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OVERVIEW OF NATIVE AMERICAN ART: PAINTING, BASKETS, CARVING, POTTERY, RUGSThe great varieties of beautiful and innovative art works in all Native American art traditions spanmany centuries and various internal and external pressures.The development of the Native American art of painting, carving, and basket-making differeddepending on the environment and type of subsistence of each Indian tribe. Hunting tribes such as the Apache and Sioux did not stay in one place long enough to develop elaboratemethods and Native American art designs for the jars and food containers they utilized in ceremoniesor for daily use.
The needed to move frequently in order to follow the wildlife and ripening of wild plants kept manyNative American tribes from artistic endeavors that would require them to carry non-essential artobjects as they moved to a different hunting ground.In addition to their beauty, the native art, pots and figurines made by the Southwestern Indianshave many stories to tell, for the story of Pueblo ceramics is also one of trade, conquest, proximityto American cities and railroad lines, remaining in one area for long periods, and the shiftinginter-village Indian relationships during the past two-thousand years.
Crosscurrents of exchange and communication among many Native American peoples are visible intheir ceramics and other art forms. So is the influence visible in their art works of the Trading Postand the tourists who flocked there to buy Native American art, and shaped its development.Encroachment and Persecution Changed Many Native American Art FormsNative American tribes in the Southwest remained in the same area for hundreds, if not thousandsof years.
They had learned how to grow what they needed centuries before many other NativeAmerican tribes. This enabled them to build on the native art done by previous generations, and toestablish a visible history of the development of their creative art forms.Some Native American tribes, who had been forcibly transplanted to reservations, could not continueusing their traditional agriculture, nor create jars, baskets or other elaborate art forms they hadtraditionally pursued.
Did the Lakota Sioux make Indian pottery?Answer: Lakota Sioux Native Americans did produce native pottery, basketry, and wood carvings, untilthey became a nomadic tribe. In the 18th century, they had abandoned their traditional farmingcustoms in favor of a nomadic, horse oriented culture. This precluded making Native American artwhich could not be transported as they moved with the buffalo herds.Rather than develop their abilities in the usual native art pursuits of basketry and jar making, Lakotaartists concentrated on painting elaborate leather designs on buffalo skins.
Following a buffalo hunt,they removed the meat for food, bones for making implements and skin to make tipis on which theypainted their Native art designs. Sioux Native American art had evolved to fit their new lifestyle.The Southeastern, Eastern Woodland, and Great Basin Native American tribes had extensivedevelopment of their clay and basketry arts. They could freely develop their native art designs andthe firing and finishing techniques used to create colorful, long-lasting artistic jars.
The Native art ofweaving a basket became complex and had elaborate artistic weave patterns, and the materials usedbecame longer lasting and more beautiful.Interestingly, none of the Native American artistic tribes used spinning or ceramic wheels to createtheir art. As an alternative, Native artists made coil and pinch pots by hand just as they do today.Polished Native American plain-wares, or everyday pots in red and black also have been part of therepertoire throughout the history of clay ceramics in Southwestern Native American tribes.
Southwestern Indian PotteryNative American art production was largely governed by environmental conditions. The SouthwesternIndian adaptation to this arid environment governed their Native American art production andlifestyle. They were sedentary, lived in cool adobe homes, and could make heavy pottery from clay soiland delicate kachina native art and baskets, because they did not need to carry it from place to place.
They farmed the land planting corn and raising livestock for food and could survive by staying in onearea. This gave them more leisure time to be very artistic people. Southwestern Native Americansproduced beautiful pottery, weaved baskets, blankets, rugs and painted kiva walls.The southwestern area today is a magnet for Native American art and artistic peoples from allcultures. Archaeological evidence shows that these southwestern tribes have always been open to newNative art designs and cultural influences.
Development of Native Pottery in the Southwestern Indian TribesConclusions Have Changed as New Discoveries Bring Insight into Southwestern Indian PotteryAn important archaeological excavation site of the early Pueblo Indians, ancestors of the Hopi Indian,has given us insight into the Native Americans living in the southwest today. The nature of theirsociety and obvious openness to new ideas has brought admiration and attention to these earlyancestors, as well as an understanding of southwestern Native American art development in general.
Called "Pottery Mound," the discoveries at the early Indian “Pottery Mound” site has the greatestvariety in Indian pottery styles of any excavation in the U.S. This shows us that these particularSouthwestern Native Americans were open to new ideas and freely intermingled cultural elementsfrom different pueblo areas.Most interesting, is the fact that they also encouraged early American and European influences tomerge with their Native American art styles, including those of their traditional baskets, kiva wallpaintings, and native pottery.
New research puts the important “Pottery Mound” excavation site back into the center of currentscholarship and debate on the history of the late pre-contact Pueblo and the development ofsouthwestern native pottery and native art. It should also influence views on the origins of thefamous Sikyatki Indian pottery style.Based on the Native pottery found and dated at the excavation site, “Pottery Mound” appears to havebeen occupied from around AD 1375 to 1475, during a period of dramatic tribal reorganization andsocial change in the southwestern Pueblo tribes.
This early southwestern Native Pottery Mound civilization was located in the lower valley of the RioPuerco of the East, on the frontier between the Pueblo communities of the Hopi, Zuni, and Acoma onthe West and the Rio Grande Pueblos to the East.This eclectic funnel seems to have influenced the development of the famous Sikyatki style ofIndian pottery. Excavations at this early Indian “Pottery Mound” site have brought up a largequantity of artifacts containing the Sikyatki style in kiva murals and on Indian pottery.
Cherokee jewelry from this period shows design influences. See image of Cherokee jewelry below.The Sikyatki style is a name given to Native American art objects found at a large excavation sitenear Sikyatki, an ancient village located on the First Mesa. Sikyatki pottery typically has blackand red on yellow colors with feather and birds, flowers, butterflies kachinas and tapering spirals.This openness to the cultural and artist influences of other cultures is visible in specific features ofIndian pottery technology, styles and the symbolic representations incorporated into their nativepottery, kiva art murals and other painted ceramics.
Excavations at “Pottery Mound” have shown us that just prior to European contact, many tribeswithin the southwest have converged on the area of the early Indian “Pottery Mound” civilization.When this occurred, Indian pottery and other native art styles were freely intermingled. Glaze A pottery was found in abundance at “Pottery Mound.” Both Hopi pottery was imported to thearea. Both decorated and plain wares were found, as well as white paste pottery from the Acuma andZuni tribes and biscuit pottery from New Mexico’s north-central areas.
When the Europeans and early Americans drifted into the area, the pueblo tribes incorporated theart styles and technical elements into kiva architecture and mural paintings and glaze-painted Indianpottery, respectively.This swing to American and European influence on Pueblo Native American art reflects the presenceof Western immigrants and their descendants at this early Indian “Pottery Mound” village.
Importantly, research on the artifacts at this site shows that these southwestern Indian tribes didnot merely copy the styles of other culture, but synthesized all influences to create a unique style oftheir own.Southwestern Indian Sand PaintingThe Navajo are known for their beautiful sand paintings, which are created from images stored inthe collective memories of their traditional healers. These memories have been passed down manygenerations from previous healers who were charged with making sand paintings for ceremonialhealing purposes.
The Navajo have created this ceremonial native art to heal the sick for hundreds ofyears. Sand paintings are used during healing ceremonies as a means to communicate with the Spiritswho are thought to have power to cure illnesses.Why did the Navajo destroy their own sand paintings?Beautiful Native American art created in sand was always destroyed following the healing ritual.The Navajo view of this temporary nature of their work is evident in the Navajo word for ceremonial sand paintings.
They call it Iikhááh, which translates to "they enter and leave."During a healing ceremony, the sand painting is aligned with the entryway of the ceremonial Hogan, which always faces east. Through this design the yéii (spirits) can enter and leave the ceremony.The core of every healing ceremony is the Navajo ideal of beauty, harmony, and wellbeing and they call this Hózhó. The goal of each healing ceremony is to bring the patient back into hózhó, or harmony.
During the ceremony the patient internalizes the image of hózhó represented in the sand paintings used in healing ceremonies, and experiences their design as a spiritual mandalla in terms of which physical recovery can take place.When the healing ritual is finished the native sand art is traditionally destroyed because it is nolonger needed. However, by 1950 the Navajo learned to glue the design to a board to market attrading posts, a practice that continues today.
Fortunately, the economic value of selling sandpaintings has preserved much of its beauty for all to enjoy.Native American PaintingNative Americans did not fully develop painting methods until the early 1900s, when outsidepressures caused them to adopt Western painting techniques. The term "Traditional style" has beenapplied to a genre of painting that emerged between the end of the nineteenth century and the yearspreceding World War II.
It refers to the native art of the first generations that recognizedthemselves as the originators of a new means of creative expression, regarded as such by the patronsand institutions that offered them support.The earliest watercolor painting is attributed to artists from the Pueblos of New Mexico's UpperRio Grande, belonging to a period that extends from about 1900 to 1930. Young Pueblo men were beingtrained to create beautiful Native art at the famous "Studio" located in the Santa Fe Indian School.
The school was supervised by Dorothy Dunn, who founded the program in 1932 and remained itsguiding force for the next five years. Dunn's influence is regarded as having fully realized thecharacteristics of the Native American painting style, as well as assuring its widespreaddissemination and commercial success.Young people from many tribes converged on Santa Fe seeking to study with Dunn, who offered theonly official training program in the visual arts designed for Native Americans at that time.
Manycontinued to practice the methods she advocated throughout their lives and encouraged the growthof a later phase of Traditional painting that still has considerable popularity today.The roots of traditional Native American painting can be traced to several points of origin. The firstcoherent paintings by Native Americans in the Southwest were created almost simultaneously byartists who worked in separate locations and belonged to different tribes.
Most were from theTewa-speaking Pueblos in the vicinity of Santa Fe, including Alfredo Montoya, Crescencio Martinez,Awah Tsireh (Alfonso Roybal), and Julian Martinez, husband of the famous artist María of SanIldefonso. Fred Kabotie and Otis Polelonema were Hopi students whose interest in painting grewunder the encouragement of Elizabeth DeHuff, whose husband, John DeHuff, was superintendent ofthe Santa Fe Indian School from 1918 to 1926.
The most frequent subjects of traditional painting are ceremonial, with many examples illustratingthe cycle of semi-sacred dances observed by the Hopi and New Mexico Pueblos that are open topublic viewer-ship. More esoteric ceremonials that may not be attended by those outside thecommunity are rarely depicted in Traditional native art. The Pueblo works typically represent aspectsof the complex line dances performed in each village's central plaza, rituals designed to reinforce aharmonious relationship with nature and the internal social balance of the tribe.
Most paintings that date from 1917 to 1925 concern such religious themes, although the subsequentdecade saw the growth of a style that was more secular and pictorial in concept. Genre subjectsbegan to appear in Pueblo watercolors by 1925, establishing a precedent for the many scenes ofnature and home and village life that would later be produced by studio-trained artists.Earlier compositions generally situated either a single figure or rows of dancers against a blank,undifferentiated ground.
Later painting might include more complex figural groupings and stylizedgeometric motifs to suggest details of landscape and setting. The artists used outlines to define thecontours of human, animal, and decorative forms, filling them with washes of uniform color. Shadingto suggest the effects of light and shadow is absent from most compositions or used sparingly tocreate subtle three-dimensional effects.
Depth and perspective were limited to occasional uses of overlapping and foreshortening, while thearrangement of elements in the picture plane served as the principal means for distinguishingbetween objects in the foreground and middle ground. The formal conventions of Traditional nativeart deny or minimize illusionist space, instead arranging forms distinguished by shape and color withina shallow pictorial zone.
Tourist art had some influence on Native American art styles, being shaped by the beliefs,expectations, and motivations of consumers and trading post people who sold early works.Traditional Native American painting, along with early experimental Native American artworks mixedwith the manipulations and rewards of an external market to create beautiful, unique designs.Happily, Native American artists of the early 20th century turned to non-Western subjects toframe allegories that reflected the culture and symbols.
Their Native art began to includescenes of Indian domestic life, craft activities, and agriculture to the delight of all observers.The lingering models of Native American traditional painting as the embodiment of tourist-orientedstereotypes have begun to be displaced in recent years by the new artistic frontiers that NativeAmerican artists have embraced. Copyright 2010Early Cherokee Jewelry
Distinct Essential Art Principles have developed thorough distinct eras, along with the switching artists' perceptions of processing, analyzing, and responding to numerous artwork varieties. Their resourceful expressions happen to be explored by their generation, efficiency, and participation in arts. Just about every historical era has supplied novel contribution of historic and cultural contexts for creating the crucial element Arts Fundamentals of your relevant period of time. Visual Arts aid artists assimilate the crucial element Arts Concepts of Symmetry, Color, Sample, Distinction along with the differences concerning one or more aspects during the composition. The key Artwork Principles of Visual Arts assist understand and distinguish concerning the scale including, Symmetry & Asymmetry, Positive & Negative Space, Light & Dark, Solid & Transparent, and Large & Small.See Also: Martial Arts Fort Collins
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Title: Buy Native American Art