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Titian’s Venus The Venus of Urbino is one of Titian’s best known paintings, and probably his most provocative. Portraying a young female model, who according to some scholars appeared in other artist’s pieces, the work feeds the ambiguity regarding the protagonist’s social status by blurring generic boundaries. It is a pagan allegory, it is a private image that celebrates matrimony and, apparently, it is also a portrait.
The lush, naked Venus directs at the viewer a liquid gaze full of sweet surrender and yearning tenderness. She seems to be completely at ease with her inclined to corpulence form, displaying a confidence and openness that make her even more charming and desirable; her body, tilted slightly towards the viewer, throat exposed, lies in a pose of suggestion, or perhaps a demand. Her seductive pose is made to appear even more tantalizing by the ambivalence of the left hand gesture: does she conceal herself, thereby rendering it a sign of modesty, or does she, in fact, touch herself in a more deliberate fashion, implying, as it would be, the opposite of modesty? As this wikipedia article on the painting proposes, the model, while covering her genital area with her left hand, appears to “toy with a strand of pubic hair” with her fingers.
The Venus of Urbino derives its inspiration from Giorgione’s Sleeping Venus, which Titian himself completed (he painted the landscape after Giorgione’s death). Its influence spread beyond place and time, captivating such artists as Mark Twain, who thought it too lascivious, and Manet, who thought it insufficiently so, painting an even more shocking version, the Olympia. Composition and Meaning The painting presents a full-fledged composition that balances somewhat the languorous static character of the reclining protagonist with a consistent dynamic component.
The tiles, foreshortned by the perspective, rhytmically lead to the end of the hall, where one of the maids is hurrying to prepare her mistress’ dress; the red dress of the other echoes the cushion’s red corner in the foreground. Thick verticals relieve the eye from the nearly all-black piece of wall behind’s the figure’s back. This wall helps to define the boundary between the private and the public (or semi-private): the sleeping chamber at the foreground is “for your eyes only,” the hall appears to offer more access to the help, and possibly visitors.
The portico entrance and the trees confirm the more open character of the main room. It is the enclosed room that allows Venus to open her eyes and accompany her nudity with such a soul-baring gaze; Giorgione’s goddess, placed outside, sleeps with her eyes closed. Titian’s model is thus so much bolder, and so much more revelatory. Her unconditional honesty translates into a kind of incorrupt innocence, no matter how erotic and suggestive the context is.
These intimations lead to the notion that Titian gives physical attraction and pleasure an approbation, or at least a well considered aknowledgement. The image overall can be viewed as one giving legitimacy to the idea of sexuality, and endorsing intercourse (between a husband and a wife) as positive and desirable. Catholic dogma of marital intimacy and procreative sex as inferior to celibacy, and as of being merely the lesser of two evils between itself and extramarital relations, dissolves in this image.
Conclusion This extensive and eye-opening article on the Venus of Urbino claims that obscure interpretations of the painting aim to disavow Venus’ sexual appeal, sometimes to a ridiculous degree of obfuscation and denial; that these could be telling more about the authors rather than the work of art. “This woman seems far too sexy to be chaste.” At the same time, the author insists on the marital interpretation, basing his claims on iconography: the two cassoni, probably containing the girl’s bridal garments, and the curled little dog, a very common symbol of marital fidelity (van Eyck’s famous Arnolfino portrait is a classic example).
Private, discreet ownership could be the most fitting bridge to the gap (one not altogether uncommon in contemporary Western society) between sexy and marital. Intended to be owned and seen in a private collection, the image becomes a personal message – similar to that sleeping chamber – “for your eyes only.” And today still, while the curves of Venus’ naked body are there for the eyes of all to observe and admire, one person remains the singular addressee of the girl’s attention, and the sole recipient of the almost limitless fondness and affection exuding from her face.
The rest of the audience will never be able to penetrate that room and gaze. It was not the artist’s intention.
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For other uses, see Critique (disambiguation). Look up critique in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Critique is a method of disciplined, systematic study of a written or oral discourse. Although critique is commonly understood as fault finding and negative judgment, it can also involve merit recognition, and in the philosophical tradition it also means a methodical practice of doubt. The contemporary sense of critique has been largely influenced by the Enlightenment critique of prejudice and authority, which championed the emancipation and autonomy from religious and political authorities.
 The term critique derives, via French, from Ancient Greek κριτική (kritikē), meaning "the faculty of judgment", that is, discerning the value of persons or things. Critique in philosophy Philosophy is the application of critical thought, and is the disciplined practice of processing the theory/praxis problem. In philosophical contexts, such as law or academics, critique is most influenced by Kant's use of the term to mean a reflective examination of the validity and limits of a human capacity or of a set of philosophical claims.
This has been extended in modern philosophy to mean a systematic inquiry into the conditions and consequences of a concept, a theory, a discipline, or an approach and/or attempt to understand the limitations and validity of that. A critical perspective, in this sense, is the opposite of a dogmatic one. Kant wrote: We deal with a concept dogmatically ... if we consider it as contained under another concept of the object which constitutes a principle of reason and determine it in conformity with this.
But we deal with it merely critically if we consider it only in reference to our cognitive faculties and consequently to the subjective conditions of thinking it, without undertaking to decide anything about its object. Later thinkers such as Hegel used the word 'critique' in a broader way than Kant's sense of the word, to mean the systematic inquiry into the limits of a doctrine or set of concepts.
This referential expansion led, for instance, to the formulation of the idea of social critique, such as arose after Karl Marx's theoretical work delineated in his Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (1859), which was a critique of the then-current models of economic theory and thought of that time. Further critique can then be applied after the fact, by using thorough critique as a basis for new argument.
The idea of critique is elemental to legal, aesthetic, and literary theory and such practices, such as in the analysis and evaluation of writings such as pictorial, musical, or expanded textual works. Critique vs criticism In French, German, or Italian, no distinction is drawn between 'critique' and 'criticism': the two words both translate as critique, Kritik, and critica, respectively. In the English language, according to philosopher Gianni Vattimo, criticism is used more frequently to denote literary criticism or art criticism, that is the interpretation and evaluation of literature and art; while critique may be used to refer to more general and profound writing as Kant's Critique of pure reason.
 Another proposed distinction is that critique is never personalized nor ad hominem, but is instead the analyses of the structure of the thought in the content of the item critiqued. This analysis then offers by way of the critique method either a rebuttal or a suggestion of further expansion upon the problems presented by the topic of that specific written or oral argumentation. Even authors that believe there might be a distinction suggest that there is some ambiguity that is still unresolved.
 Critical theory Main article: Critical theory Marx's work inspired the 'Frankfurt School' of critical theory, now best exemplified in the work of Jürgen Habermas. This, in turn, helped inspire the cultural studies form of social critique, which treats cultural products and their reception as evidence of wider social ills such as racism or gender bias. Social critique has been further extended in the work of Michel Foucault and of Alasdair MacIntyre.
 In their different and radically contrasting ways, MacIntyre and Foucault go well beyond the original Kantian meaning of the term critique in contesting legitimatory accounts of social power. See also Criticism References ^ a b c Rodolphe Gasché (2007) The honor of thinking: critique, theory, philosophy pp. 12–13 quote: Let us also remind ourselves of the fact that throughout the eighteenth century, which Kant, in Critique of Pure Reason, labeled "in especial degree, the age of criticism" and to which our use of "critique", today remains largely indebted, critique was above all critique of prejudice and established authority, and hence was intimately tied to a conception of the human being as capable of self-thinking, hence authonomous, and free from religious and political authorities.
^ "critick". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ Immanuel Kant, Critique of Judgment section 74. ^ For an overview of philosophical conceptions of critique from Spinoza to Rancière see K. de Boer and R. Sonderegger (eds.), Conceptions of Critique in Modern and Contemporary Philosophy (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan 2012).
^ a b c d Gianni Vattimo Postmodern criticism: postmodern critique in David Wood (1990) Writing the future, pp. 57–58 ^ David Ingram, Habermas: Introduction and Analysis, New York: Cornell University Press, 2010. ^ Michel Foucault, Was ist Kritik?, Berlin: Merve Verlag 1992. ISBN 3-88396-093-4 ^ Alasdair MacIntyre, After Virtue, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dama Press, 1981. External links Wikiquote has quotations related to: Critique Authority control GND: 4033229-9 Retrieved from "https://en.
Title: How To Critique Art