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Coordinates: 52°02′37″N 0°45′20″W / 52.0436°N 0.7555°W The Central Milton Keynes Shopping Complex The arc joining intu Milton Keynes to the Centre:MK Location Milton Keynes, United Kingdom Opening date 25 September 1979 Developer MKDC Owner Prudential, Hermes Investment Management (thecentre:mk)Intu Properties (intu Milton Keynes) No. of stores and services over 220 (thecentre:mk) over 50 intu (Milton Keynes) No.
of anchor tenants 4 Total length 1 km Total retail floor area 1,790,000 ft² (166,000 m²) No. of floors One access floor, bigger stores have two or three internally Parking over 17,000 spaces nearby Website thecentre:mkintu Milton Keynes The Central Milton Keynes Shopping Area is a regional shopping centre located in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England which is about 50 miles (80 km) north-west of London.
It comprises two adjacent shopping centres, the grade II listed building thecentre:mk which opened in 1979, and intu Milton Keynes (originally Midsummer Place) opened in 2000. The centre:mk is anchored by John Lewis, House of Fraser and Marks and Spencer, with Debenhams at intu Milton Keynes. The complex is the 14th largest shopping centre in the UK, with the size of 120,773 sq metres. Development Main articles: Central Milton Keynes and History of Milton Keynes The Milton Keynes Development Corporation began work on the Shopping Building in 1973.
It was to be the largest building of Central Milton Keynes. It had a total length of over 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) and a maximum width of 116 metres (381 ft) . It was built at the highest point in the "New City". The architects were Derek Walker, Stuart Mosscrop, and Christopher Woodward, who had been significant architects at the MK Development Corporation; and the engineers were Felix Samuely and Partners.
The shopping area was opened on 25 September 1979 by Margaret Thatcher. The building's sleek envelope accommodated 130 shops and six department stores, arranged along two parallel day-lit arcades, each 800 meters long and planted with sub-tropical and temperate trees. Architecture The cool, elegant, steel framed design was influenced by the architecture of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and echoed glazed shopping streets or arcades on the grand scale of the Galleria in Milan.
The designer, Derek Walker, also likened it to the Crystal Palace. It was described in 1993 as "still the best-looking if no longer the biggest shopping centre in the British Isles". It is unusual for second generation shopping centres in Europe for the amount of daylight allowed into the public areas, for the rigorous control of retail facias along the arcades themselves, for its public art, the unusually high level of accessibility for visitors with limited mobility (and other users laden with children and shopping), the lavish extent of the public spaces and their interior planting (reduced since the buildings was completed) and for the cool mirrored exterior.
Milton Keynes Shopping mall was designed with the public access to all the shops is flush and at ground level. Some of the shops e.g. John Lewis, Debenhams and "Next" have 2 or 3 floors inside. A service road for deliveries runs above the shops, so that large trucks may service the shops at roof level, removing the peripheral service roads and loading bays at ground level that mar so many large shopping malls.
This means all deliveries take place out of view of the shoppers, though tall trucks can sometimes be seen from the arcades as they pass at high level. The internal landscaping was very lavish with 47 plant beds with large plants and trees; temperate in the northerly arcade and semi-tropical in the southerly one. The planters were finished in the same travertine as the floor, but approximately one third of these have been removed since the building was opened, with consequent loss of both planting and seating for shoppers, to accommodate market barrows and stalls.
Fountain in Queen's Court before 2009/10 redevelopment There are two large public areas, intended as civic open spaces, one indoors and one open air. The open-air garden square (Queen's Court) is just west of centre and has been redesigned away from its original concept as a relaxation space for visitor' The indoor space (Middleton Hall) is 1,800-square-metre exhibition space near the east end.
 During 2010, Middleton Hall was used as a temporary home venue for the Milton Keynes Lions basketball team, housing a 1,200-seat arena. In a central space outside the shopping building (but contained by it on three sides) is an open-air market, much of it under Secklow Gate (a flyover that gives first-floor service access to the shops' loading bays, as well as a useful North-South route). Extensions In 1993, the building was extended at the western end, over much of what had been City Square to the even greater length of 720 meters.
In architectural style this extension is similar to the original, though the join can be detected internally by the low ceilings and dark corrdors in the extension, quite unlike the handsome arcades of the original phase. Following extension this was documented in the 1997 Guinness Book of Records to contain the longest shopping mall in the world. Midsummer Place Oak Court in Midsummer Place, when the oak was healthy.
Midsummer Place (subsequently rebranded intu Milton Keynes) is effectively a southwards extension of the centre but is owned and operated independently. (It was a planning requirement that it should not physically attach to the original building, so there is an approximately one metre gap between them). Midsummer Place was designed by GMW Architects of London and opened in 2000. This extension is built across (and thus closing) Midsummer Boulevard using a (covered and enclosed) plaza that contains some demountable kiosks: it is a further planning requirement that the Boulevard should technically be capable of being reopened (remain free of structures) at some future date.
The new centre was constructed in part around an existing oak tree that briefly survived being built around (at a 0.6 metres (2 ft) higher level) until it succumbed to 'technical drowning' (undrained flooding) from about 2008. Art Play media View of animated feature clock by author Kit Williams. Video. A kinetic sculpture (Circle of Light, 1980) by Liliane Lijn hangs from the ceiling of Midsummer Arcade.
The mechanism has not operated for many years. It was originally floodlit at night and is on the axis of the midsummer sun on which Midsummer Boulevard is accurately orientated. Silbury Arcade contains three bronze figures (Dream Flight, Flying Carpet and High Flyer, 1989) by Philomena Davidson Davis, former president of the Royal British Society of Sculptors. Nearby, in the "guest services lounge", a mosaic pavement (c.
AD 320) from Bancroft Roman Villa is on display. These works were previously sited in Queen's Court. Before being redeveloped, Queen's Court also contained: a sundial and associated bollards (Bollards, 1979) by Tim Minett  Oak Court contains: a stainless steel sculpture (Acorns and Leaves, 2000) by Tim Ward  the Concrete Cows (1978) by Liz Leyh The Midsummer Place building contains: a bronze seat (Sitting on History, 1996) by Bill Woodrow a stained-glass window (2000) by Anne Smyth an animated clock with a frog that blows bubbles (2000), conceived by Kit Williams, and similar to the clock at Telford Shopping Centre.
 In 1981, the building and its surrounding vicinity were used for the filming of the music video Wired for Sound by Cliff Richard. Filming took place at the eastern end of Midsummer Arcade (the distinctive tiling outside the John Lewis department being clearly visible), outside Norfolk House and in nearby underpasses. The building was also used as a location for still photography on the first self-titled album by Duran Duran.
Grade II listing for original building In November 2008, English Heritage (the Government's advisor on historic buildings) recommended to the Culture Minister that the original building be designated a "II*" listed building which, the owners say, would curtail severely their ability to alter it if awarded. The Twentieth Century Society responded that this belief is unfounded. It won a number of prizes when constructed and remains a valued element of Milton Keynes.
In July 2010, the Heritage Minister, John Penrose, advised the owners that he had decided that the building merited a Grade II listing, to applause from the 20th Century Society and other conservationists. Robbery On 1 December 2009 an armed robbery occurred at a jewellery store near Middleton Hall. Three suspects sprayed CS gas in the area, injuring 2 people. After firing several blank shots, the suspects fled the area after stealing roughly £1 million in watches.
The shopping centre reopened 2 days later. Future The Milton Keynes Partnership and the centre owners aim to expand thecentre:mk. In the original plan (suspended since mid 2007), Phase 1 of the redevelopment programme would include a new department store on the south side (for which the outdoor market would be moved southwards and Secklow Gate flyover would be closed), the colonnade on the west of Middleton Hall would be removed by expanding the shops into it, Crown Walk would be opened to allow pedestrian access through the centre after the shops close (shortening evening journeys on foot considerably), a restaurant quarter would open in a re-landscaped Queens Court, and an "enhanced" entrance would be created on the north side.
 Phase 2 may include expansion at the eastern end. However, these plans were put on hold by the centre owners and only the work in Queens Court went ahead. The plans are controversial because they would mean the loss of the minimalist appearance of the building, the clarity of the layout and public spaces in the building. The closure of Secklow Gate was even proposed, removing the rooftop loading facility that is such an important feature of the building.
Additionally, objectors say that the plans to erect dwellings in the central area run the risk of hampering movement around and in and out of the centre as well as spoiling views of the shopping building. Independently of the Centre management plans, Milton Keynes Council transport strategy calls for Midsummer Boulevard to be re-opened through the Midsummer Place to thecentre:mk to facilitate a "public transport spine" bus route along the Boulevard, from the station to Campbell Park.
 References ^ thecentre:mk, Facts and FiguresArchived 1 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine., combined gross leasable area of thecentre:mk and 'Intu Milton Keynes'. ^ Kennedy, Maev (16 July 2010). "Milton Keynes shopping centre becomes Grade II listed". The Guardian. ^ Devlin, Amanda (23 May 2014). "Midsummer Place Shopping Centre changes its name to intu Milton Keynes". Milton Keynes Citizen.
Retrieved 16 June 2014. ^ "The Top 25 Shopping Centres in the UK. The complex is unique in that the complex is the "centre of town" being situated exactly in the middle of Milton Keynes". Esri. ^ A lost vision of modernism – Owen Hatherley writing in The Guardian, 16 July 2010 ^ RIBA Journal, May 1979. ^ N. Pevsner and E. Williamson, Buckinghamshire, 2nd edition, Penguin Books (Buildings of England), 1994, ISBN 0-14-071062-0, page 494.
^ a b Milton Keynes City Centre Management, thecentre:mk – Queens Court Redevelopment ^ thecentre:mk, Events. ^ The Guinness Book of Records 1997, Guinness Publishing, 1996, ISBN 0-85112-693-6, page 165. ^ intu Milton Keynes confirm the oak tree is dead – jessica.duncan, MKWeb, 09 March 2015 ^ a b c d e f g Milton Keynes Council, Arts Guide, The City Centre Artwalk numbers A6 and A24 to A32.
^ L. Lijn, "Body and soul: interactions between the material and the immaterial in sculpture", Leonardo, 31(1), 5–12, 1998. ^ stuad70, Circle of Light. ^ Heritage Tile Conservation Ltd, Bancroft Villa fourth-century Roman mosaic pavement. ^ a b thecentre:mk, Action Plan Ensure Art Stays in Central Milton Keynes. ^ MK News, Concrete cows go on shopping trip. ^ a b c Midsummer Place, Art at Midsummer Place.
^ Cass Sculpture Foundation, Bill Woodrow – Sitting on History I. ^ Milton Keynes centre may become architectural 'treasure'. The Telegraph (The article is otherwise incorrect: the building is not 'surrounded by concrete flyovers' – there is one flyover that crosses the building at first floor level, where it connects with an internal service road.) ^ Letter to the Editor of the Daily Telegraph The 20th Century Society ^ Milton Keynes shopping centre becomes Grade II listed – The Guardian, 16 July 2010 ^ http://www.
itv.com/news/anglia/story/2014-10-16/1m-jewellery-raid-in-milton-keynes/ ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-beds-bucks-herts-29642003 ^ http://www.heart.co.uk/miltonkeynes/news/local/armed-robbery-centre-mk/#m2kbAK1VVGS1ljf3.97 ^ thecentre:mk, thecentre:mk of the future, accessed 29 May 2007. ^ thecentre:mk, thecentre:mk of the future, accessed 15 December 2007. ^ BBC News, Milton Keynes plans put on hold.
^ Milton Keynes Council, Report on Planning Application 07/00577/REM (PDF). See section "CONSULTATIONS AND REPRESENTATIONS". ^ Milton Keynes Council, Provisional Local Transport Plan 2006–07 to 2010–11: Appendix A: Bus Strategy: Public Transport Long Term Vision (PDF). External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Central Milton Keynes Shopping Centre. thecentre:mk official website intu Milton keynes official website v t e Shopping centres with sculptures by Kit Williams Regent Arcade, Cheltenham Midsummer Place, Milton Keynes Telford Shopping Centre v t e Shopping centres in South East England Berkshire Broad Street Mall, Reading The Oracle, Reading Parkway Newbury Buckinghamshire Eden Centre, High Wycombe Friars Square, Aylesbury Central Milton Keynes Shopping Centre East Sussex Churchill Square, Brighton Priory Meadow Shopping Centre, Hastings Hampshire Cascades Shopping Centre, Portsmouth Chesapeake Mill, Wickham Fareham Shopping Centre Festival Place Gunwharf Quays, Portsmouth The Malls, Basingstoke Marlands Shopping Centre, Southampton Bridge Shopping Centre, Portsmouth WestQuay, Southampton Kent Ashford Designer Outlet Bluewater County Square, Ashford Fremlin Walk, Maidstone The Mall Maidstone (formerly Chequers Mall) Minor Centre, Grove Green Pentagon Shopping Centre, Chatham Royal Victoria Place, Tunbridge Wells Westwood Cross, Thanet Whitefriars Shopping Centre, Canterbury Oxfordshire Bicester Avenue Bicester Village Castle Quay Shopping Centre, Banbury Clarendon Shopping Centre, Oxford Covered Market, Oxford Golden Cross, Oxford Templars Square, Oxford Westgate, Oxford Surrey The Ashley Centre, Epsom The Belfry, Redhill The Peacocks, Woking Retrieved from "https://en.
Various Vital Artwork Ideas have evolved complete distinct eras, with the shifting artists' perceptions of processing, analyzing, and responding to numerous artwork kinds. Their resourceful expressions are explored by their development, overall performance, and participation in arts. Every historical period has supplied novel contribution of historic and cultural contexts for acquiring the real key Arts Fundamentals of your relevant period of time. Visual Arts help artists assimilate the important thing Arts Ideas of Symmetry, Coloration, Pattern, Contrast as well as the variances between one or more things while in the composition. The real key Art Concepts of Visible Arts aid have an understanding of and distinguish in between the size for instance, Symmetry & Asymmetry, Positive & Negative Space, Light & Dark, Solid & Transparent, and Large & Small.See Also: Bonita Performing Arts Center
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For Milton Keynes, the original village, see Middleton, Milton Keynes. Milton Keynes Top to bottom, left to right: The Xscape and Theatre seen from Campbell Park, former railway works and new housing in Wolverton, Milton Keynes Central railway station, the Central Milton Keynes skyline, The Church of Christ the Cornerstone and Bletchley's high street "Queensway" Milton Keynes Milton Keynes shown within Buckinghamshire Area 89 km2 (34 sq mi) Population 229,941 (2011)(Urban Area) • Density 2,584/km2 (6,690/sq mi) OS grid reference SP841386 • London 47.
9 mi (77.1 km) Unitary authority Milton Keynes Ceremonial county Buckinghamshire Region South East Country England Sovereign state United Kingdom Post town MILTON KEYNES Postcode district MK1–15, MK17, MK19 Dialling code 01908 Police Thames Valley Fire Buckinghamshire Ambulance South Central EU Parliament South East England UK Parliament Milton Keynes North Milton Keynes South Website www.
milton-keynes.gov.uk Milton Keynes (/ˌmɪltən ˈkiːnz/ ( listen) MIL-tən KEENZ), locally abbreviated to MK, is a large town[note 1] in the Borough of Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, of which it is the administrative centre. It was formally designated as a new town on 23 January 1967, with the design brief to become a "city" in scale. It is located about 45 miles (72 km) north-west of London.
At designation, its 89 km2 (34 sq mi) area incorporated the existing towns of Bletchley, Wolverton, and Stony Stratford, along with another fifteen villages and farmland in between. It took its name from the existing village of Milton Keynes, a few miles east of the planned centre. At the 2011 census, the population of the Milton Keynes urban area, including the adjacent Newport Pagnell and Woburn Sands, was 229,941.
 The population of the Borough in total was 248,800, compared with a population of around 53,000 for the same area in 1961. History Main article: History of Milton Keynes Birth of a "New City" In the 1960s, the British government decided that a further generation of new towns in the south-east of England was needed to relieve housing congestion in London. Population trend of Borough and Urban Area 1801–2011 Since the 1950s, overspill housing for several London boroughs had been constructed in Bletchley.
 Further studies in the 1960s identified north Buckinghamshire as a possible site for a large new town, a new city, encompassing the existing towns of Bletchley, Stony Stratford and Wolverton. The New Town (informally and in planning documents, "New City") was to be the biggest yet, with a target population of 250,000, in a "designated area" of 21,850 acres (34.1 sq mi; 88.
4 km2). The name "Milton Keynes" was taken from the existing village of Milton Keynes on the site. On 23 January 1967 when the formal new town designation order was made, the area to be developed was largely farmland and undeveloped villages. The site was deliberately located equidistant from London, Birmingham, Leicester, Oxford and Cambridge with the intention that it would be self-sustaining and eventually become a major regional centre in its own right.
Planning control was taken from elected local authorities and delegated to the Milton Keynes Development Corporation (MKDC). Before construction began, every area was subject to detailed archaeological investigation: doing so has exposed a rich history of human settlement since Neolithic times and has provided a unique insight into the history of a large sample of the landscape of north Buckinghamshire.
The Corporation's strongly modernist designs featured regularly in the magazines Architectural Design and the Architects' Journal. MKDC was determined to learn from the mistakes made in the earlier New Towns and revisit the Garden City ideals. They set in place the characteristic grid roads that run between districts ('grid squares'), as well as the intensive planting, lakes and parkland that are so evident today.
While still on the drawing board, planners noticed that the main streets near the proposed city centre would almost frame the rising sun on Midsummer's Day. Greenwich Observatory was consulted to obtain the exact angle required at the latitude of Central Milton Keynes, and they managed to persuade the engineers to shift the grid of roads a few degrees in response.CMK was not intended to be a traditional town centre but a central business and shopping district to supplement Local Centres in most of the grid squares.
 This non-hierarchical devolved city plan was a departure from the English New Towns tradition and envisaged a wide range of industry and diversity of housing styles and tenures across the city. The largest and almost the last of the British New Towns, Milton Keynes has 'stood the test of time far better than most, and has proved flexible and adaptable'. The radical grid plan was inspired by the work of Californian urban theorist Melvin M.
Webber (1921–2006), described by the founding architect of Milton Keynes, Derek Walker (1929–2015), as the "father of the city". Webber thought that telecommunications meant that the old idea of a city as a concentric cluster was out of date and that cities which enabled people to travel around them readily would be the thing of the future achieving "community without propinquity" for residents.
 The Government wound up MKDC in 1992, 25 years after the new town was founded, transferring control to the Commission for New Towns (CNT) and then finally to English Partnerships, with the planning function returning to local council control (since 1974 and the Local Government Act 1972, the Borough of Milton Keynes). From 2004 to 2011 a Government quango, the Milton Keynes Partnership, had development control powers to accelerate the growth of Milton Keynes.
Along with many other towns and boroughs, Milton Keynes competed for formal city status in the 2000, 2002 and 2012 competitions, but was not successful. Nevertheless, the term "city" is generally used by its citizens, local media and bus services to describe itself, perhaps because the term "town" is taken to mean one of the constituent towns. Road signs refer to "Central Milton Keynes" or "Shopping" when directing traffic to its centre.
Prior history Reproductions of the Milton Keynes Hoard (Milton Keynes Museum) The area that was to become Milton Keynes encompassed a landscape that has a rich historic legacy. The area to be developed was largely farmland and undeveloped villages, but with evidence of permanent settlement dating back to the Bronze Age. Before construction began, every area was subject to detailed archaeological investigation: doing so has provided a unique insight into the history of a large sample of the landscape of south-central England.
There is evidence of Iron Age, Romano-British, Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Norman, Medieval and Industrial revolution settlements. Collections of oral history covering the 20th century completes a picture that is described in detail in another article. Bletchley Park, the site of World War II British codebreaking and Colossus, the world's first programmable electronic digital computer, is a major component of MK's modern history.
It is now a flourishing heritage attraction, receiving hundreds of thousands of visitors annually. When the boundary of Milton Keynes was defined in 1967, some 40,000 people lived in three towns and fifteen villages or hamlets in the "designated area" of 21,863 acres (8,848 ha). Urban design The concepts that heavily influenced the design of the town are described in detail in article urban planning – see 'cells' under Planning and aesthetics (referring to grid squares).
See also article single-use zoning. Since the radical plan form and large scale of Milton Keynes attracted international attention, early phases of development include work by celebrated architects, including Sir Richard MacCormac, Lord Norman Foster, Henning Larsen, Ralph Erskine, John Winter, and Martin Richardson. Led by Lord Campbell of Eskan (Chairman) and Fred Roche (General Manager), the Corporation attracted talented young architects led by the young and charismatic Derek Walker.
In the modernist Miesian tradition is the Shopping Building designed by Stuart Mosscrop and Christopher Woodward, a grade II listed building, which the Twentieth Century Society inter alia regards as the 'most distinguished' twentieth century retail building in Britain. The contextual tradition that ran alongside it is exemplified by the Corporation's infill scheme at Cofferidge Close, Stony Stratford, designed by Wayland Tunley, which carefully inserts into a historic stretch of High Street a modern retail facility, offices and car park.
The Development Corporation also led an ambitious Public art programme. The urban design has not been universally praised, however. Francis Tibbalds, president of the Royal Town Planning Institute, described the centre of Milton Keynes as "bland, rigid, sterile, and totally boring." Grid roads and grid squares The geography of Milton Keynes – the railway line, Watling Street, Grand Union Canal, M1 motorway – sets up a very strong north-south axis.
If you've got to build a city between (them) it is very natural to take a pen and draw the rungs of a ladder. Ten miles by six is the size of this city – 22,000 acres. Do you lay it out like an American city, rigid orthogonal from side to side? Being more sensitive in 1966-7, the designers decided that the grid concept should apply but should be a lazy grid following the flow of land, its valleys, its ebbs and flows.
That would be nicer to look at, more economical and efficient to build, and would sit more beautifully as a landscape intervention. Professor David Lock, CBE Main articles: Milton Keynes grid road system and List of districts in Milton Keynes The Milton Keynes Development Corporation planned the major road layout according to street hierarchy principles, using a grid pattern of approximately 1 km (0.
62 mi) intervals, rather than on the more conventional radial pattern found in older settlements. Major internal roads run between communities, rather than through them: these distributor roads are known locally as grid roads and the spaces between them – the districts – are known as grid squares. Intervals of 1 km (0.62 mi) were chosen so that people would always be within walking distance of a bus stop.
Consequently, each grid square is a semi-autonomous community, making a unique collective of 100 clearly identifiable neighbourhoods within the overall urban environment. The grid squares have a variety of development styles, ranging from conventional urban development and industrial parks to original rural and modern urban and suburban developments. Most grid squares have Local Centres, intended as local retail hubs and most with community facilities as well.
Originally intended under the masterplan to sit alongside the Grid Roads, the Local Centres were mostly in fact built embedded in the communities. Roundabout junctions were built at intersections because the grid roads were intended to carry large volumes of traffic: this type of junction is efficient at dealing with these volumes. Some major roads are dual carriageway, the others are single carriageway.
Along one side of each single carriageway grid road there is a (grassed) reservation to permit dualling or additional transport infrastructure at a later date. To date this has been limited. The edges of each grid square are landscaped and densely planted, some additionally have berms. Traffic movements are fast, with relatively little congestion since there are alternative routes to any particular destination other than during the (brief) peak periods.
The national speed limit applies on the grid roads, although lower speed limits have been introduced on some stretches to reduce accident rates. Pedestrians rarely need to cross grid roads at grade, as underpasses and bridges exist in frequent places along each stretch of all of the grid roads. However, the new districts to be added by the expansion plans for Milton Keynes are departing from this model, with less separation and using 'at grade' crossings.
This approach, which contradicts the original design ethos, has been a cause for conflict between residents and the Council who are often regarded as failing to preserve the unique development style of the city. Monitoring station data shows that pollution is lower than in other settlements of a similar size. The Redways: a network of shared use paths Cycleway network in Milton Keynes.
The national cycle routes are highlighted in red. (Extracted from Openstreetmap.org © OpenStreetMap contributors). Main articles: Milton Keynes redway system, Segregated cycle facilities, and Shared use path There is a separate network (approximately 125 miles or 200 kilometres total length) of cycle and pedestrian routes, the "redways", that runs through the grid-squares and often runs alongside the grid-road network.
This was designed to segregate slow moving cycle and pedestrian traffic from fast moving motor traffic. In practice, it is mainly used for leisure cycling rather than commuting, perhaps because the cycle routes are shared with pedestrians, cross the grid-roads via bridge or underpass rather than at grade, and because some take meandering scenic routes rather than straight lines. It is so called because it is generally surfaced with red tarmac.
The national Sustrans national cycle network routes 6 and 51 take advantage of this system. Height The Hub:MK, built between 2006 and 2008. The taller glass tower, Manhattan House, has fourteen stories. The original design guidance declared that "no building [be] taller than the tallest tree". However, the Milton Keynes Partnership, in its expansion plans for Milton Keynes, believed that Central Milton Keynes (and elsewhere) needed "landmark buildings" and subsequently lifted the height restriction for the area.
As a result, high rise buildings have been built in the central business district. Four of the pedestrian underpasses were closed to 'normalise' the streetscape of Central Milton Keynes and the character of the area was set to change under government pressure to increase densities of development. These changes are being opposed by pressure groups such as Urban Eden and the Milton Keynes Forum. More recent local plans have protected the existing boulevard framework and underpasses following the dissolution of Milton Keynes Partnership.
Recent large-scale buildings include The Pinnacle:MK on Midsummer Boulevard and the Vizion development on Avebury Boulevard. The Pinnacle was the largest office building to be constructed in Milton Keynes in 25 years. More recently the Network Rail National Centre has been built at the western limit of Silbury Boulevard; this building occupies a large land area but only rises to the equivalent of six storeys; a return towards the design of the original Central Milton Keynes developments.
Linear parks Caldecotte Lake, Milton Keynes The flood plains of the Great Ouse and of its tributaries (the Ouzel and some brooks) have been protected as linear parks that run right through Milton Keynes. The Grand Union Canal is another green route (and demonstrates the level geography of the area – there is just one minor lock in its entire 10-mile (16 km) meandering route through from the southern boundary near Fenny Stratford to the "Iron Trunk" Aqueduct over the Ouse at Wolverton at its northern boundary).
The Park system was designed by landscape architect Peter Youngman, who also developed landscape precepts for all development areas: groups of grid squares were to be planted with different selections of trees and shrubs to give them distinct identities. However the landscaping of parks and of the grid roads was evolved under the leadership of Neil Higson, who from 1977 took over as Chief Landscape Architect and made the original grand but not entirely practical landscape plan more subtle.
 "City in the forest" The original Development Corporation design concept aimed for a "forest city" and its foresters planted millions of trees from its own nursery in Newlands in the following years. As of 2006, the urban area has 20 million trees. Following the winding up of the Development Corporation, the lavish landscapes of the Grid Roads and of the major parks were transferred to The Milton Keynes Parks Trust, a charity which is independent from the municipal authority and which was intended to resist pressures to build on the parks over time.
The Parks Trust is endowed with a portfolio of commercial properties, the income of which pay for the upkeep of the green spaces. Landscape The land on which Milton Keynes was built was originally hedges, marshes, ancient woodland and wildflower meadows. Today, roses in particular thrive in its heavy clay soils. Milton Keynes has been dubbed Buckinghamshire capital of shrubs by The Guardian newspaper.
Further development plans One of the new 'city streets', an extension of H7 Chaffron Way, in Broughton Gate. Main article: Expansion plans for Milton Keynes In January 2004, Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott announced the Government's plan to double the population of Milton Keynes by 2026. He appointed English Partnerships (EP) to do so, taking planning controls away from Milton Keynes Borough Council and making EP the statutory planning authority.
Their proposal for the next phase of expansion moves away from grid squares to large scale, mixed use, higher density development. The more detailed article expands on the details of their proposals. As the first stage in that plan, the Government expanded the boundaries of the designated area, adding large green-field expansion sites to the east and west that were to be developed by 2015. In June 2004 Milton Keynes Partnership Committee (MKPC), was created by the Government and was a committee of the Homes and Communities Agency (HCA), the national housing and regeneration agency for England.
MKPC was created to ensure a co-ordinated approach to planning and delivery of growth and development in the ‘new city’. Milton Keynes Partnership was disbanded in 2011, holding its last meeting in March of that year. Its functions were folded back into the Homes and Communities Agency (HCA), with Milton Keynes Council handling planning permission for established areas of MK. Culture Music 65,000 capacity by the Green Day Bullet in a Bible concert at the National Bowl The open air National Bowl is a 65,000 capacity venue for large scale events.
In Wavendon, the Stables provides a venue for jazz, blues, folk, rock, classical, pop and world music. It was founded by jazz artists Cleo Laine and the late John Dankworth and is now ranked in the UK's top 10 music venues by the Performing Right Society. It presents around 400 concerts and over 200 education events each year and also hosts the National Youth Music Camps summer camp for young musicians.
 In 2010, it founded the biennial IF Milton Keynes International Festival, producing events in unusual spaces and places across Milton Keynes MK11 Live Music Venue & Sports Bar, based in Kiln Farm near Stony Stratford, is a 330 capacity live music venue and sports bar that hosts over 200 live music events throughout the year. MK11 features local acts as well as more notable acts from a variety of musical genres.
Some notable acts include The Blockheads, Big Country, The King Blues, The Hoosiers, Akala and Men at Works' Colin Hay. MK11 has also featured a number of influential US hip-hop artists such as Grandmaster Flash, Pharoahe Monch, KRS One and Dead Prez. MK11 was voted as "best live music pub" by readers of local culture magazine Monkey Kettle in 2014. In addition to this award MK11 also won 'Bar of the Year 2017' at the Milton Keynes Food & Leisure Awards.
Arts and literature The municipal public art gallery, MK Gallery, presents free exhibitions of international contemporary art. There are two museums: Bletchley Park complex which, as well as housing the museum of wartime cryptography, also hosts (separately) the National Museum of Computing including a working replica of the Colossus computer, and Milton Keynes Museum, which includes the Stacey Hill Collection of rural life that existed before the foundation of MK and the original Concrete Cows.
The 1,400 seat Milton Keynes Theatre opened in 1999. The theatre has an unusual feature: the ceiling can be lowered closing off the third tier (gallery) to create a more intimate space for smaller-scale productions. There are further performance spaces in Bletchley, Wolverton, Leadenhall, Shenley Church End, Stantonbury and Walton Hall. MK also has a literature scene, with groups like Speakeasy meeting regularly and hosting performance events, and former poetry and arts magazine, Monkey Kettle which ran between 1999 and 2014.
In addition, two performance poetry groups exist – Poetry Kapow!, an offshoot of Monkey Kettle though now independent of the parent organisation, specialising in live, multi-discipline, interactive poetry/art/music events, usually featuring slams; and Tongue in Chic, a regular open mic poetry event which features headline poets such as John Hegley. In May 2011 the outgoing Mayor, Debbie Brock, announced the appointment of Mark Niel as the first official Milton Keynes' Poet Laureate.
 Milton Keynes Arts Centre is situated in the historic village of Great Linford in the north of MK, between Wolverton and Newport Pagnell. Milton Keynes Arts Centre offers a year-round exhibitions, families workshops and courses. Situated across many of Great Linford Manor's exterior buildings (barns, Almshouses, Pavilions), the Arts Centre offers a special historical setting. The Westbury Arts Centre is situated in the west of MK, near Shenley Wood.
It is based in a 16th-century grade II listed Farmhouse building. The Art Centre has been providing spaces for professional working artists to create work since 1994. The oldest part of the house was built in the sixteenth century and has been greatly extended over the years. It has several acres of garden and is home to several protected species of bats and newts. Milton Keynes also boasts several choirs – the Milton Keynes Chorale, the New English Singers, the Cornerstone Choir, Quorum, the Open University Choir, and others.
There is a variety of amateur drama groups, and amateur musical theatre groups. Milton Keynes Forum is the registered civic society for MK. Public sculpture Liz Leyh's iconic "Concrete Cows" Public sculpture in Milton Keynes includes work by Elisabeth Frink, Philip Jackson, Nicolas Moreton and Ronald Rae. Education The Open University's headquarters are in the Walton Hall district, though because this is a distance learning institution, the only students resident on campus are approximately 200 full-time postgraduates.
Cranfield University, an all-postgraduate institution, is in nearby Cranfield, Bedfordshire. Milton Keynes College provides further education up to foundation degree level, however a Postgraduate Certificate in Education course is available; run in partnership with and accredited by Oxford Brookes University. In 1991 Leicester Polytechnic established a purpose-built polytechnic campus in Kents Hill in Milton Keynes, opposite the Open University's Walton Hall site, which was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1992.
This was originally branded 'The Polytechnic: Milton Keynes'. Later in 1992 Leicester Polytechnic gained university status and was renamed De Montfort University, and the site was rebranded 'De Montfort University Milton Keynes'. However, DMU closed the MK site in 2003 and the Open University has expanded to take over the buildings. Although Milton Keynes does not yet have its own conventional local university, its founders hope that the University Campus Milton Keynes will be the seed for a future 'Milton Keynes University'.
MK is currently the UK's largest population centre without its own university proper. Like most parts of the UK, the state secondary schools in Milton Keynes are Comprehensive schools, such as Stantonbury Campus and Denbigh School, although schools in the rest of Buckinghamshire still use the Tripartite System. Results are above the national average, though below that of the rest of Buckinghamshire – but the demography of Milton Keynes is also far closer to the national average than is the latter.
Access to selective schools is still possible in Milton Keynes as the grammar schools in Buckingham and Aylesbury accept some pupils from within the unitary authority area, with Buckinghamshire County Council operating bus services to ferry pupils to the schools. Private schools in Milton Keynes include the 3-to-18 mixed sex Webber Independent School and the 2½-to-11 mixed sex Milton Keynes Preparatory School.
 The Safety Centre is a purpose-built interactive centre which provides safety education to visiting schools and youth groups via its full-size interactive demonstrations known as Hazard Alley. Another educational organisation is the Milton Keynes City Discovery Centre at Bradwell Abbey, which holds an extensive archive about Milton Keynes. MKCDC is therefore a research facility, as well as offering a broad education programme (with a focus on urban geography and local history) to schools, universities and professionals.
MKCDC also holds an annual programme of events at the medieval priory site on which they are based. Government and infrastructure Local government The responsible local government is Milton Keynes Council, which controls the Borough of Milton Keynes, a Unitary Authority. About 90% of the population of the Borough lives in the urban area. Hospitals Milton Keynes University Hospital, in the Eaglestone district, is an NHS general hospital with an Accident and Emergency unit.
It is associated for medical teaching purposes with the University of Buckingham medical school. The nearby BMI Saxon Clinic is a small private hospital. UK government offices The Legalisation Office of the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office – which issues Apostille certificates to prove that official documents are genuine – is located in Milton Keynes. Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) previously had been located in Milton Keynes (at Bletchley Park), but moved to Cheltenham in the early 1950s.
 Communications and media Milton Keynes has two commercial radio stations, Heart Four Counties covering Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and Northamptonshire, and MKFM. The first commercial radio station for Milton Keynes was established in 1989 under the name Horizon Radio. It was subsequently renamed Heart MK in 2009 after being bought out by Global Radio. Heart MK was merged with Heart Northants, Heart Dunstable and Heart Bedford in 2010 to form Heart Four Counties.
MKFM launched in 2011, initially broadcasting on internet, later on DAB Digital Radio full-time and also on twice-yearly 28-day FM trial, Restricted Service Licence. In December 2014, it applied for a full-time, permanent licence through Ofcom. On 19 March 2015, Ofcom granted this full-time FM licence to MKFM. Transmissions were switched from the Pod at Stadium MK to the station's new studio on Monday 17 August 2015 at intu Milton Keynes and the station launched on 106.
3 FM at 6 am on Monday 7 September 2015. BBC Three Counties Radio is the local BBC Radio station, covering Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, but has different programming from the Bow Brickhill transmitter at breakfast. CRMK Online is a voluntary station broadcasting on the Internet. Originally broadcasting from Fishermead after the closure of Channel 40 in 1979, it originally broadcast on the cable system within Milton Keynes, following broadcasting from Peartree Bridge, in the same building as Horizon Radio and at Acorn House, it now broadcasts via the internet from a converted public toilet block in Tickford Street, Newport Pagnell, the new studio was opened by the Mayors of Milton Keynes and Newport Pagnell in April 2017.
For television, the area is in the overlap between the Oxford and the Sandy transmitters and so receives BBC South and BBC East, and ITV Meridian and Anglia. As of October 2016, Milton Keynes has one free-to-residents local newspaper, the Milton Keynes Citizen. Business Milton Keynes has consistently benefited from above-average economic growth. Outside of London it is ranked as one of the most attractive places for business along with Oxford, Cambridge and Manchester.
In November 2012 the Milton Keynes Citizen reported ratings company Experian as describing Milton Keynes as one of the leaders in a prospective economic recovery. The same report quoted the Estate Gazette as placing it first outside the M25 for office property growth. Milton Keynes is home to several national and international companies, including the UK headquarters of Argos, Domino's Pizza, Marshall Amplification, Mercedes-Benz, Suzuki, Volkswagen AG, Red Bull Racing, Network Rail and Yamaha Kemble.
 In January 2015, it was announced that Milton Keynes had seen the highest growth in jobs out of the biggest 64 towns and cities in the UK during the preceding decade. Milton Keynes saw its number of jobs increase by 18.2 per cent between 2004 and 2013, followed by London on 17.1 per cent. Sport Main article: Sport in Milton Keynes Stadium MK (in 2007) Milton Keynes has professional teams in football (Milton Keynes Dons F.
C. at Stadium:mk), in ice hockey (Milton Keynes Lightning at Planet Ice Milton Keynes), and in Formula One (Red Bull Racing). Milton Keynes is also home to the Xscape indoor ski slope, the iFLY indoor sky diving facility, the Formula Fast Indoor Karting centre, and the National Badminton Centre. Centre Main articles: Central Milton Keynes, Milton Keynes Shopping Centre, and Milton Keynes Central railway station As a key element of the New Town vision, Milton Keynes has a purpose built centre, with a very large "covered high street" shopping centre, theatre, art gallery, a multiplex cinema, hotels, business district, ecumenical church, Borough Council offices and central railway station.
Other amenities Part of the Blue Lagoon Near the central station, the former Milton Keynes central bus station has become a youth club called 'the Buszy' with a purpose-built covered "urban skateboarding" arena, but the wide expanses and slopes of the station plaza remain very popular among skaters. There is a high security prison, HMP Woodhill, on the western boundary. Willen Lakeside Park hosts watersports, and the North Lake is a bird sanctuary.
The Blue Lagoon Local Nature Reserve is in Bletchley. Original towns and villages During the Second World War, British, Polish and American cryptographers at Bletchley Park broke a large number of Axis codes and ciphers, including the German Enigma machine. The 1815 windmill near New Bradwell village, beside the playing fields Stony Stratford high street in festive mood Peace Pagoda Milton Keynes consists of many pre-existing towns and villages, as well as new infill developments.
The designated area outside the four main towns (Bletchley, Newport Pagnell, Stony Stratford, Wolverton) was largely rural farmland but included many picturesque North Buckinghamshire villages and hamlets: Bradwell village and its Abbey, Broughton, Caldecotte, Fenny Stratford, Great Linford, Loughton, Milton Keynes Village, New Bradwell, Shenley Brook End, Shenley Church End, Simpson, Stantonbury, Tattenhoe, Tongwell, Walton, Water Eaton, Wavendon, Willen, Great and Little Woolstone, Woughton on the Green.
The historical settlements have been focal points for the modern development of the new town. Every grid square has historical antecedents, if only in the field names. The more obvious ones are listed below and most have more detailed articles. Bletchley was first recorded in the 12th century as Blechelai. Its station was a major Victorian junction (the London and North Western Railway with the Oxford-Cambridge Varsity Line), leading to the substantial urban growth in the town in that period.
It expanded to absorb the villages of Water Eaton and Fenny Stratford. Bletchley Park was home to the Government Code and Cypher School during the Second World War. The famous Enigma code was cracked here, and the building housed what was arguably the world's first programmable computer, Colossus. The house is now a museum of war memorabilia, cryptography and computing. The Benedictine Priory of Bradwell Abbey at Bradwell was of major economic importance in this area of north Buckinghamshire before the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
The routes of the medieval trackways (many of which are now Redways or bridleways) converge on the site from some distance. Nowadays there is only a small medieval chapel and a manor house occupying the site. Bradwell itself is a traditional village with earthworks of a Norman motte and bailey and parish church. There is a YHA hostel beside the church. New Bradwell, to the north of Bradwell and just across the canal and the railway to the east of Wolverton, was built specifically for railway workers.
It has a working windmill, although technically this lies just a few yards outside of the parish boundary. The level bed of the old Wolverton to Newport Pagnell Line ends here and has been converted to a Redway, making it a favourite route for cycling. Great Linford appears in the Domesday Book as Linforde, and features a church dedicated to Saint Andrew, dating from 1215. Today, the outer buildings of the 17th century manor house form an arts centre, and Linford Manor is a prestigious recording studio.
Milton Keynes Village is the original village to which the New Town owes its name. The original village is still evident, with a pleasant thatched pub, village hall, church and traditional housing. The area around the village has reverted to its original name of Middleton, as shown on old maps of the 1700s. The oldest surviving domestic building in the area, a 14th-century manor house, is here.
There has been a market in Stony Stratford since 1194 (by charter of King Richard I). The Rose and Crown Inn at Stratford is reputedly the last place the Princes in the Tower were seen alive. The manor house of Walton village, Walton Hall, is the headquarters of the Open University and the tiny parish church (deconsecrated) is in its grounds. The tiny Parish Church (1680) at Willen contains the only unaltered building by the architect and physicist Robert Hooke.
Nearby, there is a Buddhist Temple and a Peace Pagoda which was built in 1980 and was the first in the western world. The district borders the River Ouzel: there is a large balancing lake here, to capture flash floods before they cause problems downstream on the River Great Ouse. The north basin is a wildlife sanctuary and a favourite of migrating aquatic birds. The south basin is for leisure use, favoured by wind surfers and dinghy sailors.
The circuit of the lakes is a favoured "fun run". The original Wolverton was a medieval settlement just north and west of today's town. The ridge and furrow pattern of agriculture can still be seen in the nearby fields and the Saxon (rebuilt in 1819) Church of the Holy Trinity still stands next to the Norman Motte and Bailey site. Modern Wolverton was a 19th-century New Town built to house the workers at the Wolverton railway works, which built engines and carriages for the London and North Western Railway.
Economy, demography, geography and politics Main article: Borough of Milton Keynes Data on the economy, demography and politics of Milton Keynes are collected at the Borough level and are detailed at Economy of the Borough and Demographics of the Borough. However, since the urban area is predominant in the Borough, it is reasonable to assume that, other than for agriculture, the figures are broadly the same.
Milton Keynes is one of the more successful (per capita) economies in the South East, with a gross value added per capita index that was 47% higher than the national average (2005 data). Average wages place it in the top five nationally (2015 data). With 99.4% SMEs, just 0.6% of businesses locally employ more than 250 people: the more notable of these include the Open University, Santander UK, Volkswagen Group, Network Rail and Mercedes Benz.
Of the remaining enterprises, 81.5% employ fewer than 10 people. The 'professional, scientific and technical sector' contributes the largest number of business units, 16.7%. The retail sector is the largest contributor of employment. Milton Keynes has one of the highest business start-ups in England and the start-up levels remained high during the 2009/10 recession. Although Education, Health and Public Administration are important contributors to employment, the contribution is significantly less than in England or the South East as a whole.
 The population is significantly younger than the national averages: 22.6% of the Borough population are aged under 16 compared with 19.0% in England; 12.1% are aged 65+ compared with 17.3% in England. According to 2011 census, the ethnic group categories makeup of Milton Keynes Urban Area is: 78.4% White, 8.7% South Asian, 7.5% Black, 3.5% Mixed Race, 1.2% Chinese and other Asian, and 0.7% other ethnic group.
 Modern parishes, community councils and districts The Borough of Milton Keynes is fully parished. These are the parishes, community councils and the districts they contain, within Milton Keynes itself. For a list of parishes in the Borough, see Borough of Milton Keynes (Rest of the borough) Bletchley and Fenny Stratford: Brick fields, Central Bletchley, Denbigh North, Denbigh East, Denbigh West, Fenny Lock, Fenny Stratford, Granby, Mount Farm, Newton Leys, Water Eaton Bradwell: Bradwell, Bradwell Common, Bradwell village, Heelands, Rooksley Bradwell Abbey: Bradwell Abbey, Kiln Farm, Stacey Bushes, Two Mile Ash, Wymbush Broughton and Milton Keynes (shared parish council): Atterbury, Brook Furlong, Broughton, Fox Milne, Middleton (including Milton Keynes Village), Northfield, Oakgrove, Pineham Campbell Park: Fishermead, Newlands, Oldbrook, Springfield, Willen and Willen Lake, Winterhill, Woolstone Central Milton Keynes: Central Milton Keynes and Campbell Park Great Linford: Blakelands, Bolbeck Park, Conniburrow, Downs Barn, Downhead Park, Great Linford, Giffard Park, Neath Hill, Pennyland, Tongwell, Willen Park Kents Hill, Monkston and Brinklow: Brinklow, Kents Hill, Kingston, Monkston Loughton: Loughton, Loughton Lodge, Great Holm, Knowlhill (including the Bowl) New Bradwell Old Woughton: Woughton on the Green, Woughton Park, Passmore (formerly Tinkers Bridge North).
Shenley Brook End: Emerson Valley, Furzton, Kingsmead, Shenley Brook End, Snelshall, Tattenhoe, Tattenhoe Park, Westcroft Shenley Church End: Crownhill, Grange Farm, Hazeley, Medbourne, Oakhill, Oxley Park, Shenley Church End, Woodhill Simpson: Ashland, Simpson, West Ashland Stantonbury: Bancroft/Bancroft Park, Blue Bridge, Bradville, Linford Wood, Oakridge Park, Stantonbury, Stantonbury Fields Stony Stratford: Fullers Slade, Galley Hill, Stony Stratford Walton: Brown's Wood, Caldecotte, Old Farm Park, Tilbrook, Tower Gate, Walnut Tree, Walton, Walton Hall, Walton Park, Wavendon Gate.
 West Bletchley: Far Bletchley, Old Bletchley, West Bletchley, Denbigh Hall Wolverton and Greenleys: Greenleys, Hodge Lea, Stonebridge, Wolverton, Old Wolverton Woughton: Beanhill, Bleak Hall, Coffee Hall, Eaglestone, Elfield Park, Leadenhall, Netherfield, Peartree Bridge, Redmoor, Tinkers Bridge. Closest cities, towns and villages Destinations from Milton Keynes Deanshanger, Towcester, Daventry, CoventryRoade, Northampton, Leicester Newport Pagnell, Olney, Wellingborough Cranfield, Bedford, Cambridge Buckingham, Brackley, Banbury Milton Keynes Woburn Sands, Ridgmont, Ampthill Bicester, Oxford Leighton Buzzard or Winslow, Aylesbury Toddington, Dunstable, Luton, London Notable people Ed Slater, professional rugby player for Gloucester Rugby who went to Two Mile Ash School and Denbigh Secondary School.
Dele Alli, professional footballer for Tottenham Hostpur who started his career with Milton Keynes Dons Christopher B-Lynch, (visiting) Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Cranfield University, responsible for inventing the eponymously named B-Lynch suture which is used to treat post-partum haemorrhage due to uterine atony worked at Milton Keynes General Hospital. Andrew Baggaley, English table tennis champion.
 Sam Baldock, professional footballer for Brighton and Hove Albion, who began his football career at MK Dons. Errol Barnett, an anchor and correspondent for CNN is from Milton Keynes. He lived in Crownhill and attended Holmwood First School and Two Mile Ash Middle School before moving to the US. Emily Bergl, an actress famous for her roles in Desperate Housewives and Shameless. Bergl was born in Milton Keynes, to an Irish mother and an English architect father.
Chris Clarke, English sprinter. Adam Ficek, drummer of London band Babyshambles. Lee Hasdell, professional Mixed martial artist and Kickboxer, and pioneer of Mixed martial arts in the UK. James Hildreth, cricketer who plays for Somerset and has played for England. Shaun Hutson, Novelist of horror novels and dark urban thrillers, has lived in Milton Keynes for several years. Liam Kelly, professional footballer for Oldham Athletic.
Jim Marshall (1923-2012), founder and CEO of Marshall Amplification was living in and ran his business from Milton Keynes when he died. Gordon Moakes, the bassist for the London-based rock band Bloc Party. Clare Nasir, the meteorologist, TV and radio personality, was born in Milton Keynes in 1970. Craig Pickering, English sprinter. Sarah Pinborough, English horror writer. Ian Poulter, PGA & European Tour golf professional.
Member of the 2010 and 2012 European Ryder Cup Teams. Mark Randall, professional footballer for Milton Keynes Dons. Antonee Robinson, professional footballer for Everton, on loan to Bolton Wanderers. Greg Rutherford, long jump gold medallist for Team GB at the 2012 Olympic Games. Jack Trevor Story, novelist, was a long-term resident of Milton Keynes. Sam Tomkins, Wigan Warriors and England international rugby league player, was born in Milton Keynes.
 Alan Turing (1912-1954), played a significant role in the creation of the modern computer. He lodged at the Crown Inn, Shenley Brook End, while working at Bletchley Park. Nat Wei, Baron Wei, member of the House of Lords, (born Watford], was brought up and went to school in Milton Keynes. Kevin Whately lives in Woburn Sands, in the Milton Keynes urban area. Dan Wheldon (1978-2011), Indy car driver.
 George Williams, professional footballer for Fulham Pete Winkelman, Chairman of Milton Keynes Dons Football Club, owner of Linford Manor recording studios, long term resident. Ben Chilwell, professional footballer for Leicester Bands Capdown, the ska punk band, came from and formed in Milton Keynes in 1997. Fellsilent, the metal band, come from and formed in Milton Keynes in 2003. Tesseract, the djent band formed as a full live act in Milton Keynes in 2007.
Tesseract's guitarist, songwriter and producer Acle Kahney is also a former member of Fellsilent. Hacktivist, the Grime, djent band formed in 2011. RavenEye, the rock band, formed in Milton Keynes in 2014. Transport the Grand Union Canal passes over Grafton Street at Bradwell via the modern Bradwell Aqueduct See also: Buses in Milton Keynes The Grand Union Canal between London and Birmingham provides a major axis in the design of Milton Keynes.
Milton Keynes has five railway stations. Milton Keynes Central is served by inter-city services. Wolverton, Milton Keynes Central and Bletchley stations are on the West Coast Main Line. Fenny Stratford and Bow Brickhill are on the Marston Vale Line. Woburn Sands railway station, also on the Marston Vale line, is in the small town of Woburn Sands just inside the urban area. The M1 motorway runs along the east flank of MK and serves it from junctions 13, 14, and 15A.
The A5 road runs right through MK as a grade separated dual carriageway. Other main roads are the A509, linking Milton Keynes with Wellingborough and Kettering, and the A421 and A422, both running west towards Buckingham and east towards Bedford. Proximity to the M1 has led to construction of a number of distribution centres, including Magna Park at the A421/A5130 junction. Many long-distance coaches stop at the Milton Keynes coachway, (beside M1 Junction 14), some 3.
3 miles (5.3 km) from the centre (or 4 mi or 6.4 km from Milton Keynes Central railway station). There is also a park and ride car park on the site. Regional coaches stop at Milton Keynes Central. The main bus operator is Arriva Shires & Essex, providing a number of routes which mainly pass through or serve Central Milton Keynes. Milton Keynes is also served by Arriva-branded services from Aylesbury and Luton as well and Stagecoach East which operate routes to Oxford, Cambridge, Stagecoach Midlands which operates routes to Peterborough and Leicester.
Some local services are run by independent operators such as Z&S International and Centrebus. Milton Keynes is served by (and provides part of) routes 6 and 51 on the National Cycle Network. The nearest international airport is London Luton Airport, accessible by Stagecoach route 99 from MK Central station, which runs with wheelchair-accessible coaches. There is a direct rail connection to Birmingham International station for Birmingham Airport.
In addition, Cranfield Airport, an airfield, is 6 miles (10 km) from the centre. (Although Milton Keynes is allocated an International Air Transport Association airport code of KYN, it does not have an airport. Proposals in 1971 for a third London airport at (relatively) nearby Cublington were rejected). Twin towns Almere, Netherlands Climate Milton Keynes experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) similar to almost all of the United Kingdom.
Recorded temperature extremes range from 34.6 °C (94.3 °F) during July 2006, to as low as −20.6 °C (−5.1 °F) on 25 February 1947. More recently the temperature fell to −16.3 °C (2.7 °F) on 20 December 2010. The nearest Met Office weather station is in Woburn, located just outside the south eastern fringe of the Milton Keynes urban area. Climate data for Woburn 1981–2010 (Weather station 3 mi (5 km) to the SE of Central Milton Keynes) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) 7.
0 (44.6) 7.4 (45.3) 10.3 (50.5) 13.1 (55.6) 16.6 (61.9) 19.6 (67.3) 22.1 (71.8) 21.9 (71.4) 18.7 (65.7) 14.4 (57.9) 10.0 (50) 7.2 (45) 14.1 (57.4) Average low °C (°F) 1.3 (34.3) 0.9 (33.6) 2.7 (36.9) 3.8 (38.8) 6.5 (43.7) 9.4 (48.9) 11.7 (53.1) 11.6 (52.9) 9.6 (49.3) 7.0 (44.6) 3.8 (38.8) 1.5 (34.7) 5.8 (42.4) Average precipitation mm (inches) 54.2 (2.134) 41.7 (1.642) 45.3 (1.783) 52.1 (2.051) 54.
3 (2.138) 53.2 (2.094) 53.1 (2.091) 55.4 (2.181) 57.5 (2.264) 70.3 (2.768) 63.0 (2.48) 57.3 (2.256) 657.4 (25.882) Mean monthly sunshine hours 52.0 69.4 105.5 147.4 183.4 179.9 197.1 189.0 137.0 105.6 61.7 43.5 1,471.6 Source: Met Office Notes ^ Although Milton Keynes was specified to be a city in scale and the term "city" is used locally (inter alia to avoid confusion with its constituent towns), formally this title cannot be used.
This is because conferment of city status in the United Kingdom is a Royal prerogative. References ^ a b "2011 Census - Built-up areas". ONS. Retrieved 1 July 2013. ^ a b ""North Buckinghamshire (Milton Keynes) New Town (Designation) Order", London Gazette, 24 January 1967, page 827". London Gazette. Retrieved 14 January 2014.. ^ "Census 2011". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
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Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-29. ^ Kitchen, Roger; Hill, Marion (2007). 'The story of the original CMK' … told by the people who shaped the original Central Milton Keynes (interviews). Milton Keynes: Living Archive. p. 17. ISBN 0-904847-34-9. Retrieved 26 January 2009. (Professor Lock is visiting professor of town planning at Reading University. He was the chief town planner for CMK.
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Milton Keynes at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Milton Keynes news, what's on and community portal Official visitor website for Milton Keynes Milton Keynes Council City Discovery Centre (MK urban studies centre) Urban Design magazine – "Milton Keynes at 40" Community Forum for Milton Keynes Borough Milton Keynes in 1968, on BFI Player Community information website v t e Ceremonial county of Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire Portal Unitary authorities Borough of Milton Keynes Boroughs or districts Aylesbury Vale Chiltern South Bucks Wycombe Major settlements Amersham Aylesbury Beaconsfield Buckingham Chesham Gerrards Cross High Wycombe Marlow Milton Keynes including Bletchley Fenny Stratford Stony Stratford Wolverton Newport Pagnell Olney Princes Risborough Wendover Winslow Woburn SandsSee also: List of civil parishes in Buckinghamshire Rivers Chess Colne Frays Gade Great Ouse Jubilee Lyde Misbourne Ouzel Ray Thame Thames Tove Wraysbury Wye Topics Parliamentary constituencies Boundary changes Schools (Bucks) Schools (Milton Keynes) Places Sites of Special Scientific Interest Places of interest Country houses Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings History Lord Lieutenant High Sheriff Monastic houses Museums Railways Transport v t e River Great Ouse, England Counties Northamptonshire Buckinghamshire Bedfordshire Cambridgeshire Norfolk Flows into The Wash Towns(upstream to downstream) Brackley Buckingham Old Stratford Milton Keynes Stony Stratford Wolverton New Bradwell Newport Pagnell Olney Kempston Bedford St Neots Godmanchester Huntingdon St Ives Ely Littleport Downham Market King's Lynn Major tributaries(upstream to downstream by confluence) River Tove River Ouzel (or Lovat) River Ivel River Kym Old Bedford River New Bedford River River Cam River Lark River Little Ouse River Wissey Major bridges(upstream to downstream) Harrold bridge A428 Turvey bridge A428 Bromham bypass A6 Bedford Town Bridge A421 Bedford bypass Great Barford Bridge A428 Bridge St Neots St Neots Town Bridge Godmanchester Chinese Bridge A14 bridge, River Great Ouse Huntingdon Old Bridge St Ives Bridge Longest UK rivers Severn Thames Trent Great Ouse Wye Ure/Ouse Tay Spey Clyde Tweed Avon Nene Eden Dee Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 152452862 GND: 4114603-7 Retrieved from "https://en.
Title: Arts Central Milton Keynes