
In this respect, Italian pop art takes the same ideological path as that of the international scene. The only thing that changes is the iconography and, in some cases, the presence of a more critical attitude toward it. Even in this case, the prototypes can be traced back to the works of Rotella and Baj, both far from neutral in their relationship with society. Yet this is not an exclusive element; there is a long line of artists, including Gianni Ruffi, Roberto Barni, Silvio Pasotti, Umberto Bignardi, and Claudio Cintoli, who take on reality as a toy, as a great pool of imagery from which to draw material with disenchantment and frivolity, questioning the traditional linguistic role models with a renewed spirit of "let me have fun" à la Aldo Palazzeschi.
 Belgium In Belgium, pop art was represented by Paul Van Hoeydonck, whose sculpture Fallen Astronaut was left on the moon during one of the moon missions. Internationally recognized artists such as Marcel Broodthaers ( 'vous êtes doll? ") and Panamarenko are indebted to the pop art movement; Broodthaers's great influence was George Segal. Another well-known artist, Roger Raveel, mounted a birdcage with a real live pigeon in one of his paintings.
By the end of the 1960s and early 1970s, pop art references disappeared from the work of these artists when they started to adopt a more critical attitude towards America because of the Vietnam War's increasingly gruesome character. Panamarenko, however, has retained the irony inherent in the pop art movement up to the present day. Netherlands While there was no formal pop art movement in the Netherlands, there were a group of artists that spent time in New York during the early years of pop art, and drew inspiration from the international pop art movement.
Representatives of Dutch pop art include Daan van Golden, Gustave Asselbergs, Jacques Frenken, Jan Cremer, Wim T. Schippers, and Woody van Amen. They opposed the Dutch petit bourgeois mentality by creating humorous works with a serious undertone. Examples of this nature include Sex O'Clock, by Woody van Amen, and Crucifix / Target, by Jacques Frenken. Russian Federation Russia was a little late to become part of the pop art movement, and some of the artwork that resembles pop art only surfaced around the early 1970s.
Russia was a communist country at that point and bold artistic statements were closely monitored. Russia's own version of pop art was Soviet-themed and was referred to as Sots Art. After 1991, the Communist Party lost its power and the Russian revolution was beginning, and with it came a freedom to express. That is when pop art in Russia took on another form, epitomised by Dmitri Vrubel with his painting titled My God, Help Me to Survive This Deadly Love in 1990.
One might argue that the Soviet posters made in the 1950s to promote the wealth of the nation were in itself a form of pop art. Painting and sculpture examples Jasper Johns, Flag, 1954–55 (dated 1954) Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych 1962 Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, Typewriter Eraser, Scale X, 1999, painted stainless steel and fiberglass, National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC Notable artists Billy Apple Evelyne Axell Sir Peter Blake Derek Boshier Pauline Boty Patrick Caulfield Allan D'Arcangelo Jim Dine Burhan Dogancay Rosalyn Drexler Robert Dowd Ken Elias Erró Marisol Escobar James Gill Bruce Gray (sculptor) Red Grooms Richard Hamilton Keith Haring Jann Haworth David Hockney Dorothy Iannone Robert Indiana Jasper Johns Allen Jones Alex Katz Corita Kent Konrad Klapheck Kiki Kogelnik Nicholas Krushenick Yayoi Kusama Gerald Laing Roy Lichtenstein Richard Lindner John McHale Peter Max Marta Minujin Takashi Murakami Yoshitomo Nara Claes Oldenburg Julian Opie Eduardo Paolozzi Peter Phillips Sigmar Polke Hariton Pushwagner Mel Ramos Robert Rauschenberg Larry Rivers James Rizzi James Rosenquist Ed Ruscha Niki de Saint Phalle Peter Saul George Segal Colin Self Marjorie Strider Aya Takano Wayne Thiebaud Joe Tilson Andy Warhol Idelle Weber John Wesley Tom Wesselmann See also Art pop Chicago Imagists Ferus Gallery Sidney Janis Leo Castelli Green Gallery New Painting of Common Objects Figuration Libre (art movement) Lowbrow (art movement) Nouveau réalisme Neo-pop Op art Plop art Retro art Superflat SoFlo Superflat References ^ Pop Art: A Brief History, MoMA Learning ^ a b c d e Livingstone, M.
, Pop Art: A Continuing History, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1990 ^ a b c de la Croix, H.; Tansey, R., Gardner's Art Through the Ages, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1980. ^ a b c d e f Piper, David. The Illustrated History of Art, ISBN 0-7537-0179-0, p486-487. ^ Harrison, Sylvia (2001-08-27). Pop Art and the Origins of Post-Modernism. Cambridge University Press. ^ a b c d Gopnik, A.
; Varnedoe, K., High & Low: Modern Art & Popular Culture, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1990 ^ "History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian". Smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "Modern Love". The New Yorker. 2007-08-06. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ Wayne Craven, American Art: History and . p.464. ^ a b c d e f g Arnason, H., History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, New York: Harry N.
Abrams, Inc. 1968. ^ "'I was a Rich Man's Plaything', Sir Eduardo Paolozzi". Tate. 2015-12-10. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "John McHale". Warholstars.org. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "Pop art", A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art, Ian Chilvers. Oxford University Press, 1998. ^ "Pop art", The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms, Michael Clarke, Oxford University Press, 2001. ^ Alison and Peter Smithson, "But Today We Collect Ads", reprinted on page 54 in Modern Dreams The Rise and Fall of Pop, published by ICA and MIT, ISBN 0-262-73081-2 ^ Lawrence Alloway, "The Arts and the Mass Media," Architectural Design & Construction, February 1958.
^ a b Klaus Honnef, Pop Art, Taschen, 2004, p. 6, ISBN 3822822183 ^ a b Barton, Christina (2010). Billy Apple: British and American Works 1960-69. London: The Mayor Gallery. pp. 11–21. ISBN 978-0-9558367-3-2. ^ a b c d Scherman, Tony. "When Pop Turned the Art World Upside Down." American Heritage 52.1 (February 2001), 68. ^ Sandler, Irving H. The New York School: The Painters and Sculptors of the Fifties, New York: Harper & Row, 1978.
ISBN 0-06-438505-1 pp. 174–195, Rauschenberg and Johns; pp. 103–111, Rivers and the gestural realists. ^ Robert Rosenblum, "Jasper Johns" Art International (September 1960): 75. ^ Hapgood, Susan, Neo-Dada: Redefining Art, 1958-62. New York: Universe Books, 1994. ^ Hendrickson, Janis (1988). Roy Lichtenstein. Cologne, Germany: Benedikt Taschen. p. 31. ISBN 3-8228-0281-6. ^ Kimmelman, Michael (September 30, 1997).
"Roy Lichtenstein, Pop Master, Dies at 73". New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2007. ^ Michelson, Annette, Buchloh, B. H. D. (eds) Andy Warhol (October Files), MIT Press, 2001. ^ Warhol, Andy. The Philosophy of Andy Warhol, from A to B and back again. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975 ^ "The Collection". MoMA.org. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "The Great American Pop Art Store: Multiples of the Sixties".
Tfaoi.com. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ Diggory (2013). ^ a b Kristine McKenna (July 2, 1995), When Bigger Is Better: Claes Oldenburg has spent the past 35 years blowing up and redefining everyday objects, all in the name of getting art off its pedestal Los Angeles Times. ^ Reva Wolf. "Andy Warhol, Poetry, and Gossip in the 1960s". Books.google.com. p. 83. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "Museum History » Norton Simon Museum".
Nortonsimon.org. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "Six painters and the object. Lawrence Alloway [curator, conceived and prepared this exhibition and the catalogue] (Computer file)". WorldCat.org. 2009-07-24. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ Gayford, Martin (2002-12-19). "Still life at the check-out". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Ltd. Retrieved 28 November 2012. ^ Pop Artists: Andy Warhol, Pop Art, Roy Lichtenstein, Jasper Johns, Peter Max, Erró, David Hockney, Wally Hedrick, Michael Leavitt (May 20, 2010) Reprinted: 2010, General Books, Memphis, Tennessee, USA, ISBN 978-1-155-48349-8, ISBN 1-155-48349-9.
^ Jim Edwards, William Emboden, David McCarthy: Uncommonplaces: The Art of James Francis Gill, 2005, p.54 ^ Karl Ruhrberg, Ingo F. Walther, Art of the 20th Century, Taschen, 2000, p. 518. ISBN 3-8228-5907-9 ^ a b Kerstin Stremmel, Realism, Taschen, 2004, p. 13. ISBN 3-8228-2942-0 ^ Rosemary M. O'Neill, Art and Visual Culture on the French Riviera, 1956–1971: The Ecole de Nice, Ashgate, 2012, p.
93. ^ 60/90. Trente ans de Nouveau Réalisme, La Différence, 1990, p. 76 ^ Eskola, Jack (2015). Harue Koga: David Bowie of the Early 20th Century Japanese Art Avant-garde. Kindle, e-book. ^ "Yayoi Kusama interview – Yayoi Kusama exhibition". Timeout.com. 2013-01-30. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^  Archived November 1, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Tadanori Yokoo : ADC • Global Awards & Club".
Adcglobal.org. 1936-06-27. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "Pop Art Italia 1958-1968 — Galleria Civica". Comune.modena.it. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^ "Dutch Pop Art & The Sixties - Weg met de vertrutting!". 8weekly.nl. Retrieved 2015-12-30. ^  Archived June 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Further reading Diggory, Terence (2013) Encyclopedia of the New York School Poets (Facts on File Library of American Literature).
ISBN 978-1-4381-4066-7 Francis, Mark and Foster, Hal (2010) Pop. London and New York: Phaidon. Haskell, Barbara (1984) BLAM! The Explosion of Pop, Minimalism and Performance 1958-1964. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. in association with the Whitney Museum of American Art. Lifshitz, Mikhail, The Crisis of Ugliness: From Cubism to Pop-Art. Translated and with an Introduction by David Riff.
Leiden: BRILL, 2018 (originally published in Russian by Iskusstvo, 1968). Lippard, Lucy R. (1966) Pop Art, with contributions by Lawrence Alloway, Nancy Marmer, Nicolas Calas, Frederick A. Praeger, New York. Selz, Peter (moderator); Ashton, Dore; Geldzahler, Henry; Kramer, Hilton; Kunitz, Stanley and Steinberg, Leo (April 1963) "A symposium on Pop Art" Arts Magazine, pp. 36–45. Transcript of symposium held at the Museum of Modern Art on December 13, 1962.
External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pop art. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pop art Pop Art: A Brief History, MoMA Learning Pop Art in Modern and Contemporary Art, The Met Brooklyn Museum Exhibitions: Seductive Subversion: Women Pop Artists, 1958–1968, Oct. 2010-Jan. 2011 Brooklyn Museum, Wiki/Pop (Women Pop Artists) Tate Glossary term for Pop art v t e Art movements Medieval Early Christian Migration Period Anglo-Saxon Visigothic Pre-Romanesque Insular Viking Byzantine Merovingian Carolingian Ottonian Romanesque Norman-Sicilian Gothic (International Gothic) Renaissance Italian Renaissance Early Netherlandish German Renaissance Antwerp Mannerists Danube school High Renaissance Romanism Mannerism Fontainebleau Northern Mannerism Flemish Baroque 17th century Baroque Caravaggisti Classicism Dutch Golden Age 18th century Rococo Neoclassicism Romanticism 19th century Naïve Nazarene Realism / Realism Historicism Biedermeier Gründerzeit Barbizon school Pre-Raphaelites Academic Aestheticism Decadent Macchiaioli Art Nouveau Peredvizhniki Impressionism Post-Impressionism Neo-impressionism Divisionism Pointillism Cloisonnism Les Nabis Synthetism Kalighat painting Symbolism Hudson River School 20th century Arts and Crafts Fauvism Die Brücke Cubism Expressionism Neue Künstlervereinigung München Futurism Metaphysical art Rayonism Der Blaue Reiter Orphism Synchromism Vorticism Suprematism Ashcan Dada De Stijl Purism Bauhaus Kinetic art New Objectivity Neues Sehen Surrealism Neo-Fauvism Precisionism Scuola Romana Art Deco International Typographic Style Social realism Abstract expressionism Vienna School of Fantastic Realism Color Field Lyrical abstraction Tachisme COBRA Action painting New media art Letterist International Pop art Situationist International Lettrism Neo-Dada Op art Nouveau réalisme Conceptual art Land art Systems art Video art Minimalism Fluxus Photorealism Performance art Installation art Endurance art Outsider art Neo-expressionism Lowbrow Young British Artists Amazonian pop art 21st century Art intervention Hyperrealism Neo-futurism Stuckism Sound art Superstroke Superflat Relational art Related articles List of art movements Feminist art movement (in the US) Modern art Modernism Late modernism Postmodern art Avant-garde v t e Avant-garde movements Visual art Abstract expressionism Art Nouveau Conceptual art Constructivism Cubism Proto-Cubism Cubo-Futurism De Stijl Devětsil Divisionism Fauvism Impressionism Neo-Impressionism Post-Impressionism Color Field Incoherents Lyrical Abstraction Mail art Minimalism Mir iskusstva Neue Slowenische Kunst Nonconformism Pop art Rayonism Suprematism Vorticism Nouveau réalisme Literature and poetry Acmeism Angry Penguins Asemic writing Cyberpunk Ego-Futurism Experimental literature Flarf poetry Hungry generation Imaginism Language poets Neoteric Nouveau roman Oberiu Oulipo Ultraísmo Visual poetry Zaum Music By style Jazz Metal Pop Rock Prog Punk Others Aleatoric music Ars subtilior Atonal music Drone music Electroacoustic music Electronic music Experimental pop Free jazz Futurism (music) Industrial music Microtonal music Minimal music Musique concrète New Complexity No wave Noise music Post-rock Rock in Opposition Second Viennese School Serialism Spectral music Stochastic music Textural music Totalism Twelve-tone technique Cinema and theatre Cinéma pur Dogme 95 Drop Art Epic theatre Remodernist film Structural film Theatre of the Absurd Theatre of Cruelty General Bauhaus Constructivism Dada Expressionism Fluxus Futurism Lettrism Modernism Minimalism Postminimalism Neo-minimalism Neo-Dada Neoism Postmodernism Late modernism Primitivism Russian Futurism Russian symbolism Situationist International Social realism Socialist realism Surrealism Symbolism Book v t e Modernism Milestones Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (1862-63) Olympia (1863) A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (1886) Mont Sainte-Victoir (1887) The Starry Night (1889) Ubu Roi (1896) Verklärte Nacht (1899) Le bonheur de vivre (1905-1906) Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) The Firebird (1910) Afternoon of a Faun (1912) Nude Descending a Staircase, No.
2 (1912) In Search of Lost Time (1913–1927) The Metamorphosis (1915) Black Square (1915) Fountain (1917) The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921) Ulysses (1922) The Waste Land (1922) The Magic Mountain (1924) Battleship Potemkin (1925) The Sun Also Rises (1926) The Threepenny Opera (1928) The Sound and the Fury (1929) Un Chien Andalou (1929) Villa Savoye (1931) The Blue Lotus (1936) Fallingwater (1936) Waiting for Godot (1953) Literature Guillaume Apollinaire Djuna Barnes Tadeusz Borowski André Breton Mikhail Bulgakov Anton Chekhov Joseph Conrad Alfred Döblin E.
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H. Auden Charles Baudelaire Luca Caragiale Constantine P. Cavafy Blaise Cendrars Hart Crane H.D. Robert Desnos T. S. Eliot Paul Éluard Odysseas Elytis F. S. Flint Stefan George Max Jacob Federico García Lorca Amy Lowell Robert Lowell Mina Loy Stéphane Mallarmé Marianne Moore Wilfred Owen Octavio Paz Fernando Pessoa Ezra Pound Lionel Richard Rainer Maria Rilke Arthur Rimbaud Giorgos Seferis Wallace Stevens Dylan Thomas Tristan Tzara Paul Valéry William Carlos Williams W.
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Flaherty Abel Gance Isidore Isou Buster Keaton Lev Kuleshov Fritz Lang Marcel L'Herbier Georges Méliès F. W. Murnau Georg Wilhelm Pabst Vsevolod Pudovkin Jean Renoir Walter Ruttmann Victor Sjöström Josef von Sternberg Dziga Vertov Jean Vigo Robert Wiene Dance George Balanchine Merce Cunningham Clotilde von Derp Sergei Diaghilev Isadora Duncan Michel Fokine Loie Fuller Martha Graham Hanya Holm Doris Humphrey Léonide Massine Vaslav Nijinsky Alwin Nikolais Alexander Sakharoff Ted Shawn Anna Sokolow Ruth St.
Denis Helen Tamiris Charles Weidman Mary Wigman Architecture Alvar Aalto Marcel Breuer Gordon Bunshaft Antoni Gaudí Walter Gropius Hector Guimard Raymond Hood Victor Horta Friedensreich Hundertwasser Philip Johnson Louis Kahn Le Corbusier Adolf Loos Konstantin Melnikov Erich Mendelsohn Pier Luigi Nervi Richard Neutra Oscar Niemeyer Hans Poelzig Antonin Raymond Gerrit Rietveld Eero Saarinen Rudolf Steiner Edward Durell Stone Louis Sullivan Vladimir Tatlin Paul Troost Jørn Utzon Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Frank Lloyd Wright Related articles American modernism Armory Show Art Deco Art Nouveau Ashcan School Avant-garde Ballets Russes Bauhaus Buddhist modernism Constructivism Cubism Dada Degenerate art De Stijl Der Blaue Reiter Die Brücke Ecomodernism Expressionism Expressionist music Fauvism Fourth dimension in art Fourth dimension in literature Futurism Hanshinkan Modernism High modernism Imagism Impressionism International Style Late modernism Late modernity Lettrism List of art movements List of avant-garde artists List of modernist poets Lyrical abstraction Minimalism Modern art Modernity Neo-Dada Neo-primitivism New Objectivity Orphism Post-Impressionism Postminimalism Postmodernism Reactionary modernism Metamodernism Remodernism Romanticism Second Viennese School Structural film Surrealism Symbolism Synchromism Tonalism Warsaw Autumn v t e Appropriation in the arts By field Music Appropriation Bootleg recording Contrafact List Contrafactum Cover version Interpolation List of musical medleys Music mashup Music plagiarism Musical quotation Parody music Pasticcio Plunderphonics Potpourri DJ mix Quodlibet Remix Sampling Sound collage Trope Variation Literature / theatre Assemblage Cut-up technique Joke theft Trope Found poetry Flarf poetry Verbatim theatre Painting / comics / photography Collage Swipe Comic strip switcheroo Photographic mosaic Combine painting By source material Mona Lisa Michelangelo's David Michelangelo's Pietà Cinema / television / video Video mashup Re-cut trailer TV format Found footage Remake Parody film Collage film General concepts Intertextual figures Allusion Calque Plagiarism Pastiche Parody Quotation Translation Adaptation Drama Film Literary Theatre Other concepts Assemblage (art) Bricolage Citation Derivative work Détournement Found object Homage Imitation in art Mashup Reprise Source criticism in the arts Related artistic concepts Originality Artistic inspiration Afflatus Genius (literature) Genre Genre studies Parody advertisement In-joke Tribute act Fan fiction Simulacrum Archetypal literary criticism Readymades of Marcel Duchamp Anti-art Pop art Aesthetic interpretation Western canon Standard blocks and forms Jazz standard Stock character Plot device Dramatic structure Formula fiction Monomyth Archetype Epoch-marking works L.
H.O.O.Q. (1919) "Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote" (1939) Reality Hunger: A Manifesto (2010) Theorization Mimesis Dionysian imitatio De Copia Rerum Romantic movement Russian formalism Modernist movement Postmodern movement Palimpsests: Literature in the Second Degree Related non-artistic concepts Cultural appropriation Appropriation in sociology Articulation in sociology Trope (literature) Academic dishonesty Authorship Genius Intellectual property Recontextualisation Authority control GND: 4076259-2 NDL: 00569127 Retrieved from "https://en.
Different Important Artwork Concepts have developed comprehensive various eras, along with the changing artists' perceptions of processing, examining, and responding to various art kinds. Their inventive expressions are explored by their generation, overall performance, and participation in arts. Every single historical period has given novel contribution of historical and cultural contexts for building the real key Arts Fundamentals in the related period. Visual Arts aid artists assimilate the true secret Arts Ideas of Symmetry, Shade, Pattern, Contrast and also the distinctions between 1 or maybe more factors inside the composition. The real key Art Concepts of Visible Arts assistance realize and distinguish between the scale for instance, Symmetry & Asymmetry, Positive & Negative Space, Light & Dark, Solid & Transparent, and Large & Small.See Also: Art Therapy Course Hong Kong
Artwork plays a vibrant role within the personal life from the individual as well as while in the social and economic development of the nation. The study of Visual arts encourages personal development and the awareness of both our cultural heritage along with the role of artwork inside the society. The learner acquires personal knowledge, skills and competencies through activities in Visual arts. When one studies Visual arts, he/she would come to appreciate or realize that artwork is an integral part of everyday life.
Top 11 Reasons to have Photowow turn your favorite photos into big, beautiful photo art! REASON 1 Designs Photo wow offers forty unique, beautiful, fun and colorful designs from your photos. From Warhol-style pop art, to comic designs, to a multitude of collage choices, photo wow can create anything you can imagine, including photo canvas. And if you don't see it, choose the last design in our "Shop" section, the "Custom Design" to describe your own photo into art idea and the photo wow artists will create that photo design for you.
REASON 2 Quality Hire ten designers to create your photo art or photos on canvas, and you could receive ten very different artistic looks. Most of our designers have been with photo wow for over five years turning thousands of photos into great pieces of art and pop art. All of these photo art and pop art designs are custom-created in house in our LA art studio. Every photo wow designer has had years of experience studying classical to pop art designs.
REASON 3 Proofs Photo wow wants you to be the art director! During the checkout process, you will see a page that allows you to customize your photo art piece by answering questions specific to the design you will choose. Then, within three working days, you will receive a proof of the photo art design for your approval or requested changes. There is no additional charge for changes to your photo art design.
REASON 4 Speed Photo wow can have your photo art piece to you in as fast as three days. Just click on the "Click here for tax and shipping" link in the "Shop" section, and you can see all of the shipping options. For normal delivery, we place a cushion of time in. However, the way our process works is normally within five working days of your approval of your photo wow art piece, it will be sitting on your doorstep.
We're fast! REASON 5 Value In our twelve years of turning photos into art and pop art, we have yet to raise our prices. Every piece of photo wow photo art and photo canvas placed on a wall is an advertisement for us. So, we not only make sure each art piece looks great, but we keep our pricing very reasonable to have as many photo art and photos on canvas advertisements as possible. That's why you can fill up your wall with a big 42" x 42" piece of photo art for less than $500! REASON 6 Protection Photo wow protects all of the photos on canvas with a unique process that allows the art pieces to get wet without any damage.
Each photo canvas piece also has enough UV protection for the art piece to last a lifetime under normal conditions with no signs of fading. Our twelve years in the photo canvas art business has taught us these unique processes rarely performed by other photo art companies. REASON 7 Customer Service We pride ourselves on our customer service. The best form of advertisement is word of mouth. That's why we will bend over backwards to assist you in creating the perfect art piece and photos on canvas from your favorite photo or photos in the hopes you will assist us in spreading the photo wow word.
Please take a minute to read some of our testimonials we've been so fortunate to receive on a regular basis. REASON 8 Retail Store According to our research, photo wow has not only been in business longer than any other digital photo art business, it is also the only photo art business that has a location that you can visit to view all the artistic designs, and meet and work directly with the designers.
On the billing and shipping page, you can click to pick up your photo art piece at our Los Angeles location. Free parking in back! REASON 9 Satisfaction We know it can be scary to buy art that hasn't already been created - especially on-line. That’s why we don't charge the print, frame or product portion until we design your photo art to exactly as you want it. That gives us extra incentive to create that one-of-a-kind unique photo art or pop art design for you or as photo gifts.
We promise to keep working with you until we get it as you envisioned - from your proof to your doorstep. REASON 10 Perfect Gift There is nothing more unique and personalized than photo gifts you can give to a friend (or yourself) than a photowow piece of photo art or pop art. It is the perfect gift that can be cherished and enjoyed for a lifetime. And if you don't have your friend's photo, you can easily order a photo wow gift certificate.
After you order it, you will see directions on how to easily print it so you can give photo gifts to the recipient immediately. REASON 11 All Pop Art Is Hot! From the first day we opened in our small Los Angeles pop art retail studio, we had all the top Hollywood celebrities wanting to pop art themselves a la Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein. All were created large, fun and the more pop in all this art, the better! Andy Warhol may have left us, but now all these top celebrities had the chance to see what they may have looked like if they were "pop"ed by the greatest.
See "Our Clients". Pictured: Our "Texture" photo design.Click "Shop" above to price it now! GORGEOUS PHOTOS ON CANVAS Stunning pop art is something that definitely won’t go out of fashion. A photo canvas is one of the most beautiful pieces of art you could possibly imagine, if it’s done right. PhotoWow is the perfect platform to turn your most precious memories into glorious works of pop art.
While other companies might promise you the highest quality photos on canvas, this might not always be true. It’s not a simple matter of slapping the media in the printing machine and clicking the ‘print’ button. Only the most advanced technology and highest levels of experience can produce a result that is truly magnificent. PhotoWow makes use of top quality equipment and materials to provide you with photo art that you can display with pride.
HOW DOES IT WORK? The ordering process couldn’t possibly be easier. All you need to do is click the ‘shop’ button and you’re ready to get started. Take a few seconds to browse through the available designs and once you’ve found one you like you can make it more "your own" by selecting one of the variations. Once that’s done it will be easier to envision your amazing photo art in advance - it’s all about your own personal taste and style.
In the same menu you will be able to choose your preferred size of paper or canvas along with a perfectly suited frame. Within no time you will have the perfect photo art for your home or photo gifts for close friends or loved ones. The nifty "preview" feature allows you to see the final result of your order so that making your decision is a little easier. If you’re happy with your order, simply add the photo canvas to your virtual shopping cart and let PhotoWow do the work for you.
A professional team of graphic artists will look through your chosen options and get to work on designing your amazing new artwork. As soon as the design process is complete you will receive an email notification requesting that you look over the proof. If you need any changes to be made, the PhotoWow team will gladly accommodate you. After all, this is your precious photo art and you should have the final say.
ANY QUESTIONS? PhotoWow brings an unsurpassed level of dedication and passion to the design of your order. Whether you want to order an artwork for yourself or whether you want photo gifts for your nearest and dearest friends and family, PhotoWow will make sure that you are 100% satisfied with your order. If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to fill in the online contact form or call 1-800-453-9333.
How Do You Create Photo Art From Your Own Pictures? There is probably nothing more unique and original that you could display around your home than your own photo art. Taking your own pictures and turning them into large display pieces can mean making your home truly your own, and can also mean showing off those favorite family pictures or vacation pictures in a stylish way. For smaller scale pieces, you can create your own photo art on your computer simply by uploading pictures and then using a program that adds tones or that blurs the edges.
You can have these printed in larger sizes at a nearby office supply store or print them in smaller sizes on your own home computer. However, there are many limitations and considerations if you're thinking of making your own photo art from pictures this way. One thing to consider is that most computer programs you buy or already have on your computer are very limited when it comes to creating photo art.
They may be able to blur some lines or wash everything in a sepia tone, but that's about it. You cannot add in many elements or create true art with just a small handful of options, and chances are your pictures will look as if they were cheaply done at home. To create true photo art that you can display at home, it's best to have the help of professionals. It's also good to remember that you may be limited as to the size of your photo art when it comes time to print it, if you simply take it to an office supply store.
To really have a piece of artwork that makes an impact in your home, you want to think about something that looks like true artwork. Turning your photo art into something you want to have over the sofa or bed means being able to print it in that large of a size. There are many elements of design that should be considered when it comes to your photo art, and that will make your pictures truly works of art.
You may want to add in bold colors for some parts of the picture or soften it for a more romantic or rustic look. Being able to manipulate the picture so that you have four panels of the same picture in different looks can really make your photo art seem like a real piece of art. You may also want to add elements that give your pictures a comical effect, such as putting in speech or thought bubbles.
Or you can make photo art out of several different pictures that you want to see all together, such as those of all your children or a group of friends or two people that make up a couple. Having a professional company produce your photo art can be well worth the investment. It means a piece of art that is original and unique and one that may even become an heirloom as well!
Title: How To Make Pop Up Art