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Feminist art Art seeking to challenge the dominance of men in both art and society, to gain recognition and equality for women artists, and to question assumptions about womanhood. Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s, feminist artists used a variety of mediums—including painting, performance art, and crafts historically considered “women’s work”—to make work aimed at ending sexism and oppression and exposing femininity to be a masquerade or set of poses adopted by women to conform to societal expectations.
While many of the debates inaugurated in these decades are still ongoing, a younger generation of feminist artists takes an approach incorporating intersecting concerns about race, class, forms of privilege, and gender identity and fluidity. Both feminism and feminist art continue to evolve. Related:Ana Mendieta. Nile Born. 1984Intersecting Identities
Various Critical Art Ideas have evolved complete different eras, with all the modifying artists' perceptions of processing, examining, and responding to numerous artwork types. Their inventive expressions have been explored by their creation, functionality, and participation in arts. Every historical period has given novel contribution of historical and cultural contexts for producing the important thing Arts Fundamentals of the appropriate period of time. Visible Arts help artists assimilate the main element Arts Concepts of Symmetry, Shade, Sample, Contrast and also the dissimilarities among one or more components in the composition. The key Artwork Principles of Visual Arts support understand and distinguish involving the dimensions including, Symmetry & Asymmetry, Positive & Negative Space, Light & Dark, Solid & Transparent, and Large & Small.See Also: Arts Programs For At Risk Youth
Artwork plays a vibrant role in the personal life of your individual as well as while in the social and economic development in the nation. The study of Visible arts encourages personal development plus the awareness of both our cultural heritage and also the role of art in the society. The learner acquires personal knowledge, skills and competencies through activities in Visual arts. When one studies Visual arts, he/she would come to appreciate or realize that artwork is an integral part of everyday life.
MiniumThe Roman term for Red Lead pigment, a popular paint colour used in medieval book illustration and calligraphy. A rather dull red prone to darkening, it has not been used by modern painters for many decades.Mosaic GoldAn imitation gold pigment (also known as Aurium Musicum and Purpurinus), it was used extensively by Renaissance painters and book illuminators. Now obsolete.MummyAlso called Egyptian brown, this warm dark-brown colourant was obtained from the ground remains of Egyptian mummies, a ghoulish practice which was eventually banned.
Now obsolete.Naples YellowAlso called Antimony Yellow and Juane Brilliant, Naples Yellow is a pale but warm yellow pigment derived from Lead Antimoniate. Its use as a painting-pigment can be traced back to around 1400 BCE, making it one of the oldest synthetic pigments. It possesses very good hiding power and good stability. Now obsolete, due to its toxicity. See Giallorino (above).Neutral Grey TintA prepared artist's colour made up from lampblack, Winsor blue and a little alizarin crimson.
Popular for monochrome work or rendered drawings.Ochres (Red/Yellow Ochre)The most ancient of all natural colourants, ochre is naturally tinted clay containing ferric oxide, and produces an earthy pigment varying in colour from cream and light yellow to brown or red. Used widely in prehistoric rock art, notably in cave murals at Lascaux and Chauvet, and also at Blombos cave. Ochres vary considerably in transparency - some are opaque, while others are used as transparent glazes.
Can be safely mixed with other pigments.OrpimentA rich lemon or canary yellow with reasonable covering power and moderate chemical stability, Orpiment is a very ancient natural pigment first used in the Middle East and Asia around 3100 BCE. It was imported into Venice from Turkey during the Renaissance - yet another reason why Venice led the way in artist pigments and colourism. It could not be combined with lead or copper pigments such as lead white, lead-tin yellow, or verdigris, as the mixture is prone to darkening.
A synthetic version of Orpiment, called Kings Yellow, was eventually produced but proved highly toxic due to its high level of arsenic. Both were rendered obsolete by Cadmium Yellow.Payne's GreyNamed after the 18th century watercolourist William Payne, this very dark blue-grey colourant combines ultramarine and black, or Ultramarine and Sienna. It was used by artists as a pigment, and also as a mixer instead of black.
PaletteFor details of colour palettes and for details of pigments, dyes and colours associated with differenteras in the history of art, see: Prehistoric Colour Palette (Hues used by Stone Age cave painters);Egyptian Colour Palette (Hues used in Ancient Egypt); Classical Colour Palette (Pigments used by painters in Ancient Greece and Rome); Renaissance Colour Palette (Colourts used by oil-painters and fresco artists in Florence, Rome and Venice); Eighteenth Century Colour Palette (Hues used by Rococo and other artists).
Nineteenth Century Colour Palette (Pigments used by Impressionists and other 19th century artists).Persian RedAlso known as Persian Gulf Red, this is a deep reddish orange earthy iron pigment from the Persian Gulf, made from a silicate of iron and alumina, combined with magnesia. It is also known as artificial vermillion. See also Venetian Red (below).Phthalocyanine BlueA very powerful blue lake, produced from copper phthalocyanine.
In its prime state it is so strong that there is no sign of blue, almost black with a coppery sheen. Introduced into England in 1935, replacing Prussian blue for many artists. Trade names include Monastral, Winsor, Thalo and Bocour blue.PinkThe word pink was used for yellow when referring to a yellow pigment certainly up to the end of the 17th century and it is likely well into the 18th. The pink (yellow) was made by a skill in cooking.
Several ingredients were used including: unripe buckthorn berries, weld, broom. Norgate in his treatise mentions 'callsind eg shels and whitt Roses makes rare pinck that never starves'.Platina YellowAn expensive lemon yellow pigment obtained from platinum. Now obsolete, it was replaced by the Chrome yellows - Strontium Yellow, Barium Yellow, and Zinc Yellow.Prussian BlueKnown also as Berlin Blue, Bronze Blue, Chinese Blue, Iron Blue, Milori Blue, Parisian Blue, Paste Blue, and Steel Blue, this dark-blue was the first modern, man-made pigment.
It was developed accidentally by the Berlin chemist Diesbach in about 1704, and became available to artists' palettes from 1724, Prussian Blue has excellent tinting strength but is only fairly permanent to light and air. A popular alternative at the time to Indigo dye, Smalt, and Tyrian purple, all of which tend to fade, and the extremely costly ultramarine, the first famous painters to use it included Pieter van der Werff and Antoine Watteau.
Outside Europe, the pigment was taken up by Japanese painters and woodblock print artists. Prussian Blue turns slightly dark purple when dispersed in oil paint.Quercitron YellowObsolete yellow obtained from the bark of the black quercitron oak from America. It was introduced to Europe by Edward Bancroft, a Doctor of Medicine and Fellow of the Royal Society, in 1775. It appeared in Ackermann's treatise in 1801 masquerading as: 'Ackermann's Yellow, another new Colour, lately discovered, is a beautiful warm rich Yellow, almost the tint of Gallstone, works very pleasant, and is very useful in Landscapes, Flowers, Shells, etc.
'RealgarA red-orange pigment chemically related to the yellow orpiment, the mineral ore Realgar is an ancient pigment used in Egypt, Mesopotamia and Asia Minor until the 19th century. Now obsolete.Red Iron Oxide Artist PigmentsEver since Paleolithic artists began painting cave murals, Red Iron oxide ore has been a common source for a wide variety of artist hues. Locations of its extraction are evident in some of the pigment names used, such as Venetian Red, Sinopia, Venice Red, Turkey Red, Indian Red, Spanish Red, Pompeian Red, and Persian Red.
A variant of the latter (Persian Gulf Red) is still reputed to be the best grade for the natural pigment. Nowadays, most Red Iron Oxide colours are manufactured synthetically.Safflower PigmentCommonly known as Carthame, this fugitive red lake derives from the flowers of the Safflower plant. Now obsolete.SaffronAnother fugitive yellow dye created from the flowers of an Indian plant, Saffron pigments were used from Antiquity until the 19th century.
Still in use by traditional craftspeople on the Indian sub-continent and in South-East Asia.SandaracaA Greco-Roman term used to describe a number of lead and arsenic yellows, as well as Cinnabar and even red earths.Sap GreenDerived from the unripe berries of the Buckthorn shrub. It is highly fugitive, as is a sister-pigment, Iris Green which comes from the sap of the Iris Flower. During the Middle Ages, Sap Green was reduced to a heavy syrup and sold in liquid form.
Today's synthetic Sap Greens are lakes obtained from coal tar.Saxon BlueAlternative name for Smalt (see below).Scheele's GreenAlso known as Schloss Green, this yellowish-green pigment was invented in 1775 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele and was used by artists in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is related to the later Emerald Green. By 1900, these greens (both being highly toxic and prone to darkening) were made obsolete by zinc oxide and cobalt green, also known as zinc green.
SepiaOriginally an 18th century replacement for the brown pigment Bistre, this natural organic colourant is made from the ink sacs of the cuttlefish. Originally used by artists in ink painting, illustration and calligraphy, the name Sepia is now used in connection with modern oil paints derived from Burnt Umber, Van Dyke Brown and Carbon Black.SiennaA native clay that contains iron and manganese. In the raw state it has the appearance of dark and rich yellow ochre.
Burnt sienna is made by calcining or roasting the raw sienna in a furnace. The two, raw and burnt siennas are amongst the most stable pigments on the painter's palette. SinopiaAn ancient name for native red iron oxides, it takes its name from the town of Sinope in Asia Minor. Cennini says in Il Libro dell' Arte of its unsuitability for fresco and tempera. Well watered down it was much employed by artists for laying in the under-drawing for fresco work on the arriccio.
SmaltMade from ground blue-coloured glass, Smalt was the earliest of the cobalt pigments. It emerged as a European replacement for Egyptian Blue, which was derived from copper. Despite its weak tinting power it remained popular until the development of synthetic Ultramarine and Cobalt Blue in the 19th century. Production continued intermittently until 1950.Terra MaritaA fugitive Yellow lake derived from the Saffron plant.
Title: D Arte Mural Colour