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This article is about the coffee bean seed. For the coffee chain, see The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf. Roasted coffee beans A coffee bean is a seed of the coffee plant and the source for coffee. It is the pit inside the red or purple fruit often referred to as a cherry. Just like ordinary cherries, the coffee fruit is also a so-called stone fruit. Even though the coffee beans are seeds, they are referred to as "beans" because of their resemblance to true beans.
The fruits – coffee cherries or coffee berries – most commonly contain two stones with their flat sides together. A small percentage of cherries contain a single seed, instead of the usual two. This is called a "peaberry". The peaberry occurs only between 10 and 15% of the time, and it is a fairly common (yet scientifically unproven) belief that they have more flavour than normal coffee beans.
 Like Brazil nuts (a seed) and white rice, coffee beans consist mostly of endosperm. The two most economically important varieties of coffee plant are the Arabica and the Robusta; ~60% of the coffee produced worldwide is Arabica and ~40% is Robusta. Arabica beans consist of 0.8–1.4% caffeine and Robusta beans consist of 1.7–4% caffeine. As coffee is one of the world's most widely consumed beverages, coffee beans are a major cash crop and an important export product, counting for over 50% of some developing nations' foreign exchange earnings.
 History Main article: History of coffee According to popular legend, the coffee plant was discovered in Ethiopia by a goatherd named Kaldi. Significant dates The first coffee plant was found in the mountains of Yemen. Then by 1500, it was exported to the rest of the world through the port of Mocha, Yemen. First cultivation in India (Chikmagalur) – 1600 First cultivation in Europe (also first cultivation outside of east Africa/Arabia) – 1616 First cultivation in Java – 1699 First cultivation in Caribbean (Cuba, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Jamaica, Puerto Rico) – 1715–1730 First cultivation in South America – 1730 First cultivation in Dutch East Indies – 1720 The plants were first introduced in the Americas around 1723.
Roasted beans first sold on retail market (Pittsburgh) – 1865 Important spray-drying techniques developed in 1950s Distribution The bean belt in yellow: The 20 largest producers (2011) are in green. South America is now responsible for about 45% of the world's total coffee exports. Most of this coffee is grown in Brazil. The United States imports more coffee than any other nation. The per capita consumption of coffee in the United States in 2011 was 4.
24 kg (9 lbs), and the value of coffee imported exceeded $8 billion. As of 2015, Americans consumed approximately 400 million cups of coffee per day, making the United States the leading consumer of coffee in the world. Coffee plants grow within a defined area between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, termed the bean belt or coffee belt. Etymology The Oxford English Dictionary suggests that the European languages generally appear to have gotten the name from Turkish kahveh, about 1600, perhaps through Italian caffè.
Arab qahwah, in Turkish pronounced kahveh, the name of the infusion or beverage; said by Arab lexicographers to have originally meant "wine" or some type of wine, and to be a derivative of a verb-root qahiya "to have no appetite." Another common theory is that the name derives from Kaffa Province, Ethiopia, where the species may have originated. Coffee plant Coffee berries The coffee tree averages from 5–10 m (16–33 ft) in height.
As the tree gets older, it branches less and less and bears more leaves and fruits. Coffee plants are grown in rows several feet apart. Some farmers plant fruit trees around them or plant the coffee on the sides of hills, because they need specific conditions to flourish. Ideally, Arabica coffee beans are grown at temperatures between 15 and 24 °C (59 and 75 °F) and Robusta at 24–30 °C (75–86 °F) and receive between 15 and 30 cm (5.
9 and 11.8 in) of rainfall per year. Heavy rain is needed in the beginning of the season when the fruit is developing and less later in the season as it ripens. Processing For more details on this topic, see Processing of coffee. When the fruit is ripe, it is almost always handpicked, using either "selective picking", where only the ripe fruit is removed, or "strip-picking", where all of the fruit is removed from a limb all at once.
This selective picking gives the growers reason to give their coffee a certain specification called "operation cherry red" (OCR). In rare circumstances, the Asian palm civet eats coffee berries and excretes the beans. These beans are called kopi luwak, and can be processed further into a rare and expensive coffee. Two methods are primarily used to process coffee berries. The first, "wet" or "washed" process, has historically usually been carried out in Central America and areas of Africa.
The flesh of the cherries is separated from the seeds and then the seeds are fermented – soaked in water for about two days. This softens the mucilage which is a sticky pulp residue that is still attached to the seeds. Then this mucilage is washed off with water. The "dry processing" method, cheaper and simpler, was historically used for lower-quality beans in Brazil and much of Africa, but now brings a premium when done well.
Twigs and other foreign objects are separated from the berries and the fruit is then spread out in the sun on concrete, bricks or raise beds for 2–3 weeks, turned regularly for even drying. Composition Coffee cherry cross-section The term "green coffee bean" refers to unroasted mature or immature coffee beans. These have been processed by wet or dry methods for removing the outer pulp and mucilage and have an intact wax layer on the outer surface.
When immature, they are green. When mature, they have a brown to yellow or reddish color and typically weigh 300 to 330 mg per dried coffee bean. Nonvolatile and volatile compounds in green coffee beans, such as caffeine, deter many insects and animals from eating them. Further, both nonvolatile and volatile compounds contribute to the flavor of the coffee bean when it is roasted. Nonvolatile nitrogenous compounds (including alkaloids, trigonelline, proteins, and free amino acids) and carbohydrates are of major importance in producing the full aroma of roasted coffee and for its biological action.
Since the mid 2000s, green coffee extract has been sold as a nutritional supplement and has been clinically studied for its chlorogenic acid content and for its lipolytic and weight-loss properties. Nonvolatile alkaloids Immature Coffea canephora berries on a tree in Goa, India Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl-xanthine) is the alkaloid most present in green and roasted coffee beans. The content of caffeine is between 1.
0% and 2.5% by weight of dry green coffee beans. The content of caffeine does not change during maturation of green coffee beans. Lower concentrations of theophylline, theobromine, paraxanthine, liberine, and methylliberine can be found. The concentration of theophylline, an alkaloid noted for its presence in green tea, is reduced during the roasting process, usually about 15 minutes at 230 °C (446 °F), whereas the concentrations of most other alkaloids are not changed.
 The solubility of caffeine in water increases with temperature and with the addition of chlorogenic acids, citric acid, or tartaric acid, all of which are present in green coffee beans. For example, 1 g (0.035 oz) of caffeine dissolves in 46 ml (1.6 US fl oz) of water at room temperature, and 5.5 ml (0.19 US fl oz) at 80 °C (176 °F). The xanthine alkaloids are odorless, but have a bitter taste in water, which is masked by organic acids present in green coffee, however.
Trigonelline (N-methyl-nicotinate) is a derivative of vitamin B6 that is not as bitter as caffeine. In green coffee beans, the content is between 0.6% and 1.0%. At a roasting temperature of 230 °C (446 °F), 85% of the trigonelline is degraded to nicotinic acid, leaving small amounts of the unchanged molecule in the roasted beans. In green coffee beans, trigonelline is synthesized from nicotinic acid (pyridinium-3-carboxylic acid) by methylation from methionine, a sulfur-containing amino acid.
Mutagenic activity of trigonelline has been reported. Proteins and amino acids Proteins account for 8% to 12% of dried green coffee beans. A majority of the proteins are of the 11-S storage kind (alpha – component of 32 kDa, beta – component of 22 kDa), most of which are degraded to free amino acids during maturation of green coffee beans. Further, 11-S storage proteins are degraded to their individual amino acids under roasting temperature, thus are an additional source of bitter components due to generation of Maillard reaction products.
 High temperature and oxygen concentration and low pH degrade 11-S storage proteins of green coffee beans to low-molecular-weight peptides and amino acids. The degradation is accelerated in the presence of organic acids such as chlorogenic acids and their derivatives. Other proteins include enzymes, such as catalase and polyphenol oxidase, which are important for the maturation of green coffee beans.
Mature coffee contains free amino acids (4.0 mg amino acid/g robusta coffee and up to 4.5 mg amino acid/g arabica coffee). In Coffea arabica, alanine is the amino acid with the highest concentration, i.e. 1.2 mg/g, followed by asparagine of 0.66 mg/g, whereas in C. robusta, alanine is present at a concentration of 0.8 mg/g and asparagine at 0.36 mg/g. The free hydrophobic amino acids in fresh green coffee beans contribute to the unpleasant taste, making it impossible to prepare a desirable beverage with such compounds.
In fresh green coffee from Peru, these concentrations have been determined as: isoleucine 81 mg/kg, leucine 100 mg/kg, valine 93 mg/kg, tyrosine 81 mg/kg, phenylalanine 133 mg/kg. The concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (a neurotransmitter) has been determined between 143 mg/kg and 703 mg/kg in green coffee beans from Tanzania. Roasted coffee beans do not contain any free amino acids; the amino acids in green coffee beans are degraded under roasting temperature to Maillard products (reaction products between the aldehyde group of sugar and the alpha-amino group of the amino acids).
Further, diketopiperazines, e.g. cyclo(proline-proline), cyclo(proline-leucine), and cyclo(proline-isoleucine), are generated from the corresponding amino acids, and are the major source of the bitter taste of roasted coffee. The bitter flavor of diketopiperazines is perceptible at around 20 mg/liter of water. The content of diketopiperazines in espresso is about 20 to 30 mg, which is responsible for its bitterness.
 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates make up about 50% of the dry weight of green coffee beans. The carbohydrate fraction of green coffee is dominated by polysaccharides, such as arabinogalactan, galactomannan, and cellulose, contributing to the tasteless flavor of green coffee. Arabinogalactan makes up to 17% of dry weight of green coffee beans, with a molecular weight of 90 kDa to 200 kDa. It is composed of beta-1-3-linked galactan main chains, with frequent members of arabinose (pentose) and galactose (hexose) residues at the side chains comprising immunomodulating properties by stimulating the cellular defense system (Th-1 response) of the body.
Mature brown to yellow coffee beans contain fewer residues of galactose and arabinose at the side chain of the polysaccharides, making the green coffee bean more resistant to physical breakdown and less soluble in water. The molecular weight of the arabinogalactan in coffee is higher than in most other plants, improving the cellular defense system of the digestive tract compared to arabinogalactan with lower molecular weight.
 Free monosaccharides are present in mature brown to yellow-green coffee beans. The free part of monosaccharides contains sucrose (gluco-fructose) up to 9000 mg/100g of arabica green coffee bean, a lower amount in robustas, i.e. 4500 mg/100g. In arabica green coffee beans, the content of free glucose was 30 to 38 mg/100g, free fructose 23 to 30 mg/100g; free galactose 35 mg/100g and mannitol 50 mg/100g dried coffee beans, respectively.
Mannitol is a powerful scavenger for hydroxyl radicals, which are generated during the peroxidation of lipids in biological membranes. Lipids The lipids found in green coffee include: linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, diterpenes, triglycerides, unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, esters, and amides. The total content of lipids in dried green coffee is between 11.
7 and 14 g/100 g. Lipids are present on the surface and in the interior matrix of green coffee beans. On the surface, they include derivatives of carboxylic acid-5-hydroxytryptamides with an amide bond to fatty acids (unsaturated C6 to C24) making up to 3% of total lipid content or 1200 to 1400 microgram/g dried green coffee bean. Such compounds form a wax-like cover on the surface of the coffee bean (200 to 300 mg lipids/100 g dried green coffee bean) protecting the interior matrix against oxidation and insects.
Further, such molecules have antioxidative activity due to their chemical structure. Lipids of the interior tissue are triglycerides, linoleic acid (46% of total free lipids), palmitic acid (30% to 35% of total free lipids), and esters. Arabica beans have a higher content of lipids (13.5 to 17.4 g lipids/100 g dried green coffee beans) than robustas (9.8 to 10.7 g lipids/100 g dried green coffee beans).
The content of diterpenes is about 20% of the lipid fraction. The diterpenes found in green coffee include cafestol, kahweol and 16-O-methylcafestol. Some of these diterpenes have been shown in in vitro experiments to protect liver tissue against chemical oxidation. In coffee oil from green coffee beans the diterpenes are esterified with saturated long chain fatty acids. Nonvolatile chlorogenic acids Chlorogenic acids belong to a group of compounds known as phenolic acids, which are antioxidants.
The content of chlorogenic acids in dried green coffee beans of robusta is 65 mg/g and of arabica 140 mg/g, depending on the timing of harvesting. At roasting temperature, more than 70% of chlorogenic acids are destroyed, leaving a residue less than 30 mg/g in the roasted coffee bean. In contrast to green coffee, green tea contains an average of 85 mg/g polyphenols. These chlorogenic acids could be a valuable, inexpensive source of antioxidants.
Chlorogenic acids are homologous compounds comprising caffeic acid, ferulic acid and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, which are connected by an ester bond to the hydroxyl groups of quinic acid. The antioxidant capacity of chlorogenic acid is more potent than of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or mannitol, which is a selective hydroxy-radical scavenger. Chlorogenic acids have a bitter taste in low concentrations such as 50 mg/l water.
At higher concentrations of 1 g/l water, they have a sour taste. Chlorogenic acids increase the solubility of caffeine and are important modulators of taste. Volatile compounds Volatile compounds of green coffee beans include short-chain fatty acids, aldehydes, and nitrogen-containing aromatic molecules, such as derivatives of pyrazines (green-herbeaceous-earthy odor). Briefly, such volatile compounds are responsible for the less pleasing odor and taste of green coffee versus roasted coffee.
Commercial success was realized by Starbucks in creating Green Bean Refreshers using a process that primarily isolates the caffeine from the green beans but does not actually use steeped liquid from the beans. Many consumers experiment with creating green bean "extract" by steeping green coffee beans in hot water. Often, the recommended times of steeping (20 minutes to 1 hour) extract too much caffeine to provide a pleasant taste.
A steeping time of 12 minutes or under provides a more palatable liquid that can be used as a base for a drink containing more of the nutrients and less caffeine that using just isolated caffeine extract. The alkaline stock base that results can be paired with acidic or fruity extracts, with or without sweetener, to mask the vegetable-like taste of the extract. When green coffee beans are roasted, other molecules with the typical pleasant aroma of coffee are generated, which are not present in fresh green coffee.
During roasting, the major part of the unpleasant-tasting volatile compounds are neutralised. Unfortunately, other important molecules such as antioxidants and vitamins present in green coffee are destroyed. Volatile compounds with nauseating odor for humans have been identified, including acetic acid (pungent, unpleasant odor), propionic acid (odor of sour milk, or butter), butanoic acid (odor of rancid butter, present in green coffee with 2 mg/100 g coffee beans), pentanoic acid (unpleasant fruity flavor, present in green coffee at 40 mg/100 g in coffee beans), hexanoic acid (fatty-rancid odor), heptanoic acid (fatty odor), octanoic acid (repulsive oily rancid odor); nonanoic acid (mild nut-like fatty odor); decanoic acid (sour repulsive odor), and derivatives of such fatty acids – 3-methyl-valeric acid (sour, green-herbaceous, unpleasant odor), acetaldehyde (pungent-nauseating odor, even when highly diluted, present in dried green coffee beans at concentrations of about 5 mg/kg), propanal (choking effect on respiratory system, penetrating-nauseating), butanal (nauseating effect, present in dried green coffee beans at 2 to 7 mg/kg), or pentanal (very repulsive nauseating effect).
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ASIC. pp. 279–292. ^ Roffi, J.; Corte dos Santos, A.; Mexia, J. T.; Busson, F.; Miagrot, M. (1973). "Café verts et torrefiesde l Angola". Etude chimique, 5th International Colloquium Chemicum Coffee, Lisboa, 14 June to 19 June 1971. ASIC. pp. 179–200. ^ Clifford MN (1985). "Chemical and physical aspects of green coffee and coffee products". In Clifford MN, Wilson KC. Coffee: botany, biochemistry, and production of beans and beverage.
London: Croom Helm AVI. pp. 305–74. ISBN 0-7099-0787-7. ^ Lee KJ, Jeong HG (September 2007). "Protective effects of kahweol and cafestol against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage". Toxicol. Lett. 173 (2): 80–7. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2007.06.008. PMID 17689207. ^ Clifford, M. N. "Chlorogenic acids – their characterisation, transformation during roasting, and potential dietary significance".
21st International Conference on Coffee Science, 11–15 September 2006, Montpellier, France (PDF). Association for Science and Information on Coffee, (ASIC). pp. 36–49. ^ Morishita, H.; Kido, R. (1995). "Anti-oxidant activities of chlorogenic acid". 16th international colloqu. Chem. Coffee, Kyoto 9–14th April (PDF). ^ "Starbucks Refreshers™ Beverages". Starbucks Coffee Company. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
^ "Len's Coffee: How to make your own green coffee bean extract". Retrieved 28 January 2016. ^ Bessière-Thomas, Yvonne; Flament, Ivon (2002). Coffee flavor chemistry. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-72038-0. External links Media related to coffee beans at Wikimedia Commons Coffee portal Agriculture portal v t e Coffee Topics Economics Fair trade History Production Coffee production List of countries by coffee production Species and varieties Arabica Kona coffee S795 coffee Charrieriana Liberica Robusta Components Cafestol Caffeic acid Caffeine Coffee bean Processing Coffee roasting Coffee wastewater Decaffeination Home roasting Preparation AeroPress Arabic coffee Brewed coffee Canned coffee Cezve Chorreador Coffeemaker Coffee syrup Cold brew Espresso doppio lungo ristretto Espresso machine French press Handpresso Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol Instant coffee Knockbox List of coffee dishes Moka pot Percolator Turkish coffee Vacuum maker Coffee drinks Affogato Americano Bica Bicerin Black Russian Cà phê sữa đá Café au lait Café de olla Café con leche Caffè crema Café Cubano Caffè mocha Café Touba Caffè corretto Café com Cheirinho Caffè macchiato Cappuccino Carajillo Coffee milk Cortado Espresso Flat white Frappuccino Galão Garoto Greek frappé coffee Iced coffee Indian filter coffee Ipoh white coffee Irish coffee Karsk Kopi Luwak Kopi tubruk Latte Latte macchiato Liqueur coffee Long black Lungo Mazagran Oliang Red eye Ristretto Rüdesheimer Kaffee Tenom coffee Turkish coffee White coffee White Russian Wiener Melange Yuenyeung Organisation lists Coffee companies Coffeehouses Lifestyle Barista Caffè sospeso Coffee break Coffee ceremony CoffeeCon Coffee culture Coffee cupping Coffee Palace Coffeehouse Fika Kopi tiam Latte art Viennese coffee house Substitutes Barley coffee Barley tea Barleycup Caro Chicory Dandelion coffee Inka Postum Qishr Roasted grain drink Misc.
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This article is about the beverage. For the seed from which it is made, see Coffee bean. For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). Coffee A cup of coffee. Type Hot or cold (usually hot) Country of origin Yemen (drink), Ethiopia (plant) Introduced Approx. 15th century Color Dark brown, beige, light brown, black Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia and Sudan) and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius, and Réunion in the Indian Ocean. The plant was exported from Africa to countries around the world. Coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, India, and Africa. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded arabica, and the less sophisticated but stronger and hardier robusta.
Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. Dried coffee seeds (referred to as beans) are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. Roasted beans are ground and brewed with near-boiling water to produce coffee as a beverage. Coffee is slightly acidic and has a stimulating effect on humans because of its caffeine content. Coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world.
 It can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, café latte, etc.). It is usually served hot, although iced coffee is an alternative way of the drink to be served. Clinical studies indicate that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether long-term consumption lowers the risk of some diseases, although there is generally poor quality of such studies.
 The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in Yemen in southern Arabia in the middle of the 15th century in Sufi shrines. It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a similar way to how it is now prepared. Coffee seeds were first exported from East Africa to Yemen, as the coffea arabica plant is thought to have been indigenous to the former. Yemeni traders took coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate the seed.
By the 16th century, it had reached Persia, Turkey, and North Africa. From there, it spread to Europe and the rest of the world. Coffee is a major export commodity: it is the top agricultural export for numerous countries and is among the world's largest legal agricultural exports. It is one of the most valuable commodities exported by developing countries. Green (unroasted) coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.
 Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and the way developed countries trade with developing nations and the impact of its cultivation on the environment, in regards to the clearing of land for coffee-growing and water use. Consequently, the markets for fair trade coffee and organic coffee are expanding. Etymology Coffee beans The word "coffee" entered the English language in 1582 via the Dutch koffie, borrowed from the Ottoman Turkish kahve, in turn, borrowed from the Arabic qahwah (قهوة).
 The Arabic word qahwah was traditionally held to refer to a type of wine whose etymology is given by Arab lexicographers as deriving from the verb qahiya (قَهِيَ), "to lack hunger", in reference to the drink's reputation as an appetite suppressant. It has also been proposed that the source may be the Proto-Central Semitic root q-h-h meaning "dark". Alternatively, the word Khat, a plant widely used as a stimulant in Yemen and Ethiopia before being supplanted by coffee has been suggested as a possible origin, or the Arabic word quwwah' (meaning "strength").
 It may also come from the Kingdom of Kaffa in southeast Ethiopia where Coffea arabica grows wild, but this is considered less likely; in the local Kaffa language, the coffee plant is instead called "bunno". The expression "coffee break" was first attested in 1952. The term "coffee pot" dates from 1705. History Main article: History of coffee Legendary accounts According to legend, ancestors of today's Oromo people in a region of Kaffa in Ethiopia were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee plant, though no direct evidence has been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the native populations might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it, earlier than the 17th century.
 The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee when he noticed how excited his goats became after eating the beans from a coffee plant, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal. Other accounts attribute the discovery of coffee to Sheikh Omar. According to an ancient chronicle (preserved in the Abd-Al-Kadir manuscript), Omar, who was known for his ability to cure the sick through prayer, was once exiled from Mocha in Yemen to a desert cave near Ousab (modern-day Wusab, about 90 km east of Zabid).
 Starving, Omar chewed berries from nearby shrubbery but found them to be bitter. He tried roasting the seeds to improve the flavor, but they became hard. He then tried boiling them to soften the seed, which resulted in a fragrant brown liquid. Upon drinking the liquid Omar was revitalized and sustained for days. As stories of this "miracle drug" reached Mocha, Omar was asked to return and was made a saint.
 From Ethiopia, the coffee plant was introduced into the Arab World through Egypt and Yemen. Historical transmission View of Mocha, Yemen during the second half of the 17th century The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century in the accounts of Ahmed al-Ghaffar in Yemen. It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed, in a similar way to how it is now prepared.
Coffee was used by Sufi circles to stay awake for their religious rituals. Accounts differ on the origin of coffee (seeds) prior to its appearance in Yemen. One account credits Muhammad Ibn Sa'd for bringing the beverage to Aden from the African coast. Other early accounts say Ali ben Omar of the Shadhili Sufi order was the first to introduce coffee to Arabia. According to al Shardi, Ali ben Omar may have encountered coffee during his stay with the Adal king Sadadin's companions in 1401.
Famous 16th-century Islamic scholar Ibn Hajar al-Haytami notes in his writings of a beverage called qahwa developed from a tree in the Zeila region. Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress, receiving a cup of coffee from a boy By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. The first coffee smuggled out of the Middle East was by Sufi Baba Budan from Yemen to India in 1670.
Before then, all exported coffee was boiled or otherwise sterilised. Portraits of Baba Budan depict him as having smuggled seven coffee seeds by strapping them to his chest. The first plants grown from these smuggled seeds were planted in Mysore. Coffee then spread to Italy, and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas. A late 19th century advertisement for coffee essence A coffee can from the first half of the 20th century.
From the Museo del Objeto del Objeto collection. In 1583, Leonhard Rauwolf, a German physician, gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East: A beverage as black as ink, useful against numerous illnesses, particularly those of the stomach. Its consumers take it in the morning, quite frankly, in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful.
It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu. — Léonard Rauwolf, Reise in die Morgenländer (in German) John Evelyn recorded tasting the drink at Oxford in England in a diary entry of May 1637 to where it had been brought by an Ottoman student of Balliol College from Crete named Nathaniel Conopios of Crete. From the Middle East, coffee spread to Italy. The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa, Egypt, and the Middle East brought many goods, including coffee, to the Venetian port.
From Venice, it was introduced to the rest of Europe. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600, despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink." The first European coffee house opened in Rome in 1645. A 1919 advertisement for G Washington's Coffee. The first instant coffee was invented by inventor George Washington in 1909. The Dutch East India Company was the first to import coffee on a large scale.
 The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon. The first exports of Indonesian coffee from Java to the Netherlands occurred in 1711. Through the efforts of the British East India Company, coffee became popular in England as well. Oxford's Queen's Lane Coffee House, established in 1654, is still in existence today. Coffee was introduced in France in 1657, and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna, when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks.
 When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period, it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe as alcoholic beverages remained more popular. During the Revolutionary War, the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically; this was also due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants, and a general resolution among many Americans to avoid drinking tea following the 1773 Boston Tea Party.
 After the War of 1812, during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports, the Americans' taste for coffee grew. Coffee consumption declined in England, giving way to tea during the 18th century. The latter beverage was simpler to make, and had become cheaper with the British conquest of India and the tea industry there. During the Age of Sail, seamen aboard ships of the British Royal Navy made substitute coffee by dissolving burnt bread in hot water.
 The Frenchman Gabriel de Clieu took a coffee plant to the French territory of Martinique in the Caribbean, from which much of the world's cultivated arabica coffee is descended. Coffee thrived in the climate and was conveyed across the Americas. Coffee was cultivated in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) from 1734, and by 1788 it supplied half the world's coffee. The conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon to follow Haitian Revolution.
The coffee industry never fully recovered there. It made a brief come-back in 1949 when Haiti was the world's 3rd largest coffee exporter, but fell quickly into rapid decline. Meanwhile, coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727, although its cultivation did not gather momentum until independence in 1822. After this time massive tracts of rainforest were cleared for coffee plantations, first in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro and later São Paulo.
 Brazil went from having essentially no coffee exports in 1800, to being a significant regional producer in 1830, to being the largest producer in the world by 1852. In 1910–20, Brazil exported around 70% of the world's coffee, Colombia, Guatemala, and Venezuela, exported half of the remaining 30%, and Old World production accounted for less than 5% of world exports. Cultivation was taken up by many countries in Central America in the latter half of the 19th century, and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous people.
Harsh conditions led to many uprisings, coups and bloody suppression of peasants. The notable exception was Costa Rica, where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries. Rapid growth in coffee production in South America during the second half of the 19th century was matched by growth in consumption in developed countries, though nowhere has this growth been as pronounced as in the United States, where high rate of population growth was compounded by doubling of per capita consumption between 1860 and 1920.
Though the United States was not the heaviest coffee-drinking nation at the time (Nordic countries, Belgium, and Netherlands all had comparable or higher levels of per capita consumption), due to its sheer size, it was already the largest consumer of coffee in the world by 1860, and, by 1920, around half of all coffee produced worldwide was consumed in the US. Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many developing countries.
Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as their primary source of income. It has become the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, and Ethiopia, as well as many Central American countries. Biology Main articles: Coffea and coffee varieties Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seeds Robusta coffee flowers Several species of shrub of the genus Coffea produce the berries from which coffee is extracted.
The two main species commercially cultivated are Coffea canephora (predominantly a form known as 'robusta') and C. arabica.C. arabica, the most highly regarded species, is native to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia and the Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan and possibly Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya.C. canephora is native to western and central Subsaharan Africa, from Guinea to Uganda and southern Sudan.
 Less popular species are C. liberica, C. stenophylla, C. mauritiana, and C. racemosa. All coffee plants are classified in the large family Rubiaceae. They are evergreen shrubs or trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when unpruned. The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually 10–15 cm (4–6 in) long and 6 cm (2.4 in) wide, simple, entire, and opposite. Petioles of opposite leaves fuse at base to form interpetiolar stipules, characteristic of Rubiaceae.
The flowers are axillary, and clusters of fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously. Gynoecium consists of inferior ovary, also characteristic of Rubiaceae. The flowers are followed by oval berries of about 1.5 cm (0.6 in). When immature they are green, and they ripen to yellow, then crimson, before turning black on drying. Each berry usually contains two seeds, but 5–10% of the berries have only one; these are called peaberries.
 Arabica berries ripen in six to eight months, while robusta take nine to eleven months. Coffea arabica is predominantly self-pollinating, and as a result the seedlings are generally uniform and vary little from their parents. In contrast, Coffea canephora, and C. liberica are self-incompatible and require outcrossing. This means that useful forms and hybrids must be propagated vegetatively.
 Cuttings, grafting, and budding are the usual methods of vegetative propagation. On the other hand, there is great scope for experimentation in search of potential new strains. In 2016, Oregon State University entomologist George Poinar, Jr. announced the discovery of a new plant species that's a 45-million-year-old relative of coffee found in amber. Named Strychnos electri, after the Greek word for amber (electron), the flowers represent the first-ever fossils of an asterid, which is a clade of flowering plants that not only later gave us coffee, but also sunflowers, peppers, potatoes, mint – and deadly poisons.
 Cultivation Further information: List of countries by coffee production Map showing areas of coffee cultivation: r:Coffea canephora m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica a:Coffea arabica The traditional method of planting coffee is to place 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season. This method loses about 50% of the seeds' potential, as about half fail to sprout. A more effective method of growing coffee, used in Brazil, is to raise seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside at six to twelve months.
Coffee is often intercropped with food crops, such as corn, beans, or rice during the first few years of cultivation as farmers become familiar with its requirements.Coffee plants grow within a defined area between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, termed the bean belt or coffee belt. Of the two main species grown, arabica coffee (from C. arabica) is generally more highly regarded than robusta coffee (from C.
canephora); robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better body than arabica. For these reasons, about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. arabica. Robusta strains also contain about 40–50% more caffeine than arabica. Consequently, this species is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. Good quality robusta beans are used in traditional Italian espresso blends to provide a full-bodied taste and a better foam head (known as crema).
Additionally, Coffea canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. arabica and can be cultivated in lower altitudes and warmer climates where C. arabica will not thrive. The robusta strain was first collected in 1890 from the Lomani River, a tributary of the Congo River, and was conveyed from the Congo Free State (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) to Brussels to Java around 1900. From Java, further breeding resulted in the establishment of robusta plantations in many countries.
 In particular, the spread of the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix), to which C. arabica is vulnerable, hastened the uptake of the resistant robusta. Coffee leaf rust is found in virtually all countries that produce coffee. Over 900 species of insect have been recorded as pests of coffee crops worldwide. Of these, over a third are beetles, and over a quarter are bugs. Some 20 species of nematodes, 9 species of mites, and several snails and slugs also attack the crop.
Birds and rodents sometimes eat coffee berries, but their impact is minor compared to invertebrates. In general, arabica is the more sensitive species to invertebrate predation overall. Each part of the coffee plant is assailed by different animals. Nematodes attack the roots, coffee borer beetles burrow into stems and woody material, and the foliage is attacked by over 100 species of larvae (caterpillars) of butterflies and moths.
 Mass spraying of insecticides has often proven disastrous, as predators of the pests are more sensitive than the pests themselves. Instead, integrated pest management has developed, using techniques such as targeted treatment of pest outbreaks, and managing crop environment away from conditions favouring pests. Branches infested with scale are often cut and left on the ground, which promotes scale parasites to not only attack the scale on the fallen branches but in the plant as well.
 The 2-mm-long coffee borer beetle (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most damaging insect pest to the world's coffee industry, destroying up to 50 percent or more of the coffee berries on plantations in most coffee-producing countries. The adult female beetle nibbles a single tiny hole in a coffee berry and lays 35 to 50 eggs. Inside, the offspring grow, mate, and then emerge from the commercially ruined berry to disperse, repeating the cycle.
Pesticides are mostly ineffective because the beetle juveniles are protected inside the berry nurseries, but they are vulnerable to predation by birds when they emerge. When groves of trees are nearby, the American yellow warbler, rufous-capped warbler, and other insectivorous birds have been shown to reduce by 50 percent the number of coffee berry borers in Costa Rica coffee plantations. Beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor, aroma, body, and acidity.
 These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing. Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java and Kona. Arabica coffee beans are cultivated mainly in Latin America, eastern Africa or Asia, while robusta beans are grown in central Africa, throughout southeast Asia, and Brazil.
 Ecological effects A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantation Originally, coffee farming was done in the shade of trees that provided a habitat for many animals and insects. Remnant forest trees were used for this purpose, but many species have been planted as well. These include leguminous trees of the genera Acacia, Albizia, Cassia, Erythrina, Gliricidia, Inga, and Leucaena, as well as the nitrogen-fixing non-legume sheoaks of the genus Casuarina, and the silky oak Grevillea robusta.
 This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method, or "shade-grown". Starting in the 1970s, many farmers switched their production method to sun cultivation, in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields, but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides, which damage the environment and cause health problems.
 Unshaded coffee plants grown with fertilizer yield the most coffee, although unfertilized shaded crops generally yield more than unfertilized unshaded crops: the response to fertilizer is much greater in full sun. While traditional coffee production causes berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields, the quality of the coffee is allegedly superior. In addition, the traditional shaded method provides living space for many wildlife species.
Proponents of shade cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation, pesticide pollution, habitat destruction, and soil and water degradation are the side effects of the practices employed in sun cultivation. The American Birding Association, Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center,National Arbor Day Foundation, and the Rainforest Alliance have led a campaign for 'shade-grown' and organic coffees, which can be sustainably harvested.
Shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems, and those more distant from continuous forest compare rather poorly to undisturbed native forest in terms of habitat value for some bird species. Another issue concerning coffee is its use of water. It takes about 140 liters (37 U.S. gal) of water to grow the coffee beans needed to produce one cup of coffee, and coffee is often grown in countries where there is a water shortage, such as Ethiopia.
 Used coffee grounds may be used for composting or as a mulch. They are especially appreciated by worms and acid-loving plants such as blueberries. Some commercial coffee shops run initiatives to make better use of these grounds, including Starbucks' "Grounds for your Garden" project, and community sponsored initiatives such as "Ground to Ground". Climate change may significantly impact coffee yields within a few decades.
Kew Royal Botanic Gardens concluded that global warming threatens the genetic diversity of Arabica plants found in Ethiopia and surrounding countries. Production Top ten green coffee producers in 2014 Rank Country Million Metric Tons 1 Brazil 2.8 2 Vietnam 1.4 3 Colombia 0.7 4 Indonesia 0.6 5 Ethiopia 0.4 6 India 0.3 7 Honduras 0.3 8 Guatemala 0.2 9 Peru 0.2 10 Uganda 0.
2 World 8.8 Processing See also: Coffee production Traditional coffee beans drying in Kalibaru, Indonesia Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the familiar roasted coffee. Berries have been traditionally selectively picked by hand; a labor-intensive method, it involves the selection of only the berries at the peak of ripeness. More commonly, crops are strip picked, where all berries are harvested simultaneously regardless of ripeness by person or machine.
After picking, green coffee is processed by one of two methods—the dry process method, simpler and less labor-intensive as the berries can be strip picked, and the wet process method, which incorporates fermentation into the process and yields a mild coffee. Then they are sorted by ripeness and color and most often the flesh of the berry is removed, usually by machine, and the seeds are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the seed.
When the fermentation is finished, the seeds are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue, which generates massive amounts of coffee wastewater. Finally, the seeds are dried. The best (but least used) method of drying coffee is using drying tables. In this method, the pulped and fermented coffee is spread thinly on raised beds, which allows the air to pass on all sides of the coffee, and then the coffee is mixed by hand.
In this method the drying that takes place is more uniform, and fermentation is less likely. Most African coffee is dried in this manner and certain coffee farms around the world are starting to use this traditional method. Next, the coffee is sorted, and labeled as green coffee. Another way to let the coffee seeds dry is to let them sit on a concrete patio and rake over them in the sunlight. Some companies use cylinders to pump in heated air to dry the coffee seeds, though this is generally in places where the humidity is very high.
 An Asian coffee known as kopi luwak undergoes a peculiar process made from coffee berries eaten by the Asian palm civet, passing through its digestive tract, with the beans eventually harvested from feces. Coffee brewed from this process is among the most expensive in the world, with bean prices reaching $160 per pound or $30 per brewed cup. Kopi luwak coffee is said to have uniquely rich, slightly smoky aroma and flavor with hints of chocolate, resulting from the action of digestive enzymes breaking down bean proteins to facilitate partial fermentation.
 Roasting See also: Coffee roasting Roasted coffee beans The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state, and with rare exceptions all coffee is roasted before it is consumed. It can be sold roasted by the supplier, or it can be home roasted. The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically.
The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost and increases in volume, causing it to become less dense. The density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F), though different varieties of seeds differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates.
 During roasting, caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches, changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown, which alters the color of the bean. Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process, and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. During roasting, aromatic oils and acids weaken, changing the flavor; at 205 °C (401 °F), other oils start to develop. One of these oils, caffeol, is created at about 200 °C (392 °F), which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor.
 Roasting is the last step of processing the beans in their intact state. During this last treatment, while still in the bean state, more caffeine breaks down above 235 °C (455 °F). Dark roasting is the utmost step in bean processing removing the most caffeine. Although, dark roasting is not to be confused with the Decaffeination process. Grading roasted beans See also: Food grading Coffee "cuppers", or professional tasters, grade the coffee Depending on the color of the roasted beans as perceived by the human eye, they will be labeled as light, medium light, medium, medium dark, dark, or very dark.
A more accurate method of discerning the degree of roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted seeds illuminated with a light source in the near-infrared spectrum. This elaborate light meter uses a process known as spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee's relative degree of roast or flavor development. Roast characteristics The degree of roast has an effect upon coffee flavor and body.
Darker roasts are generally bolder because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor. Lighter roasts have a more complex and therefore perceived stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times. Roasting does not alter the amount of caffeine in the bean, but does give less caffeine when the beans are measured by volume because the beans expand during roasting.
 A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the seed after processing. Chaff is usually removed from the seeds by air movement, though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the seeds. Decaffeination Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee, but all involve either soaking the green seeds in hot water (often called the "Swiss water process") or steaming them, then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils.
 Decaffeination is often done by processing companies, and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry. Coffee container Storage Main article: Coffee bean storage Coffee is best stored in an airtight container made of ceramic, glass, or non-reactive metal. Higher quality prepackaged coffee usually has a one-way valve which prevents air from entering while allowing the coffee to release gases.
 Coffee freshness and flavor is preserved when it is stored away from moisture, heat, and light. The ability of coffee to absorb strong smells from food means that it should be kept away from such smells. Storage of coffee in the refrigerator is not recommended due to the presence of moisture which can cause deterioration. Exterior walls of buildings which face the sun may heat the interior of a home, and this heat may damage coffee stored near such a wall.
 Heat from nearby ovens also harms stored coffee. In 1931, a method of packing coffee in a sealed vacuum in cans was introduced. The roasted coffee was packed and then 99% of the air was removed, allowing the coffee to be stored indefinitely until the can was opened. Today this method is in mass use for coffee in a large part of the world. Brewing See also: Coffee preparation A contemporary automatic coffeemaker Coffee beans must be ground and brewed to create a beverage.
The criteria for choosing a method include flavor and economy. Almost all methods of preparing coffee require that the beans be ground and then mixed with hot water long enough to allow the flavor to emerge but not so long as to draw out bitter compounds. The liquid can be consumed after the spent grounds are removed. Brewing considerations include the fineness of grind, the way in which the water is used to extract the flavor, the ratio of coffee grounds to water (the brew ratio), additional flavorings such as sugar, milk, and spices, and the technique to be used to separate spent grounds.
Ideal holding temperatures range from 85–88 °C (185–190 °F) to as high as 93 °C (199 °F) and the ideal serving temperature is 68 to 79 °C (154 to 174 °F). The recommended brew ratio for non-espresso coffee is around 55 to 60 grams of grounds per litre of water, or two level tablespoons for a 5- or 6-ounce cup. The roasted coffee beans may be ground at a roastery, in a grocery store, or in the home.
Most coffee is roasted and ground at a roastery and sold in packaged form, though roasted coffee beans can be ground at home immediately before consumption. It is also possible, though uncommon, to roast raw beans at home. Coffee beans may be ground in several ways. A burr grinder uses revolving elements to shear the seed; a blade grinder cuts the seeds with blades moving at high speed; and a mortar and pestle crushes the seeds.
For most brewing methods a burr grinder is deemed superior because the grind is more even and the grind size can be adjusted. The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used. Turkish grind is the finest grind, while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grinds. The most common grinds are between these two extremes: a medium grind is used in most home coffee-brewing machines.
 Coffee may be brewed by several methods. It may be boiled, steeped, or pressurized. Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method, and Turkish coffee is an example of this method. It is prepared by grinding or pounding the seeds to a fine powder, then adding it to water and bringing it to the boil for no more than an instant in a pot called a cezve or, in Greek, a bríki. This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface and sediment (which is not meant for drinking) settling at the bottom of the cup.
 Coffee percolators and automatic coffeemakers brew coffee using gravity. In an automatic coffeemaker, hot water drips onto coffee grounds that are held in a paper, plastic, or perforated metal coffee filter, allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while extracting its oils and essences. The liquid drips through the coffee and the filter into a carafe or pot, and the spent grounds are retained in the filter.
 In a percolator, boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by steam pressure created by boiling. The water then seeps through the grounds, and the process is repeated until terminated by removing from the heat, by an internal timer, or by a thermostat that turns off the heater when the entire pot reaches a certain temperature. Coffee may be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetière, coffee press or coffee plunger).
 Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a cylindrical vessel and left to brew for a few minutes. A circular filter which fits tightly in the cylinder fixed to a plunger is then pushed down from the top to force the grounds to the bottom. The filter retains the grounds at the bottom as the coffee is poured from the container. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water, all the coffee oils remain in the liquid, making it a stronger beverage.
This method of brewing leaves more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine. Supporters of the French press method point out that the sediment issue can be minimized by using the right type of grinder: they claim that a rotary blade grinder cuts the coffee bean into a wide range of sizes, including a fine coffee dust that remains as sludge at the bottom of the cup, while a burr grinder uniformly grinds the beans into consistently-sized grinds, allowing the coffee to settle uniformly and be trapped by the press.
 Within the first minute of brewing 95% of the caffeine is released from the coffee bean. The espresso method forces hot pressurized and vaporized water through ground coffee. As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9–10 atm), the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the quantity of coffee to water as gravity-brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution.
 A well-prepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface. Other pressurized water methods include the moka pot and vacuum coffee maker. Cold brew coffee is made by steeping coarsely ground beans in cold water for several hours, then filtering them. This results in a brew lower in acidity than most hot-brewing methods. Nutrition Brewed coffee from typical grounds prepared with tap water contains 40 mg caffeine per 100 gram and no essential nutrients in significant content.
 In espresso, however, likely due to its higher amount of suspended solids, there are significant contents of magnesium, the B vitamins, niacin and riboflavin, and 212 mg of caffeine per 100 grams of grounds. Serving See also: List of coffee beverages Enjoying coffee, painting by unknown artist in the Pera Museum Once brewed, coffee may be served in a variety of ways. Drip-brewed, percolated, or French-pressed/cafetière coffee may be served as white coffee with a dairy product such as milk or cream, or dairy substitute, or as black coffee with no such addition.
It may be sweetened with sugar or artificial sweetener. When served cold, it is called iced coffee. Espresso-based coffee has a variety of possible presentations. In its most basic form, an espresso is served alone as a shot or short black, or with hot water added, when it is known as Caffè Americano. A long black is made by pouring a double espresso into an equal portion of water, retaining the crema, unlike Caffè Americano.
 Milk is added in various forms to an espresso: steamed milk makes a caffè latte, equal parts steamed milk and milk froth make a cappuccino, and a dollop of hot foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato. A flat white is prepared by adding steamed hot milk (microfoam) to espresso so that the flavour is brought out and the texture is unusually velvety. It has less milk than a latte but both are varieties of coffee to which the milk can be added in such a way as to create a decorative surface pattern.
Such effects are known as latte art. Coffee can also be incorporated with alcohol to produce a variety of beverages: it is combined with whiskey in Irish coffee, and it forms the base of alcoholic coffee liqueurs such as Kahlúa and Tia Maria. Darker beers such as stout and porter give a chocolate or coffee-like taste due to roasted grains even though actual coffee beans are not added to it. Instant coffee Main article: Instant coffee Instant coffee A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee or who do not have access to coffeemaking equipment.
Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze-dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water. Originally invented in 1907, it rapidly gained in popularity in many countries in the post-war period, with Nescafé being the most popular product. Many consumers determined that the convenience in preparing a cup of instant coffee more than made up for a perceived inferior taste, although, since the late 1970s, instant coffee has been produced differently in such a way that is similar to the taste of freshly brewed coffee.
Paralleling (and complementing) the rapid rise of instant coffee was the coffee vending machine invented in 1947 and widely distributed since the 1950s. Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years, particularly in China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee, much like brewed or percolated coffee, available both hot and cold.
Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks, which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States. Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee, and costs about 10¢ a cup to produce.
The machines can process up to 500 cups an hour, or 1,000 if the water is preheated. Sale and distribution Main article: Economics of coffee Brazilian coffee sacks Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe. Worldwide, 6.7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 1998–2000, and the forecast is a rise to seven million metric tons annually by 2010.
 Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation, however Vietnam tripled its exports between 1995 and 1999 and became a major producer of robusta seeds. Indonesia is the third-largest coffee exporter overall and the largest producer of washed arabica coffee. Organic Honduran coffee is a rapidly growing emerging commodity owing to the Honduran climate and rich soil. In 2013, The Seattle Times reported that global coffee prices dropped more than 50 percent year-over-year.
 In Thailand, black ivory coffee beans are fed to elephants whose digestive enzymes reduce the bitter taste of beans collected from dung. These beans sell for up to $1,100 a kilogram ($500 per lb), achieving the world's most expensive coffee some three times costlier than beans harvested from the dung of Asian palm civets. Commodity market Coffee is bought and sold as green coffee beans by roasters, investors, and price speculators as a tradable commodity in commodity markets and exchange-traded funds.
Coffee futures contracts for Grade 3 washed arabicas are traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange under ticker symbol KC, with contract deliveries occurring every year in March, May, July, September, and December. Coffee is an example of a product that has been susceptible to significant commodity futures price variations. Higher and lower grade arabica coffees are sold through other channels.
Futures contracts for robusta coffee are traded on the London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange and, since 2007, on the New York Intercontinental Exchange. Dating to the 1970s, coffee has been incorrectly described by many, including historian Mark Pendergrast, as the world's "second most legally traded commodity". Instead, "coffee was the second most valuable commodity exported by developing countries," from 1970 to circa 2000.
 This fact was derived from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Commodity Yearbooks which show "Third World" commodity exports by value in the period 1970–1998 as being in order of crude oil in first place, coffee in second, followed by sugar, cotton, and others. Coffee continues to be an important commodity export for developing countries, but more recent figures are not readily available due to the shifting and politicized nature of the category "developing country".
 International Coffee Day, which is claimed to have originated in Japan in 1983 with an event organized by the All Japan Coffee Association, takes place on September 29 in several countries. Health effects A 2017 systematic review found that drinking coffee is generally safe within usual levels of intake, possibly excluding women during pregnancy and those having increased risk of bone fracture.
 Results on clinical studies of coffee effects on health and disease were complicated by poor study quality, and differences in age, gender, health status, and serving size. Mortality In 2012, the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study analysed the relationship between coffee drinking and mortality. They found that higher coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of death, and that those who drank any coffee lived longer than those who did not.
However the authors noted, "whether this was a causal or associational finding cannot be determined from our data." A 2014 meta-analysis found that coffee consumption (4 cups/day) was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (a 16% lower risk), as well as cardiovascular disease mortality specifically (a 21% lower risk from drinking 3 cups/day), but not with cancer mortality. Additional meta-analysis studies corroborated these findings, showing that higher coffee consumption (2–4 cups per day) was associated with a reduced risk of death by all disease causes.
 Cardiovascular disease Moderate coffee consumption is not a risk factor for coronary heart disease. A 2012 meta-analysis concluded that people who drank moderate amounts of coffee had a lower rate of heart failure, with the biggest effect found for those who drank more than four cups a day. A 2014 meta-analysis concluded that cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease and stroke, is less likely with three to five cups of non-decaffeinated coffee per day, but more likely with over five cups per day.
 A 2016 meta-analysis showed that coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of death in patients who have had a myocardial infarction. Drinking four or more cups of coffee per day does not affect the risk of hypertension compared to drinking little or no coffee; however, drinking one to three cups per day may be at a slightly increased risk. Mental health Long-term preliminary research, including assessment of symptoms for dementia and cognitive impairment, was inconclusive for coffee having an effect in the elderly, mainly due to the poor quality of the studies.
 Preliminary results indicate long-term coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease. Type II diabetes In a systematic review and meta-analysis of 28 prospective observational studies, representing over one million participants, every additional cup of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumed in a day was associated, respectively, with a 9% and 6% lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
 Cancer The effects of coffee consumption on cancer risk remain unclear, with reviews and meta-analyses showing either no relationship or a slightly lower risk of cancer onset. Studies suggest that coffee consumption of 2 cups per/day was associated with a 14% increased risk of developing lung cancer, but only among people who smoke. Method of action Skeletal formula of a caffeine molecule The primary psychoactive chemical in coffee is caffeine, an adenosine antagonist that is known for its stimulant effects.
Coffee also contains the monoamine oxidase inhibitors β-carboline and harmane, which may contribute to its psychoactivity. In a healthy liver, caffeine is mostly broken down by the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system. The excreted metabolites are mostly paraxanthines—theobromine and theophylline—and a small amount of unchanged caffeine. Therefore, the metabolism of caffeine depends on the state of this enzymatic system of the liver.
 Polyphenols in coffee have been shown to affect free radicals in vitro, but there is no evidence that this effect occurs in humans. Polyphenol levels vary depending on how beans are roasted as well as for how long. As interpreted by the Linus Pauling Institute and the European Food Safety Authority, dietary polyphenols, such as those ingested by consuming coffee, have little or no direct antioxidant value following ingestion.
 Caffeine content Depending on the type of coffee and method of preparation, the caffeine content of a single serving can vary greatly. The caffeine content of a cup of coffee varies depending mainly on the brewing method, and also on the variety of seed. According to the USDA National Nutrient Database, an 8-ounce (237 ml) cup of "coffee brewed from grounds" contains 95 mg caffeine, whereas an espresso (25 ml) contains 53 mg.
 According to an article in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, coffee has the following caffeine content, depending on how it is prepared: Serving size Caffeine content Brewed 7 oz, 207 ml 80–135 mg Drip 7 oz, 207 ml 115–175 mg Espresso 1.5–2 oz, 45–60 ml 100 mg While the percent of caffeine content in coffee seeds themselves diminishes with increased roast level, the opposite is true for coffee brewed from different grinds and brewing methods using the same proportion of coffee to water volume.
The coffee sack (similar to the French press and other steeping methods) extracts more caffeine from dark roasted seeds; the percolator and espresso methods extract more caffeine from light roasted seeds: Light roast Medium roast Dark roast Coffee sack – coarse grind 0.046 0.045 0.054 Percolator – coarse grind 0.068 0.065 0.060 Espresso – fine grind 0.069 0.062 0.061  Coffea arabica normally contains about half the caffeine of Coffea robusta.
A Coffea arabica bean containing very little caffeine was discovered in Ethiopia in 2004. See Low caffeine coffee. Coffeehouses See also: Coffeehouse for a social history of coffee, and caffè for specifically Italian traditions A coffeehouse in Cairo, 18th century Widely known as coffeehouses or cafés, establishments serving prepared coffee or other hot beverages have existed for over five hundred years.
Coffeehouses in Mecca became a concern as places for political gatherings to the imams who banned them, and the drink, for Muslims between 1512 and 1524. In 1530 the first coffeehouse was opened in Damascus. The first coffeehouse in Constantinople was opened in 1475 by traders arriving from Damascus and Aleppo. Soon after, coffeehouses became part of the Ottoman Culture, spreading rapidly to all regions of the Ottoman Empire.
In the 17th century, coffee appeared for the first time in Europe outside the Ottoman Empire, and coffeehouses were established and quickly became popular. The first coffeehouses in Western Europe appeared in Venice, as a result of the traffic between La Serenissima and the Ottomans; the very first one is recorded in 1645. The first coffeehouse in England was set up in Oxford in 1650 by a Jewish man named Jacob in the building now known as "The Grand Cafe".
A plaque on the wall still commemorates this and the Cafe is now a cocktail bar. By 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses in England. A legend says that after the second Turkish siege of Vienna in 1683, the Viennese discovered many bags of coffee in the abandoned Ottoman encampment. Using this captured stock, a Polish soldier named Kulczycki opened the first coffeehouse in Vienna.
This story never happened. Nowadays it is proven that the first coffeehouse in Vienna was opened by the Armenian Johannes Theodat in 1685. In 1672 an Armenian named Pascal established a coffee stall in Paris that was ultimately unsuccessful and the city had to wait until 1689 for its first coffeehouse when Procopio Cutò opened the Café Procope. This coffeehouse still exists today and was a major meeting place of the French Enlightenment; Voltaire, Rousseau, and Denis Diderot frequented it, and it is arguably the birthplace of the Encyclopédie, the first modern encyclopedia.
 America had its first coffeehouse in Boston, in 1676. Coffee, tea and beer were often served together in establishments which functioned both as coffeehouses and taverns; one such was the Green Dragon in Boston, where John Adams, James Otis, and Paul Revere planned rebellion. First patent for the espresso machine, Angelo Moriondo (1884) The modern steamless espresso machine was invented in Milan, Italy, in 1938 by Achille Gaggia, and from there spread in coffeehouses and restaurants across Italy and the rest of Europe in the early 1950s.
An Italian named Pino Riservato opened the first espresso bar, the Moka Bar, in Soho in 1952, and there were 400 such bars in London alone by 1956. Cappucino was particularly popular among English drinkers. Similarly in the United States, the espresso craze spread. North Beach in San Francisco saw the opening of the Caffe Trieste in 1957, which saw Beat Generation poets such as Allen Ginsberg and Bob Kaufman alongside Italian immigrants.
 Similar such cafes existed in Greenwich Village and elsewhere. The first Peet's Coffee & Tea store opened in 1966 in Berkeley, California by Dutch native Alfred Peet. He chose to focus on roasting batches with fresher, higher quality seeds than was the norm at the time. He was a trainer and supplier to the founders of Starbuck's. Baristas at work in the first Starbucks coffee shop in Seattle The international coffeehouse chain Starbucks began as a modest business roasting and selling coffee beans in 1971, by three college students Jerry Baldwin, Gordon Bowker, and Zev Siegl.
The first store opened on March 30, 1971 at the Pike Place Market in Seattle, followed by a second and third over the next two years. Entrepreneur Howard Schultz joined the company in 1982 as Director of Retail Operations and Marketing, and pushed to sell premade espresso coffee. The others were reluctant, but Schultz opened Il Giornale in Seattle in April 1986. He bought the other owners out in March 1987 and pushed on with plans to expand—from 1987 to the end of 1991, the chain (rebranded from Il Giornale to Starbucks) expanded to over 100 outlets.
 The company has 16,600 stores in over 40 countries worldwide. South Korea experienced almost 900 percent growth in the number of coffee shops in the country between 2006 and 2011. The capital city Seoul now has the highest concentration of coffee shops in the world, with more than 10,000 cafes and coffeehouses. A contemporary term for a person who makes coffee beverages, often a coffeehouse employee, is a barista.
The Specialty Coffee Association of Europe and the Specialty Coffee Association of America have been influential in setting standards and providing training. Social and culture Main article: Coffee culture Davoser Café by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 1928 Coffee is often consumed alongside (or instead of) breakfast by many at home or when eating out at diners or cafeterias. It is often served at the end of a formal meal, normally with a dessert, and at times with an after-dinner mint, especially when consumed at a restaurant or dinner party.
Break A coffee break in the United States and elsewhere is a short mid-morning rest period granted to employees in business and industry, corresponding with the Commonwealth terms "elevenses", "smoko" (in Australia), "morning tea", "tea break", or even just "tea". An afternoon coffee break, or afternoon tea, often occurs as well. The coffee break originated in the late 19th century in Stoughton, Wisconsin, with the wives of Norwegian immigrants.
The city celebrates this every year with the Stoughton Coffee Break Festival. In 1951, Time noted that "[s]ince the war, the coffee break has been written into union contracts". The term subsequently became popular through a Pan-American Coffee Bureau ad campaign of 1952 which urged consumers, "Give yourself a Coffee-Break – and Get What Coffee Gives to You."John B. Watson, a behavioral psychologist who worked with Maxwell House later in his career, helped to popularize coffee breaks within the American culture.
 Coffee breaks usually last from 10 to 20 minutes and frequently occur at the end of the first third of the work shift. In some companies and some civil service, the coffee break may be observed formally at a set hour. In some places, a cart with hot and cold beverages and cakes, breads and pastries arrives at the same time morning and afternoon, an employer may contract with an outside caterer for daily service, or coffee breaks may take place away from the actual work-area in a designated cafeteria or tea room.
More generally, the phrase "coffee break" has also come to denote any break from work. Prohibition The Coffee Bearer, Orientalist painting by John Frederick Lewis (1857) Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. At least 1,100 years ago, traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern-day Yemen), where Muslim dervishes began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. At first, the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries.
This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies. Coffee drinking was prohibited by jurists and scholars (ulema) meeting in Mecca in 1511 as haraam, but the subject of whether it was intoxicating was hotly debated over the next 30 years until the ban was finally overturned in the mid-16th century. Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca: it was accused of being a heretical substance, and its production and consumption were briefly repressed.
It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV. Coffee, regarded as a Muslim drink, was prohibited by Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889; it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to Charles II outlawing coffeehouses from January 1676 (although the uproar created forced the monarch to back down two days before the ban was due to come into force).
Frederick the Great banned it in Prussia in 1777 for nationalistic and economic reasons; concerned about the price of import, he sought to force the public back to consuming beer. Lacking coffee-producing colonies, Prussia had to import all its coffee at a great cost. A contemporary example of religious prohibition of coffee can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
 The organization holds that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee. This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health, given in 1833 by founder Joseph Smith in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom. It does not identify coffee by name, but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly," which has been interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea. Quite a number of members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church also avoid caffeinated drinks.
In its teachings, the Church encourages members to avoid tea, coffee, and other stimulants. Abstinence from coffee, tobacco, and alcohol by many Adventists has afforded a near-unique opportunity for studies to be conducted within that population group on the health effects of coffee drinking, free from confounding factors. One study was able to show a weak but statistically significant association between coffee consumption and mortality from ischemic heart disease, other cardiovascular disease, all cardiovascular diseases combined, and all causes of death.
 For a time, there had been controversy in the Jewish community over whether the coffee seed was a legume and therefore prohibited for Passover. Upon petition from coffeemaker Maxwell House, the coffee seed was classified in 1923 as a berry rather than a seed by orthodox Jewish rabbi Hersch Kohn, and therefore kosher for Passover. Fair trade Main article: Fair trade coffee See also: Fair trade debate Small-sized bag of coffee beans The concept of fair trade labeling, which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated preharvest price, began in the late 1980s with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labeling program in the Netherlands.
In 2004, 24,222 metric tons (of 7,050,000 produced worldwide) were fair trade; in 2005, 33,991 metric tons out of 6,685,000 were fair trade, an increase from 0.34% to 0.51%. A number of fair trade impact studies have shown that fair trade coffee produces a mixed impact on the communities that grow it. Many studies are skeptical about fair trade, reporting that it often worsens the bargaining power of those who are not part of it.
Coffee was incorporated into the fair-trade movement in 1988, when the Max Havelaar mark was introduced in the Netherlands. The very first fair-trade coffee was an effort to import a Guatemalan coffee into Europe as "Indio Solidarity Coffee". Since the founding of organizations such as the European Fair Trade Association (1987), the production and consumption of fair trade coffee has grown as some local and national coffee chains started to offer fair trade alternatives.
 For example, in April 2000, after a year-long campaign by the human rights organization Global Exchange, Starbucks decided to carry fair-trade coffee in its stores. Since September 2009 all Starbucks Espresso beverages in UK and Ireland are made with Fairtrade and Shared Planet certified coffee. A 2005 study done in Belgium concluded that consumers' buying behavior is not consistent with their positive attitude toward ethical products.
On average 46% of European consumers claimed to be willing to pay substantially more for ethical products, including fair-trade products such as coffee. The study found that the majority of respondents were unwilling to pay the actual price premium of 27% for fair trade coffee. Folklore and culture The Oromo people would customarily plant a coffee tree on the graves of powerful sorcerers.
They believed that the first coffee bush sprang up from the tears that the god of heaven shed over the corpse of a dead sorcerer. Johann Sebastian Bach was inspired to compose the humorous Coffee Cantata, about dependence on the beverage. Economic impacts Further information: List of countries by coffee production Map of coffee areas in Brazil Market volatility, and thus increased returns, during 1830 encouraged Brazilian entrepreneurs to shift their attention from gold to coffee, a crop hitherto reserved for local consumption.
Concurrent with this shift was the commissioning of vital infrastructures, including approximately 7,000 km of railroads between 1860 and 1885. The creation of these railways enabled the importation of workers, in order to meet the enormous need for labor. This development primarily affected the State of Rio de Janeiro, as well as the Southern States of Brazil, most notably São Paulo, due to its favourable climate, soils, and terrain.
 Coffee production attracted immigrants in search of better economic opportunities in the early 1900s. Mainly, these were Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, German, and Japanese nationals. For instance, São Paulo received approximately 733,000 immigrants in the decade preceding 1900, whilst only receiving approximately 201,000 immigrants in the six years to 1890. The production yield of coffee increases.
In 1880, São Paulo produced 1.2 million bags (25% of total production), in 1888 2.6 million (40%), in 1902 8 million bags (60%). Coffee is then 63% of the country's exports. The gains made by this trade allow sustained economic growth in the country. The four years between planting a coffee and the first harvest extends seasonal variations in the price of coffee. The Brazilian Government is thus forced, to some extent, to keep strong price subsidies during production periods.
Competition Coffee competitions take place across the globe with people at the regional competing to achieve national titles and then compete on the international stage. World Coffee Events holds the largest of such events moving the location of the final competition each year. The competition includes the following events: Barista Championship, Brewers Cup, Latte Art and Cup Tasters. A World Brewer's Cup Championship takes place in Melbourne, Australia, every year that houses contestants from around the world to crown the World's Coffee King.
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Variations of the caffeine content in coffee beverages. ASIC, 2nd Int Sci Colloq Green and Roasted Coffee Chem. 1965, 106–114: ^ a b Blackstock, Colin (June 24, 2004). "Scientists discover decaf coffee bean". London: Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved October 10, 2010. ^ Standage, Tom (June 14, 2007). A History of the World in Six Glasses. Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-84354-595-8. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
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Bezirk (Erfurt 2002), p. 16. ^ Weinberg & Bealer 2001, pp. 71–72 ^ Danko, C. (2009). "America's First Coffeehouse". Massachusetts Travel Journal. Retrieved February 13, 2010. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 218 ^ a b c Pendergrast 2001, p. 219 ^ Marshall, Carolyn (September 3, 2007). "Alfred H. Peet, 87, Dies; Leader of a Coffee Revolution". New York Times. ^ Pendergrast 2001, pp. 252–253 ^ Pendergrast 2001, p.
301 ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 302 ^ "Starbucks Corporation". Company profile from Hoover's. Hoover's. 2010. Retrieved February 13, 2010. ^ "Coffee Expo Seoul 2013 to Provide Hub for Korea's Booming Coffee Market". Asia Today. February 5, 2013. Retrieved June 24, 2013. ^ "Barista Training Standards – A Global Perspective". Cafe Culture. November 29, 2012. Retrieved June 10, 2015. ^ "Stoughton, WI – Where the Coffee Break Originated".
www.stoughtonwi.com. Stoughton, Wisconsin Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on May 20, 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2009. Mr. Osmund Gunderson decided to ask the Norwegian wives, who lived just up the hill from his warehouse, if they would come and help him sort the tobacco. The women agreed, as long as they could have a break in the morning and another in the afternoon, to go home and tend to their chores.
Of course, this also meant they were free to have a cup of coffee from the pot that was always hot on the stove. Mr. Gunderson agreed and with this simple habit, the coffee break was born. ^ "Time – March 1951". Time. March 5, 1951. ^ "The Coffee break". npr.org. December 2, 2002. Archived from the original on May 28, 2009. Retrieved June 10, 2009. Wherever the coffee break originated, Stamberg says, it may not actually have been called a coffee break until 1952.
That year, a Pan-American Coffee Bureau ad campaign urged consumers, 'Give yourself a Coffee-Break – and Get What Coffee Gives to You.' ^ Other historians accredit the conception of the Coffee Break to John Catrone, an electrician, who coined the phrase while working in Revere, Massachusetts in the 1950s. Hunt, Morton M. (1993). The story of psychology (1st ed.). New York: Doubleday. p. 260. ISBN 0-385-24762-1.
[work] for Maxwell House that helped make the 'coffee break' an American custom in offices, factories, and homes. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 5 ^ Brown, Daniel W. (2004). A new introduction to Islam. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 149–151. ISBN 1-4051-5807-7. ^ Hopkins, Kate (March 24, 2006). "Food Stories: The Sultan's Coffee Prohibition". Accidental Hedonist. Archived from the original on November 20, 2012.
Retrieved January 3, 2010. ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 11 ^ Bersten 1999, p. 53 ^ "Coffee facts, coffee trivia & coffee information!". Coffee Facts. Retrieved February 13, 2010. ^ a b "Who Are the Mormons?". Beliefnet. Retrieved February 13, 2010. ^ "Coffee consumption and mortality in Seventh-Day Adventists". Nutrition Research Newsletter. Frost & Sullivan. September 1992. Archived from the original on 2012-07-09.
Retrieved February 13, 2010. ^ "A few new Passover haggadahs, and a facelift for an old favorite". JTA. Archived from the original on March 24, 2011. ^ "Total Production of Exporting Countries, 2003 to 2008". International Coffee Organization. Archived from the original on July 6, 2010. Retrieved January 13, 2010. ^ "Coffee". Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
^ Rice, Robert A. (March 2001). "Noble Goals and Challenging Terrain: Organic and Fair Trade Coffee Movements" (PDF). Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. Springer Netherlands. 14 (1): 39–66. doi:10.1023/A:1011367008474. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2010. Retrieved January 13, 2010. ^ "European Fair Trade Association". EFTA. 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2010. ^ Balch-Gonzalez, Margaret (2003).
"Good Coffee, Better World, The Ethics and Economics of Fair Trade Coffee". Retrieved August 17, 2015. ^ a b c De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Driesen, Liesbeth; Rayp, Glenn (2005). "Do Consumers Care about Ethics? Willingness to Pay for Fair-Trade Coffee". Journal of Consumer Affairs. 39 (2): 363–385. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6606.2005.00019.x. ^ "Starbucks Serves up its First Fairtrade Lattes and Cappuccinos Across the UK and Ireland".
London: Fairtrade Foundation. September 2, 2009. Archived from the original on February 15, 2010. Retrieved January 22, 2010. ^ Allen 1999, p. 27 ^ Pendergrast 2001, p. 10 ^ Mattoon, Jr., Robert H. (May 2, 1977). "Railroads, Coffee, and the Growth of Big Business in São Paulo, Brazil". The Hispanic American Historical Review. 57 (2): 273–295. doi:10.2307/2513775. JSTOR 2513775. ^ Hudson, Rex A.
, ed. (1997). "The Coffee Economy, 1840–1930". Brazil: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ^ Smith, Teresa (April 22, 2013). "Canadian coffee king crowned in Ottawa". Ottawacitizen.com. Archived from the original on April 24, 2013. Retrieved May 3, 2013. ^ "World Brewers Cup". World Brewers Cup. Retrieved May 3, 2013. ^ "World Coffee Events". Retrieved April 26, 2013. Further reading Allen, Stewart Lee (1999).
The Devil's Cup: Coffee, the Driving Force in History. Soho: Random House. ISBN 1-56947-174-6. Bersten, Ian (1999). Coffee, Sex & Health: A History of Anti-coffee Crusaders and Sexual Hysteria. Sydney: Helian Books. ISBN 0-9577581-0-3. Clarke, Ronald James; Macrae, R., eds. (1987). Coffee. 2: Technology. Barking, Essex: Elsevier Applied Science. ISBN 1-85166-034-8. Clifford, M. N.; Wilson, K.
C., eds. (1985). Coffee: Botany, Biochemistry and Production of Beans and Beverage. Westport, Connecticut: AVI Publishing. ISBN 0-7099-0787-7. Ganchy, Sally (2009). Islam and Science, Medicine, and Technology. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 1-4358-5066-1. Hünersdorff, Richard von & Hasenkamp, Holger G. (2002) Coffee: a bibliography : a guide to the literature on coffee London: Hünersdorff Jacob, Heinrich Eduard (1998).
Coffee: The Epic of a Commodity. Short Hills, N.J.: Burford Books. ISBN 978-1-58080-070-9. Retrieved November 18, 2015. Kummer, Corby (August 19, 2003). The Joy of Coffee: The Essential guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-30240-9. Luttinger, Nina and Dicum, Gregory. The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry from Crop to the Last Drop(Bazaar Book, 2006) Metcalf, Allan A.
(1999). The World in So Many Words: A Country-by-country Tour of Words that have Shaped our Language. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-95920-9. Retrieved November 18, 2015. Pendergrast, Mark (2001) . Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. London: Texere. ISBN 1-58799-088-1. Rao, Scott. The Professional Barista's Handbook. Siasos, G.; Oikonomou, E.; Chrysohoou, C.
; Tousoulis, D.; Panagiotakos, D.; Zaromitidou, M.; Zisimos, K.; Kokkou, E.; Marinos, G.; Papavassiliou, A. G.; Pitsavos, C.; Stefanadis, C. (2013). "Consumption of a boiled Greek type of coffee is associated with improved endothelial function: The Ikaria Study". Vascular Medicine. 18 (2): 55–62. doi:10.1177/1358863X13480258. PMID 23509088. Siasos, G.; Tousoulis, D.; Stefanadis, C. (February 2014).
"Effects of habitual coffee consumption on vascular function". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 63 (6): 606–607. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.08.1642. PMID 24184234. Souza, Ricardo M. (2008). Plant-Parasitic Nematodes of Coffee. シュプリンガー・ジャパン株式会社. ISBN 978-1-4020-8719-6. Retrieved November 18, 2015. Weinberg, Bennett Alan; Bealer, Bonnie K. (2001). The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World's Most Popular Drug.
New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92722-6. Retrieved November 18, 2015. Weissman, Michaele. God in a Cup: The Obsessive Quest for the Perfect Coffee External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coffee. Bhanoo, Sindya N. (March 25, 2013). "The Secret May Be in the Coffee". New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2013. Benjamin Joffe-Walt and Oliver Burkeman, The Guardian, September 16, 2005, "Coffee trail"—from the Ethiopian village of Choche to a London coffee shop.
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