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This article is about a state of India. For a geographical region, see Punjab. For other uses of the name, see Punjab (disambiguation). Punjab State The only state in India with a majority Sikh population, Punjab contains the Golden Temple, amongst the most important sites in Sikhism Seal Location of Punjab in India Coordinates (Chandigarh): 30°47′N 75°50′E / 30.79°N 75.84°ECoordinates: 30°47′N 75°50′E / 30.
79°N 75.84°E Country India Capital Chandigarh† Largest city Ludhiana Districts 22 Government • Governor V P Singh Badnore • Chief Minister Captain Amarinder Singh (INC) • Legislature Unicameral (117 seats) • Parliamentary constituency 13 • High Court Punjab and Haryana High Court†† Area • Total 50,362 km2 (19,445 sq mi) Area rank 20th Highest elevation 551 m (1,808 ft) Lowest elevation 150 m (490 ft) Population (2011) • Total 27,704,236 • Rank 16th • Density 550/km2 (1,400/sq mi) Demonym(s) Punjabi Time zone IST (UTC+05:30) ISO 3166 code IN-PB HDI 0.
679 (medium) HDI rank 9th (2005) Official language Punjabi Website punjab.gov.in ^† Joint Capital with Haryana.††Common for Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh. Symbols of Punjab Emblem Lion Capital of Ashoka with Wheat stem (above) and Crossed Swords (below) Language Punjabi Dance Bhangra, Giddha Animal Blackbuck Bird Baaz(Accipiter gentilis) Punjab (/pʌnˈdʒɑːb/ ( listen)) is a state in northern India.
Forming part of the larger Punjab region, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, and the Pakistan province of Punjab to the west. The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres or 1.53 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the twentieth largest Indian state by area.
With 27,704,236 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Punjab is the sixteenth largest state by population, comprising 22 districts. Punjabi is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The main ethnic group are the Punjabis, with Punjabi Sikhs (57.7 percent) forming the demographic majority followed by Hindus (38.5 percent). The state capital is located in Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighboring state of Haryana.
The five rivers were Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum; currently Sutlej, Ravi and Beas are part of the Indian Punjab. The Punjab region was home to the Indus Valley Civilization until 1900 BCE. The Punjab was conquered by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE and was captured by Chandragupta Maurya. The Punjab was home to the Gupta Empire, the empire of the Alchon Huns, the empire of Harsha, and the Mongol Empire.
Circa 1000, the Punjab was invaded by Muslims and was part of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. Sikhism originated in Punjab and resulted in the formation of the Sikh Confederacy after the fall of the Mughal Empire. The confederacy was united into the Sikh Empire by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The entire Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company from the Sikh Empire in 1849. In 1947, the Punjab Province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab.
The western part was assimilated into new country of Pakistan while the east stayed in India. The Indian Punjab was divided on the basis of language in 1966. It was divided into 3 parts. Haryanvi speaking areas (dialect of Hindi) were carved out as Haryana, Hilly regions and Pahari speaking areas formed Himachal Pradesh alongside the current state of Punjab. The diverse cultures of the various rulers of Punjab have influenced Punjabi culture.
The government of Punjab has three branches - executive, judiciary and legislative. Punjab follows the parliamentary system of government with the Chief Minister as the head of the state. State is primarily agriculture-based due to the presence of abundant water sources and fertile soils. Other major industries include the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, financial services, machine tools, textiles, sewing machines, sports goods, starch, tourism, fertilisers, bicycles, garments, and the processing of pine oil and sugar.
Minerals and energy resources also contribute to the Punjab economy although to a much lesser extent. Punjab has the largest number of steel rolling mill plants in India, which are located in "Steel Town"—Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district. Etymology The word Punjab is a compound of the Persian words panj (five) and āb (waters). Thus Panjāb roughly means "the land of five rivers".
Another more accurate origin of "Punjab" is made up of Sanskrit words "punch" meaning five and "aap" meaning water ( river). Land of five waters i.e. "Punjab". The five rivers are the Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jehlum (also spelled Jhelum). Traditionally, in English, there used to be a definite article before the name, i.e. "The Punjab". The name is also sometimes spelled as "Panjab". While the Greeks already referred to Punjab as A pentapotamia, an inland delta of five converging rivers, the name Punjab was given to the region by the Central Asian Turkic conquerors of India, and popularised by the Turco-Mongol Mughals.
 History Main article: History of the Punjab See also: Punjab (region) Ancient history During the period when the epic Mahabharata was written, around 800–400 BCE, Punjab was known as Trigarta and ruled by Katoch kings. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of the Punjab region with cities such as Ropar. The Vedic Civilization spread along the length of the Sarasvati River to cover most of northern India including Punjab.
This civilisation shaped subsequent cultures in the Indian subcontinent. The Punjab region was ruled by many ancient empires including the Gandhara, Nandas, Mauryas, Shungas, Kushans, Guptas, Palas, Gurjara-Pratiharas and Hindu Shahis. The furthest eastern extent of Alexander the Great's exploration was along the Indus River. Agriculture flourished and trading cities such as Jalandhar, Sangrur and Ludhiana grew in wealth.
Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and influence from both west and east. Punjab faced invasions by the Achaemenids, Greeks, Scythians, Turks, and Afghans. This resulted in the Punjab witnessing centuries of bitter bloodshed. Its culture combines Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic, Sikh and British influences. Hindus in Punjab Map of early Iron Age Vedic India after Witzel (1989); realms or tribes are labelled black, foreign tribes mentioned in early Vedic texts purple, Vedic shakhas in green, rivers are labelled blue, the Thar desert is marked orange.
The original Punjab region is now divided into several units: West Punjab (now in Pakistan), portions of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa such as the Gandharar region, the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh and the Indian Union territory of Chandigarh. The regions of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir and Jammu have also been historically associated with the Punjab. The Punjab is the 'Sapta Sindhu' region mentioned in the Rig Veda, the seven rivers are: Saraswati (thought to be the present day Ghaggar), Satadru/Shutadri (Sutlej), Vipasa (Beas), Asikani, Chandrabhaga (Chenab), Iravati (Ravi), Vitasta/Vet (Jhelum) and Sindhu (Indus).
Among the classic books that were wholly or partly composed in this region are the following. Rigveda Grammar of Sakatayana Ashtadhyayi of Pāṇini Nirukta of Yaska Charaka Samhita Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita Brihatkatha of Gunadya Bakhshali Manuscript The world's oldest university Takshashila flourished here, even before the Buddha's birth. The Brahmins of this region are called 'Saraswata' after the legendary Saraswati river region, once known for the ashramas of the rishis.
Hinduism has been prevalent in Punjab since historical times before the arrival of Islam and birth of Sikhism in Punjab. Some of the influential Sikh figures such as Guru Nanak, Guru Angad Dev, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, Banda Singh Bahadur, Bhai Mati Das, all originated from Hindu families of Punjab. Many of Punjab's Hindus converted to Sikhism. Punjabi Hindus can trace their roots from the time of the Vedas.
Many modern day cities in Indian Punjab and Pakistani Punjab are still named from that period like Lahore, Jalandhar, Chandigarh and so on. Examples of Punjabi Hindus include the former Prime ministers of India I.K. Gujral and Gulzari Lal Nanda and former Indian cricketer Kapil Dev and scientist Hargobind Khorana. Sikhs in Punjab Sikhism originated in the Punjab Region during the 15th century. Approximately 75% of the total Sikh population of the world lives in the Punjab.
The roots of Sikhism began at the time of the conquest of northern India by Babur. His grandson, Akbar, supported religious freedom and after visiting the langar of Guru Amar Das had a favourable impression of Sikhism. As a result of his visit he donated land to the langar and had a positive relationship with the Sikh Gurus until his death in 1605. His successor, Jahangir, saw the Sikhs as a political threat.
He arrested Guru Arjun Dev because of Sikh support for Khusrau Mirza and ordered him to be put to death by torture. Guru Arjan Dev's martyrdom led to the sixth Guru, Guru Har Gobind, declaring Sikh sovereignty in the creation of the Akal Takht and the establishment of a fort to defend Amritsar. Jahangir attempted to assert authority over the Sikhs by imprisoning Guru Har Gobind at Gwalior.
He felt compelled to release him when he began to suffer premonitions of an early and gruesome death. The Guru refused to be released unless the dozens of Hindu princes imprisoned with him were also granted freedom, to which Jahangir agreed. Sikhism did not have any further issues with the Mughal Empire until the death of Jahangir in 1627. His successor, Shah Jahan "took offense" at Guru Har Gobind's sovereignty and after a series of assaults on Amritsar forced the Sikhs to retreat to the Sivalik Hills.
 Guru Har Gobind's successor, Guru Har Rai maintained the guruship in the Sivalik Hills by defeating local attempts to seize Sikh land and taking a neutral role in the power struggle between Aurangzeb and Dara Shikoh for control of the Timurid dynasty. The ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur, moved the Sikh community to Anandpur and travelled extensively to visit and preach in Sikh communities in defiance of Mughal rule.
He aided Kashmiri Pandits in avoiding conversion to Islam and was arrested and confronted by Aurangzeb. When offered a choice between conversion or death, he chose to die rather than compromise his principles and was executed. Guru Gobind Singh assumed the guruship in 1675 and to avoid battles with Sivalik Hill Rajas moved the guruship to Paunta. He built a large fort to protect the city and garrisoned an army to protect it.
The growing power of the Sikh community alarmed Sivalik Hill Rajas, who attempted to attack the city, but the Guru's forces routed them at the Battle of Bhangani. He moved on to Anandpur and established the Khalsa, a collective army of baptised Sikhs, on 30 March 1699. The establishment of the Khalsa united the Sikh community against various Mughal-backed claimants to the guruship. In 1701, a combined army composed of the Sivalik Hill Rajas and the Mughal army under Wazir Khan attacked Anandpur and, following a retreat by the Khalsa, were defeated by the Khalsa at the Battle of Muktsar.
Banda Singh Bahadur was an ascetic who converted to Sikhism after meeting Guru Gobind Singh at Nanded. A short time before his death, Guru Gobind Singh ordered him to uproot Mughal rule in Punjab and gave him a letter that commanded all Sikhs to join him. After two years of gaining supporters, Banda Singh Bahadur initiated an agrarian uprising by breaking up the large estates of Zamindar families and distributing the land to the poor Sikh and Hindu peasants who farmed the land.
 Banda Singh Bahadur started his rebellion with the defeat of Mughal armies at Samana and Sadhaura and the rebellion culminated in the defeat of Sirhind. During the rebellion, Banda Singh Bahadur made a point of destroying the cities in which Mughals had been cruel to Sikhs, including executing Wazir Khan in revenge for the deaths of Guru Gobind Singh's sons, Baba Zorawar Singh and Baba Fateh Singh after the Sikh victory at Sirhind.
 He ruled the territory between the Sutlej River and the Yamuna River, established a capital in the Himalayas at Lohgarh, and struck coinage in the names of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh. Cis-Sutlej states The Cis-Sutlej states were a group of states in modern Punjab and Haryana states lying between the Sutlej River on the north, the Himalayas on the east, the Yamuna River and Delhi District on the south, and Sirsa District on the west.
These states were ruled by the Scindhia dynasty of the Maratha Empire. Various Sikh sardars and other Rajas of the Cis-Sutlej states paid tributes to the Marathas until the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-1805, after which the Marathas lost this territory to the British. The Cis-Sutlej states included Kaithal, Patiala, Jind, Thanesar, Maler Kotla, and Faridkot. Sikh Empire Main article: Sikh Empire Sikh Empire Darbar of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, showing people of all religions Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Granth Sahib being recited near the Golden Temple, Amritsar The Sikh Empire (1801–1849) was forged by Maharajah Ranjit Singh on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls, creating a unified political state.
The empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west, to Kashmir in the north, to Sindh in the south, and Tibet in the east. The main geographical footprint of the empire was the Punjab region. The religious demography of the Sikh Empire was Muslim (70%), Sikh (17%), Hindu (13%). After his proclamation in 1801 as Maharajah, Ranjit Singh began the modernisation of the Punjab Army. All the Misl leaders who were affiliated with the Army had been nobility, usually with long and prestigious family histories in Punjab.
 Ranjit Singh introduced several new commanders, some of them European, and a further 52,000 well-trained and equipped professional-grade irregulars with a significant multi-religious component. In addition, the army was equipped with field artillery, turning it into a premier fighting force. After Ranjit Singh's death in 1839, the empire was severely weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement.
This opportunity was used by the British Empire to launch the Anglo-Sikh Wars. A series of betrayals of the Sikhs by some prominent leaders in the army led to its downfall. Maharaja Gulab Singh and Raja Dhian Singh were the top generals of the army. The Sikh Empire was finally dissolved, after a series of wars with the British at the end of the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, into separate princely states and the British province of Punjab, which were granted statehood.
Eventually, a Lieutenant Governorship was formed in Lahore as a direct representative of the British Crown. Punjab Province (British India) British Punjab Province, before 1947 The Cis-Sutlej states, including Kaithal, Patiala, Jind, Thanesar, Maler Kotla, and Faridkot, were under the suzerainty of the Scindhia dynasty of the Maratha Empire, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-1805, when Marathas lost this territory to the British.
During the war, some of the states in the region gave their allegiance to British General Gerard Lake. At the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Maratha War, an 1809 agreement with Ranjit Singh, ruler of the Sikh Empire west of the Sutlej, brought these states under formal British protection. Ranjit Singh's death in the summer of 1839 brought political chaos, and the subsequent battles of succession and the bloody infighting between the factions at court weakened the state.
By 1845 the British had moved 32,000 troops to the Sutlej frontier to secure their northernmost possessions against the succession struggles in the Punjab. In late 1845, British and Sikh troops engaged near Firozpur, beginning the First Anglo-Sikh War. The war ended the following year, and the territory between the Sutlej and the Beas was ceded to British Company rule in India, along with Kashmir, which was sold to Gulab Singh of Jammu, who ruled Kashmir as a British vassal.
As a condition of the peace treaty, some British troops, along with a resident political agent and other officials, were left in the Punjab to oversee the regency of Maharaja Dhalip Singh, a minor. The Sikh army was reduced greatly in size. In 1848, out-of-work Sikh troops in Multan revolted, and a British official was killed. Within a few months, the unrest had spread throughout the Punjab, and British troops once again invaded.
The British prevailed in the Second Anglo-Sikh War, and under the Treaty of Lahore in 1849, the Punjab was annexed by the British East India Company, and Dhalip Singh was pensioned off. The Punjab became a province of British India, although a number of small states, most notably Patiala, Kapurthala, Faridkot, Nabha, and Jind, retained local rulers in subsidiary alliances with the British, with the rulers retaining their own internal sovereignty but recognising British suzerainty.
The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre of 1919 occurred in Amritsar. In 1930, the Indian National Congress proclaimed independence from Lahore. In March 1940, the All-India Muslim League passed the Lahore Resolution, demanding the creation of a separate state from Muslim majority areas in India. This triggered bitter protests by the Sikhs in the Punjab, who could not countenance living in a Muslim state. In 1946, massive communal tensions and violence erupted between Punjab's Muslim majority and the Hindu and Sikh minorities.
The Muslim League attacked the government of Unionist Punjabi Muslims, Sikh Akalis and the Congress and led to its downfall. Unwilling to be cowed down, Sikhs and Hindus counter-attacked, and the resulting bloodshed left the province in great disorder. Both Congress and League leaders agreed to partition Punjab upon religious lines, a precursor to the wider partition of the country. Independence and its aftermath In 1947 the Punjab Province of British India was partitioned along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab.
Huge numbers of people were displaced, and there was much intercommunal violence. Following independence, several small Punjabi princely states, including Patiala, acceded to the Union of India and were united into the PEPSU. In 1956 this was integrated with the state of East Punjab to create a new, enlarged Indian state called simply "Punjab". The undivided Punjab, of which Pakistani Punjab forms a major region today, was home to a large minority population of Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs until 1947, apart from the Muslim majority.
 Immediately following independence in 1947, and due to the ensuing communal violence and fear, most Sikhs and Punjabi Hindus who found themselves in Pakistan migrated to India as part of the exchange of populations. Punjabi Muslims were uprooted similarly from their homes in East Punjab, which now forms part of India. More than seven million moved to Pakistan, and over six million settled in Punjab.
In 1950, two new states were recognised by the Indian constitution: the Indian part of the former British province of Punjab became the state of East Punjab, while the princely states of the region were combined into the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). Himachal Pradesh was later created as a union territory from several princely states in the hills. Geography Punjab is in northwestern India and has a total area of 50,362 square kilometres (19,445 sq mi).
Punjab is bounded by Pakistan on the west, Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Himachal Pradesh on the northeast and Haryana and Rajasthan on the south. Most of the Punjab lies in a fertile, alluvial plain with many rivers and an extensive irrigation canal system. A belt of undulating hills extends along the northeastern part of the state at the foot of the Himalayas. Its average elevation is 300 metres (980 ft) above sea level, with a range from 180 metres (590 ft) in the southwest to more than 500 metres (1,600 ft) around the northeast border.
The southwest of the state is semiarid, eventually merging into the Thar Desert. The Shiwalik Hills extend along the northeastern part of the state at the foot of the Himalayas. The soil characteristics are influenced to a limited extent by the topography, vegetation and parent rock. The variation in soil profile characteristics are much more pronounced because of the regional climatic differences.
 Punjab is divided into three distinct regions on the basis of soil types: southwestern, central, and eastern. Punjab falls under seismic zones II, III, and IV. Zone II is considered a low-damage risk zone; zone III is considered a moderate-damage risk zone; and zone IV is considered a high-damage risk zone. Climate Agricultural fields of Punjab during the monsoon The geography and subtropical latitudinal location of Punjab lead to large variations in temperature from month to month.
Even though only limited regions experience temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F), ground frost is commonly found in the majority of Punjab during the winter season. The temperature rises gradually with high humidity and overcast skies. However, the rise in temperature is steep when the sky is clear and humidity is low. The maximum temperatures usually occur in mid-May and June. The temperature remains above 40 °C (104 °F) in the entire region during this period.
Ludhiana recorded the highest maximum temperature at 46.1 °C (115.0 °F) with Patiala and Amritsar recording 45.5 °C (113.9 °F). The maximum temperature during the summer in Ludhiana remains above 41 °C (106 °F) for a duration of one and a half months. These areas experience the lowest temperatures in January. The sun rays are oblique during these months and the cold winds control the temperature at daytime.
 Punjab experiences its minimum temperature from December to February. The lowest temperature was recorded at Amritsar (0.2 °C (32.4 °F)) and Ludhiana stood second with 0.5 °C (32.9 °F). The minimum temperature of the region remains below 5 °C (41 °F) for almost two months during the winter season. The highest minimum temperature of these regions in June is more than the daytime maximum temperatures experienced in January and February.
Ludhiana experiences minimum temperatures above 27 °C (81 °F) for more than two months. The annual average temperature in the entire state is approximately 21 °C (70 °F). Further, the mean monthly temperature range varies between 9 °C (48 °F) in July to approximately 18 °C (64 °F) in November. Seasons Punjab experiences three main seasons. They are: Hot Season (mid-April to the end of June) Rainy Season (early July to the end of September) Cold Season (early December to the end of February).
 Apart from these three, the state experiences transitional seasons like: Pre-summer season (March to mid-April): This is the period of transition between winter and summer. Post-monsoon season (September to end of November): This is the period of transition between monsoon and winter seasons. Summer Punjab starts experiencing mildly hot temperatures in February. However, the actual summer season commences in mid-April.
The area experiences pressure variations during the summer months. The atmospheric pressure of the region remains around 987 millibar during February and it reaches 970 millibar in June. Rainy season The monsoon brings joy to the agricultural sector as farmers become very busy. Punjab's rainy season begins in first week of July as monsoon currents generated in the Bay of Bengal bring rain to the region.
 Winter Temperature variation is minimal in January. The mean night and day temperatures fall to 5 °C (41 °F) and 12 °C (54 °F), respectively. Post-Monsoon transitional season The monsoon begins to reduce by the second week of September. This brings a gradual change in climate and temperature. The time between October and November is the transitional period between monsoon and winter seasons.
Weather during this period is generally fair and dry. Post-Winter transitional season The effects of winter diminish by the first week of March. The hot summer season commences in mid-April. This period is marked by occasional showers with hail storms and squalls that cause extensive damage to crops. The winds remain dry and warm during the last week of March, commencing the harvest period. Rainfall Monsoon Rainfall Monsoon season provides most of the rainfall for the region.
Punjab receives rainfall from the monsoon current of the Bay of Bengal. This monsoon current enters the state from the southeast in the first week of July. Winter Rainfall The winter season remains very cool with temperatures falling below freezing at some places. Winter also brings in some western disturbances. Rainfall in the winter provides relief to the farmers as some of the winter crops in the region of Shivalik Hills are entirely dependent on this rainfall.
As per meteorological statistics, the sub-Shivalik area receives more than 100 millimetres (3.9 in) of rainfall in the winter months. Flora and fauna Agriculture in Punjab The plains of Punjab do not have any thick forests. The only available flora are patches of grass, small bushes, and shrubs. In the southeastern part of Punjab and the areas of Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur and Multan, mangoes are grown.
Other varieties of fruit grown in abundance are oranges, apples, figs, quinces, almonds, pomegranates, peaches, mulberries, apricots and plums. Major cultivation of rich flora and fauna can be seen in the Shivalik ranges. Due its rich flora and fauna, it has been termed a micro-endemic zone of India. There is a wide variety of angiosperms in the area, including 355 types of herbs, 70 types of trees, 70 types of shrubs of all sizes, 19 types of climbers, and 21 types of twines.
Besides angiosperms, the region is home to 31 kinds of pteridophytes and 27 kinds of bryophytes, while a special species of gymnosperm named Pinus roxburghii can be seen in the ranges of Punjab. The fauna of the area is rich, with 396 types of birds, 214 kinds of Lepidoptera, 55 varieties of fish, 20 types of reptiles, and 19 kinds of mammals. The state of Punjab has large wetland areas, bird sanctuaries that house numerous species of birds, and many zoological parks.
Wetlands include the national wetland Hari-Ke-Pattan, the wetland of Kanjli, and the wetlands of Kapurthala Sutlej. Wildlife sanctuaries include the Harike in the district of Tarn Taran Sahib, the Zoological Park in Rupnagar, Chhatbir Bansar Garden in Sangrur, Aam Khas Bagh in Sirhind, Amritsar's famous Ram Bagh, Shalimar Garden in Kapurthala, and the famous Baradari Garden in the city of Patiala.
 Animals and birds A few of the rivers in Punjab have dangerous species of crocodiles. The extraction of silk from silkworms is another industry that flourishes in the state. Production of bee honey is done in some parts of Punjab. The southern plains are desert land; hence, camels can be seen. Buffaloes graze around the banks of rivers. The northeastern part is home to animals like horses. Wildlife sanctuaries have many more species of wild animals like the otter, wild boar, wildcat, fruit bat, hog deer, flying fox, squirrel and mongoose.
Naturally formed forests can be seen in the Shivalik ranges in the districts of Ropar, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur. Patiala is home to the Bir forest while the wetlands area in Punjab is home to the famous Mand forest. Botanical gardens exist throughout Punjab. There is a zoological park and a tiger safari park, as well as three parks dedicated to deer. The state bird is the baz (northern goshawk).
 (Melierax poliopterus), the state animal is the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), and the state tree is the shisham (Dalbergia sissoo). Government and politics Punjab Legislative Assembly building Main articles: Politics of Punjab (India), Government of Punjab (India), Punjab Legislative Assembly, and List of districts of Punjab (India) Punjab is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy.
Each of the states of India possesses a parliamentary system of government, with a ceremonial state Governor, appointed by the President of India on the advice of the central government. The head of government is an indirectly elected Chief Minister who is vested with most of the executive powers. The term length of the government is five years. The state legislature, the Vidhan Sabha, is the unicameral Punjab Legislative Assembly, with 117 members elected from single-seat constituencies.
The current Government was elected in the 2017 Assembly elections as Congress won 77 out of 117 Assembly seats and Amarinder Singh is the current Chief Minister. The state of Punjab is divided into five administrative divisions and twenty-two districts. The capital of Punjab is Chandigarh, which also serves as the capital of Haryana and is thus administered separately as a Union Territory of India.
The judicial branch of the state government is provided by the Punjab and Haryana High Court in Chandigarh. The main players in the politics of the state are the Indian National Congress and the Shiromani Akali Dal (with alliance Bharatiya Janata Party). The present government is headed by Amarinder Singh. President's rule has been imposed in Punjab 8 times so far, since 1950, for different reasons.
In terms of the absolute number of days, Punjab was under President’s rule for 3510 days, which is about 10 years. Much of this was in the 80s during the height of militancy in Punjab. Punjab was under President’s rule for 5 continuous years from 1987 to 1992. Administrative Set-Up Districts of Punjab along with their headquarters, before 2007 Punjab has 22 districts which are geographically classified into Majha, Malwa, Doaba and Poadh regions.
They are officially divided among 5 divisions: Patiala, Rupnagar, Jalandhar, Faridkot and Firozepur. Majha Amritsar Tarn Taran Gurdaspur Pathankot Doaba Hoshiarpur Kapurthala Jalandhar Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr) Malwa Barnala Bathinda Ferozepur Fazilka Faridkot Ludhiana SAS Nagar (Mohali) Moga Mansa Muktsar Patiala Rupnagar Sangrur Fatehgarh Sahib (Sirhind-Fategarh) Each district under the administrative control of a District Collector.
The districts are subdivided into 79 tehsils, which have fiscal and administrative powers over settlements within their borders, including maintenance of local land records comes under the administrative control of a Tehsildar. Each Tehsil consists of blocks which are total 143 in number. The blocks consist of revenue villages. There are total number of revenue villages in the state is 12,278. There are 22 Zila Parishads, 136 Municipal Committees and 22 Improvement Trusts looking after 143 towns and 14 cities of Punjab.
Majitha is newly created tehsil, which was formed in September 2016. Zirakpur is the latest sub-tehsil, in the district of Mohali. The capital and largest city of the state is Chandigarh. Out of total population of Punjab, 37.48% people live in urban regions. The absolute urban population living in urban areas is 10,399,146 of which 5,545,989 are males and while remaining 4,853,157 are females. The urban population in the last 10 years has increased by 37.
48 percent. The major cities are Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Patiala, Bathinda, Sangrur, and SAS Nagar (Mohali). Economy Main article: Economy of Punjab (India) See also: Measurement of land in Punjab Burning of rice residues after harvest to quickly prepare the land for wheat planting, around Sangrur, Punjab Punjab's GDP is ₹3.17 lakh crore (US$47 billion). Punjab is one of the most fertile regions in India.
The region is ideal for wheat-growing. Rice, sugar cane, fruits and vegetables are also grown. Indian Punjab is called the "Granary of India" or "India's bread-basket". It produces 10.26% of India's cotton, 19.5% of India's wheat, and 11% of India's rice. The Firozpur and Fazilka Districts are the largest producers of wheat and rice in the state. In worldwide terms, Indian Punjab produces 2% of the world's cotton, 2% of its wheat and 1% of its rice.
 The largest cultivated crop is wheat. Other important crops are rice, cotton, sugarcane, pearl millet, maize, barley and fruit. Rice and wheat are doublecropped in Punjab with rice stalks being burned off over millions of acres prior to the planting of wheat. This widespread practice is polluting and wasteful. In Punjab the consumption of fertiliser per hectare is 223.46 kg as compared to 90 kg nationally.
The state has been awarded the National Productivity Award for agriculture extension services for ten years, from 1991–92 to 1998–99 and from 2001 to 2003–04. In recent years a drop in productivity has been observed, mainly due to falling fertility of the soil. This is believed to be due to excessive use of fertilisers and pesticides over the years. Another worry is the rapidly falling water table on which almost 90% of the agriculture depends; alarming drops have been witnessed in recent years.
By some estimates, groundwater is falling by a meter or more per year. According to the India State Hunger Index, Punjab has the lowest level of hunger in India. Transport Main articles: Punjab Roadways and PEPSU Road Transport Corporation Public transport in Punjab is provided by buses, auto rickshaws, Indian railways and an international rail connection to Pakistan (Samjhauta Express).
The state has a large network of multi modal transportation systems. Punjab has six civil airports including three international airports: Amritsar International Airport and Chandigarh International Airport; and four domestic airports: Bathinda Airport, Pathankot Airport, Patiala Airport, Sahnewal Airport. A DMU Train in Ludhiana The Indian Railways' Northern Railway line runs through the state connecting most of the major towns and cities.
The railway network in the state is controlled by Northern Railway zone divisional headquarter: Firozpur railway division and Ambala railway division. The Shatabdi Express, India's fastest series of train connects Amritsar to New Delhi covering total distance of 449 km. Bathinda Junction is the largest railway station in the state. Punjab's major railway stations are Ludhiana Junction (LDH), Jalandhar Cantonment (JRC), Firozpur Cantonment (FZR), Jalandhar City Junction (JUC), Pathankot Junction (PTK), Amritsar Junction (ASR), Patiala railway station (PTA), SAS Nagar Mohali (SASN), Moga railway station (MOGA), Gurdaspur railway station (GSP), and Phagwara railway station (PGW).
The railway stations of Amritsar is included in the Indian Railways list of 50 world-class railway stations. The Samjhauta Express is a joint venture between Indian Railways and Pakistan Railways and runs from Attari railway station near Amritsar in India to Lahore Railway Station in Punjab, Pakistan. All the cities and towns of Punjab are connected by four-lane national highways. The Grand Trunk Road, also known as "NH1", connects Kolkata to Peshawar, passing through Jalandhar and Amritsar.
Another major national highway connects Punjab to Jammu, passing through Hoshiarpur and Pathankot. National highways passing through the state are ranked the best in the country with widespread road networks that serve isolated towns as well as the border region. Ludhiana and Amritsar are among several Indian cities that have the highest accident rates in India. There are also a bus rapid transit system Amritsar BRTS in the holy city of Amritsar, popularly known as 'Amritsar MetroBus' The following national highways connect major towns, cities and villages: National Highway 1 National Highway 10 National Highway 15 National Highway 1A National Highway 20 National Highway 21 National Highway 22 National Highway 64 National Highway 70 National Highway 71 National Highway 95 Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Punjab (India) and List of cities in Punjab and Chandigarh by population Located in Amritsar, Harmandir Sahib is the holiest shrine of Sikhism.
Population Growth Census Pop. %± 1951 9,161,000 — 1961 11,135,000 21.5% 1971 13,551,000 21.7% 1981 16,788,915 23.9% 1991 20,281,969 20.8% 2001 24,289,296 19.8% 2011 27,704,236 14.1% source:Census of India Languages of Punjab in 2012-13 Punjabi (91.69%) Hindi (7.60%) Tamil and Others (0.27%) Punjab is home to 2.30% of India's population; with a density of 551 persons per km2.
According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census, Punjab has a population of 27,704,236, making it the 16th most populated state in India. Of which male and female are 14,639,465 and 13,103,873 respectively. In the state, the rate of population growth is 13.89 percent (2011), lower than national average. Out of total population, 37.48% people live in urban regions. The total figure of population living in urban areas is 10,399,146 of which 5,545,989 are males and while remaining 4,853,157 are females.
The urban population in the last 10 years has increased by 37.48 percent. Punjabi is the sole official language of Punjab and is spoken by the majority of the population (91.69%). Hindi is spoken by 7.6% of the population. The 2011 census found OBC and Scheduled Castes to account for 22% and 31% of the population respectively. The Forward caste (includes Jat Sikhs - 21%, Brahmins, Khatris, Aroras, Arains, Banias, Thakurs/Rajputs) constitutes 41% of the total population of Punjab.
There is a constant decline in the sex ratio. The sex ratio in Punjab was 895 females per 1000 males, which was below the national average of 940. The literacy rate rose to 75.84 percent as per 2011 population census. Of that, male literacy stands at 80.44 percent while female literacy is at 70.73 percent. In actual numbers, total literates in Punjab stands at 18,707,137 of which males were 10,436,056 and females were 8,271,081.
Punjab has the largest population of Sikhs in India with approximately 57.69 percent of the state population practicing Sikhism as of 2011.Hinduism is second most popular religion in state of Punjab with 38.49% following it. Islam is followed by 1.93%, Jainism by 0.16%, Buddhism by 0.12% and Christianity by 1.26%. Around 0.04% stated 'Other Religion', approximately 0.32% stated No Particular Religion.
Sikhs form a majority in 18 districts out of the 22. Hindus constitute the majority in 4 districts: Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Nawanshahr and a marginal majority in the Gurdaspur. Malerkotla is the only city in Punjab with a Muslim majority. Religion in Punjab (2011) Sikhism (57.69%) Hinduism (38.49%) Islam (1.93%) Christianity (1.26%) Jainism (0.16%) Buddhism (0.
12%) Other or not religious (0.36%) The Sikh shrines, Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple), is in the city of Amritsar, which houses the SGPC, the top most Sikh religious body. The Sri Akal Takht Sahib, which is within the Golden Temple complex, is the highest temporal seat of Sikhs. Of the five Takhts (Temporal Seats of religious authority) of Sikhism, three are in Punjab. These are Sri Akal Takht Sahib, Damdama Sahib and Anandpur Sahib.
At least one Sikh Gurdwara can be found in almost every village in the state, as well as in the towns and cities (in various architectural styles and sizes). Before the advent of Islam, and later birth of Sikhism, Hinduism was the main religion practised by the Punjabi people. Due to non-exclusive nature of their religion, a large segment of Punjabis who are categorised as Punjabi Hindus continue heterogeneous religious practices in spiritual kinship with Sikhism.
This not only includes veneration of the Sikh Gurus in private practice but also visits to Sikh Gurdwaras in addition to Hindu temples. Education The National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research The Ranjit Singh Block at Guru Nanak Dev University Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan at Punjabi University Main article: Education in Punjab (India) See also: Punjab School Education Board, Punjab State Board of Technical Education and Industrial Training, and List of institutions of higher education in Punjab Primary and Secondary education is mainly affiliated to Punjab School Education Board.
Punjab is served by several institutions of higher education, including 23 universities that provide undergraduate and postgraduate courses in all the major arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, veterinary science, and business. Punjab Agricultural University is a leading institution globally for the study of agriculture and played a significant role in Punjab's Green Revolution in the 1960s–70s.
Alumni of the Panjab University, Chandigarh include Manmohan Singh, the former Prime Minister of India, and Dr. Har Gobind Khorana, a biochemistry nobel laureate. One of the oldest institutions of medical education is the Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, which has existed since 1894. There is an existing gap in education between men and women, particularly in rural areas of Punjab. Of a total of 1 million 300 thousand students enrolled in grades five to eight, only 44% are women.
 Punjab has 23 universities, of which 10 are private, 9 are state, 1 is central and 3 are deemed universities. Punjab has 1.04 lakh (104,000) engineering seats. Punjab also putting step in education of Yoga and Naturopathy.Its slowly being papular and student adopting these as their career . Board of Naturopathy and yoga science (B.N.Y.S.) Regional College Dinanagar is very first college opened in Dinanagar Town with the help of Dr Jawahar lal Raina and Dr Abhishek Gaur  Media Main articles: List of Punjabi media and List of Punjabi-language newspapers Daily Ajit, Jagbani, Punjabi Tribune and The Tribune are the largest-selling Punjabi and English newspapers respectively.
A vast number of weekly, biweekly and monthly magazines are under publication in Punjabi. Other main newspapers are Daily Punjab Times, Rozana Spokesman, Nawan Zamana, etc. Doordarshan is the broadcaster of the Government of India and its channel DD Punjabi is dedicated to Punjabi. Prominent Punjabi channels include news channels like ABP Sanjha,Global Punjab TV,Zee Punjab Haryana Himachal, Day & Night News and entertainment channels like GET Punjabi, Zee ETC Punjabi, Chardikla Time TV, PTC Punjabi, JUS Punjabi MH1 and 9x Tashan.
Punjab has witnessed a growth in FM radio channels, mainly in the cities of Jalandhar, Patiala and Amritsar, which has become hugely popular. There are govt. radio channels like All India Radio, Jalandhar, All India Radio, Bathinda and FM Gold Ludhiana. Private radio channels include Radio Mirchi, BIG FM 92.7, 94.3 My FM, Radio Mantra and many more. Digital library See also: Sikh Reference Library Launched in 2003 under Nanakshahi Trust, the Punjab Digital Library was a result of the early phase of the digital revolution in Punjab.
While most saw the Nanakshahi as a small digitisation organisation, or as an assemblage of some unknown youth working towards capturing some manuscripts on their digital cameras, its founders saw it as a cornerstone of a fundamentally new approach to preserving Punjab's heritage for future generations. In the shadow of search engines, a Semantic Web approach conceived in the early 2003 reached maturity in 2006.
This was when the organisation planned to expand its operations from a mere three-employee organisation to one of the leading NGOs working in the field of digital preservation all over India. Digitised collections include manuscripts held by the Punjab Languages Department, items from the Government Museum and Art Gallery, Chandigarh, Chief Khalsa Diwan, SGPC, DSGMC and manuscripts in the Jawahr Lal Nehru Library of Kurukshetra University.
Hundreds of personal collections are also included. With over 5 million pages digitised, it is the biggest repository of digital data on Punjab. Culture Main articles: Punjabi culture, Punjabi people, Punjabi festivals, Punjabi clothing, and Punjabi Tamba and Kurta Women at cultural event The culture of Punjab has many elements including music such as bhangra, an extensive religious and non-religious dance tradition, a long history of poetry in the Punjabi language, a significant Punjabi film industry that dates back to before Partition, a vast range of cuisine, which has become widely popular abroad, and a number of seasonal and harvest festivals such as Lohri,Basant, Vaisakhi and Teeyan, all of which are celebrated in addition to the religious festivals of India.
Women using Charkha A kissa is a Punjabi language oral story-telling tradition that has a mixture of origins ranging from the Arabian peninsula to Iran and Afghanistan. Punjabi jutti Punjabi wedding traditions and ceremonies are a strong reflection of Punjabi culture. Marriage ceremonies are known for their rich rituals, songs, dances, food and dresses, which have evolved over many centuries.
 Bhangra Main article: Folk dances of Punjab Bhangra (Punjabi: ਭੰਗੜਾ (Gurmukhi); pronounced [pɑ̀ŋɡɾɑ̀ː]) and Giddha are forms of dance and music that originated in the Punjab region. Bhangra dance began as a folk dance conducted by Punjabi farmers to celebrate the coming of the harvest season. The specific moves of Bhangra reflect the manner in which villagers farmed their land.
This hybrid dance became Bhangra. The folk dance has been popularised in the western world by Punjabis in England, Canada and the USA where competitions are held. It is seen in the West as an expression of South Asian culture as a whole. Today, Bhangra dance survives in different forms and styles all over the globe – including pop music, film soundtracks, collegiate competitions and cultural shows.
Punjabi folklore Main articles: Punjabi folklore and Folk instruments of Punjab The folk heritage of the Punjab reflects its thousands of years of history. While Majhi and Doabi are considered to be the standard dialect of Punjabi language, there are a number of local dialects through which the people communicate. These include Malwai and Pwadhi. The songs, ballads, epics and romances are generally written and sung in these dialects.
There are a number of folk tales that are popular in Punjab. These are the folk tales of Mirza Sahiban, Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal, Sassi Punnun, Jagga Jatt, Dulla Bhatti, Puran Bhagat, Jeona Maud etc. The mystic folk songs and religious songs include the Shalooks of Sikh gurus, Baba Farid and others. The most famous of the romantic love songs are Mayhiah, Dhola and Boliyan. Punjabi romantic dances include Dhamaal, Bhangra, Giddha, Dhola, and Sammi and some other local folk dances.
Punjabi culture Literature See also: Punjabi literature Most early Punjabi literary works are in verse form, with prose not becoming more common until later periods. Throughout its history, Punjabi literature has sought to inform and inspire, educate and entertain. The Punjabi language is written in several different scripts, of which the Shahmukhi, the Gurmukhī scripts are the most commonly used.
Music See also: Music of Punjab, Folk music of Punjab, and Bhangra (music) Bhangra Dance Punjabi Folk Music is the traditional music on the traditional musical instruments of Punjab region. Bhangra music of Punjab is famous throughout the world. Punjabi music has a diverse style of music, ranging from folk and Sufi to classical, notably the Punjab gharana and Patiala gharana.
 Film industry See also: Cinema of Punjab Punjab is home to the Punjabi film industry, often colloquially referred to as 'Pollywood'. It is known for being the fastest growing film industry in India. It is based mainly around Chandigarh city. The first Punjabi film was made in 1936. Since the 2000s Punjabi cinema has seen a revival with more releases every year with bigger budgets, homegrown stars, and Bollywood actors of Punjabi descent taking part.
 Cuisine Main articles: Punjabi cuisine and Punjabi dhabha Veg Punjabi Thaali One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes. Home cooked and restaurant cuisine sometimes vary in taste. Restaurant style uses large amounts of ghee. Some food items are eaten on a daily basis while some delicacies are cooked only on special occasions. There are many regional dishes that are famous in some regions only.
Many dishes are exclusive to Punjab, including sarson da saag, Tandoori chicken, Shami kebab, makki di roti, etc. Festivals and traditions See also: List of Sikh festivals and Punjabi festivals Punjabis celebrate a number of festivals, which have taken a semi-secular meaning and are regarded as cultural festivals by people of all religions. Some of the festivals are Bandi Chhor Divas(Diwali),Mela Maghi,Hola Mohalla,Rakhri, Vaisakhi, Lohri, Teeyan and Basant.
Sports Main article: Sports in Punjab, India Kabbadi (Circle Style) PCA Stadium under lights at Mohali Kabbadi (Circle Style), a team contact sport originated in rural Punjab is recognised as the state game.Field hockey is also a popular sport in the state.Kila Raipur Sports Festival, popularly known as the Rural Olympics, is held annually in Kila Raipur (near Ludhiana). Competition is held for major Punjabi rural sports, include cart-race, rope pulling.
Punjab government organises World Kabaddi League, Punjab Games and annual Kabaddi World Cup for Circle Style Kabbadi in which teams from countries like Argentina, Canada, Denmark, England, India, Iran, Kenya, Pakistan, Scotland, Sierra Leone, Spain and United States participated. Tourism Main article: List of Monuments of National Importance in Punjab Moti Bagh Palace in Patiala Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar is a major tourist destination in Punjab Tourism in Indian Punjab centres around the historic palaces, battle sites, and the great Sikh architecture of the state and the surrounding region.
 Examples include various sites of the Indus Valley Civilization, the ancient fort of Bathinda, the architectural monuments of Kapurthala, Patiala, and Chandigarh, the modern capital designed by Le Corbusier. The Golden Temple in Amritsar is one of the major tourist destinations of Punjab and indeed India, attracting more visitors than the Taj Mahal, Lonely Planet Bluelist 2008 has voted the Harmandir Sahib as one of the world’s best spiritual sites.
 Moreover, there is a rapidly expanding array of international hotels in the holy city that can be booked for overnight stays. Devi Talab Mandir is a Hindu temple located in Jalandhar. This temple is devoted to Goddess Durga and is believed to be at least 200 years old. Another main tourist destination is religious and historic city of Sri Anandpur Sahib where large number of tourists come to see the Virasat-e-Khalsa (Khalsa Heritage Memorial Complex) and also take part in Hola Mohalla festival.
Kila Raipur Sports Festival is also popular tourist attraction in Kila Raipur near Ludhiana. Shahpur kandi fort, Ranjit sagar lake and Muktsar Temple also popular attractions in Pathankot. Punjab also has the world's first museum based on the Indian Partition of 1947, in Amritsar, called the Partition Museum. See also List of people from Punjab (India) Sikh Light Infantry Punjab Regiment Sikh Regiment Punjabi culture Punjab (Pakistan) Punjabi folklore Provinces of India (British) History of India References ^ Census of India Archived 14 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
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S. Grewal. Social and Cultural History of the Punjab: Prehistoric, Ancient and Early Medieval (2004) Nazer Singh. Delhi and Punjab: Essays in history and historiography (1995) Tai Yong Tan. The Garrison State: Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849–1947 (Sage Series in Modern Indian History) (2005) J. C. Aggarwal and S. P. Agrawal, eds. Modern History of Punjab: Relevant Select Documents (1992) R.
M. Chopra, The Legacy of The Punjab, 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta. Zuhair Kashmeri; Brian McAndrew (6 September 2005), Soft Target: The Real Story Behind the Air India Disaster - Second Edition, James Lorimer & Company, ISBN 978-1-55-028904-6 External links Find more aboutPunjab, Indiaat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity Government Official website Official Tourism Site of Punjab, India General information Punjab, India Encyclopædia Britannica entry Punjab, India at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Geographic data related to Punjab, India at OpenStreetMap Places adjacent to Punjab, India Jammu and Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Punjab, Pakistan Punjab Chandigarh, capital Rajasthan Haryana v t e State of Punjab, India Capital: Chandigarh Topics Demographics Economy Education History King Porus People Tourism Music Administration Government Legislative Assembly Chief Ministers Governors High Court Raj Bhavan Police Culture Cinema Cuisine Folk dances Bhangra Giddha Aawat pauni Folklore Punjabi folk religion Sanjhi Gugga Chhapar Mela Sakhi Sarwar Saint Punjabi fasts Bhangala Language Gurmukhī Music Bhangra Folk music Dress Salwar (Punjabi) Suit Punjabi ghagra Patiala salwar Punjabi Tamba and Kurta Phulkari Jutti Calendars Punjabi calendar Nanakshahi calendar Bikrami calendar Fairs and Festival of Punjab India Punjabi festivals Lohri Basant Kite Festival (Punjab) Maghi Holi, Punjab Teeyan Rakhri Vaisakhi Religious festivals Hindu Punjabi Festivals Sikh festivals Sports Kabaddi Kabaddi in India Kila Raipur Sports Festival Punjabi Kabaddi Punjabi Suba movement Regions Majha Malwa Doaba Powadh Districts SAS Nagar Sri Amritsar Barnala Bathinda Faridkot Fatehgarh Sahib Fazilka Firozpur Gurdaspur Hoshiarpur Jalandhar Kapurthala Ludhiana Mansa Moga Pathankot Patiala Sri Muktsar Sahib Rupnagar Sangrur Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar Tarn Taran Sahib Major Cities Ludhiana Amritsar Jalandhar Patiala Bathinda Hoshiarpur Mohali Batala Pathankot Moga v t e States and union territories of India States Arunachal Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Telangana Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Union Territories Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli National Capital Territory of Delhi Daman and Diu Lakshadweep Puducherry Capitals in India Proposed states and territories Historical Regions British Provinces Authority control GND: 4044457-0 Retrieved from "https://en.
Diverse Key Artwork Principles have progressed comprehensive unique eras, using the altering artists' perceptions of processing, analyzing, and responding to various art sorts. Their creative expressions are explored by their generation, effectiveness, and participation in arts. Every historic period has supplied novel contribution of historic and cultural contexts for building the crucial element Arts Fundamentals with the pertinent period of time. Visible Arts support artists assimilate the important thing Arts Ideas of Symmetry, Coloration, Sample, Distinction and the dissimilarities amongst one or even more things within the composition. The crucial element Art Ideas of Visual Arts aid have an understanding of and distinguish in between the dimensions like, Symmetry & Asymmetry, Positive & Negative Space, Light & Dark, Solid & Transparent, and Large & Small.See Also: Dave White Art For Sale
Art plays a vibrant role during the personal life of your individual as well as inside the social and economic development on the nation. The study of Visual arts encourages personal development and also the awareness of both our cultural heritage and the role of artwork while in the society. The learner acquires personal knowledge, skills and competencies through activities in Visible arts. When one studies Visible arts, he/she would come to appreciate or have an understanding of that art is an integral part of everyday life.
Punjabi culture is one of the oldest and richest cultures of the world. The scope, history, sophistication and complexity of the culture are vast.The Punjabi Culture is the culture of the Punjabi people who are now distributed throughout the world. The scope, history, sophistication and complexity of the culture are vast. Some of the main areas include, Punjabi Philosophy, poetry, spirituality, education, artistry, music, cuisine, science, technology, military warfare, architecture, traditions, values and history.
Culture of Punjab is one of the distinctive cultures found anywhere around the globe. The Punjabi culture is renowned for various reasons. There is an exclusiveness and vivacity in the lifestyle of the Punjabi people. The state of Punjab is located in north-west India, which is rinsed by five rivers. The People of Punjab are friendly, hospitable, hardworking and relish living.
This is due to the fact that it usually bore the onslaught of attackers a number of times. In time people became to live in their present times by enjoying life. And soon eating became a part of their joys of life. There is a verse to epitomise their colourful nature.Punjabi songs are full of melody. The beats of drum (dhol) and the rhythm of the steel spoon on the dholak is a simple style but adds to the exuberance of Punjabi music.
The dance styles of Punjab has more flavor with its bhangra, giddha, kikli and sammi. Dance and songs are very much compulsory during get togethers and festivals. The festivals of Punjab makes the culture more interesting. Bhangra” is one of the most famous dance forms of Punjab. With the loud drumming of the dholak, people dance with zeal to the tunes of the music. “Giddha” is another important variant of dance practiced by Punjabi women.
Bolis are lyrically sung and danced by women. Other popular dance forms are Jhumar, Dhankara and Gatka. Irrespective of age or religion, Punjabis love to dance and enjoy themselves to mark festivity. Folk music is the soul of Punjabi culture. Folk music comprises of simple musical instruments like dholak and dhol drum. Punjabi music relates to the zestful people of Punjab. Bhangra is a popular music form of Punjab.
Boliyas are sung and music is played in tune with the lyrics. Punjabi songsat the wedding range from emotional interludes to very peppy beats, where there is a constant chiding of the bride and groom. A sense of humor is essential to enjoy the wedding songs. The traditional attire of people is Kurta-pyjama with turban for men. Women prefer Patiala suits as part of their traditional attire. However, the younger generation prefers trendy attire as per the fashion scenario.
The NRI population has been a major influece regarding attire of the Punjabis. There is a riot of colors in the pagdi-turban and phulkari dupattas, that comes out during the Baisakhi festival. The traditional dress of the Punjabis comprising of the salwar-kameez for women and lehenga-kurta with a waistcoast has many colors and styling. Turban styles can be explored and is compulsory for all Sikhs.
Duppatta-a part of Punjabi dress- has very much importance in the life of Punjabi girls. The Duppatta increases elegance and gravity of the Punjabi women. As it is a part of Salwaar Kameez- a Punjabi dress- the dress is incomplete without a duppatta. One can purchase fashionable duppattas from the markets of Punjab. Some of the fashion shows are also being organized in Punjab, which showcase influence the importance of the duppatta in Punjabi life.
Punjabis are known for their keen interest in dress sense and up to date fashion essentials. They love to participate in all events and are sportive by nature. The balance is well maintained by yielding to western influences of pop culture in their bhangra beats and showing allegiance to God in the chants of Gurbani. Punjabis are renowned for their utmost interest in arts and crafts. Art and craft of Punjab- Punjab art is described as a creation or expression of something beautiful especially in visual form and many a time in Art and craft.
Many phrases have decorative designs and handicrafts. Many things which are associated with art and craft of Punjab are known all over the world for their quality and beauty.Women used to weave wollen attire for everybody in the family. “Phulkari” is recognized worldwide for its intricate work. Shawls in silk are carefully hand-woven using traditional motifs as designs. Other famous crafts of the region include lacquer work, wooden work, Calico painting, paper mache` and many more.
Wooden furniture is beautifully crafted by artisans with exquisite craftsmanship. Museums in Punjab-Punjab museums possess an extensive range of paintings and sculptures by many Indian artists as well as a collection of Indian miniatures of the Mughal Rajsathani, Pahari and Sikh schools. The museums also house a fine collection of medals and arm, as these are objects of princely states with sections on Archaeology, Anthropology, Tribal and folk arts depicting different concepts and scopes in the patterns of Art and Culture.
Punjab also has leading academic institutions and scope for education. The main occupation is agriculture which is well irrigated and abounds with produce specific to the season. The state is self sufficient and there is a great deal of effort by the Punjabis to maintain their culture. Punjabi Rural games played by kids: These games are being played by Punjabi kids from centuries: StapooThis is a game played both by the girls and boys.
It is still common amongst some of the children. This game is played with in small boundary (court), drawn on the ground and a piece of stone. KikliThis is another game, basically for women. Two girls clasp their hands and move in circle. This was a game, which was played by two or four girls and multiple of two thereof. Kikli kleer di,Pag mere vir de,Daupatta mere bhai daPhitte mun jawai da Kokla ChhapakiThis game is popular even today amongst the children.
Both boys and girls play it. Children sit in a circles and a child who has cloth in hand goes around the circle-singing: It is a kind of warning for the children sitting in a circle not to look back. The cloth is then dropped at the back of a child. If it is discovered before the child who had placed it there had completed the round, the child who discovered the cloth would run after him and try to touch him with it till he sits in the place vacated by the one who had discovered the cloth.
Lukan Miti (Hide & Seek)This was also played by both boys and girls and continues to this day. Two teams can also play this. One has to hide, the other has to seek but before doing it a call is given.This can continue the next coming days. Bandar killa This game is also very popular in villages of Punjab.This is played between severals kids,in this game One Key player(bandar) is tied to killa(pole) and then all the other players place their chappals(hawaian sandal) near the pole and the key Player (Bandar) has to protect those sandals from all the players .
And during this competition if the key player touches other player then that player becomes key player(bandar) and the game goes on .... Lak Bhannan This game refreshes the charming memories of one’s childhood and it takes one back to the golden period of his/her life. There is a big trend of this game in the villages of Punjab. The game does not require any special equipment except for a rubber ball and few kids.
In this game the person having the ball tries to throw ball at the other players back. Pithhoo-Garam This game is also an exclusive part of the culture of Punjab. The game refreshes the charming memories of one’s childhood and it takes one back to the golden period of his/her life. There is a big trend of this game in the villages of Punjab. The game does not require any special equipment except for a rubber ball and five-six flat disc stones.
The importance of the game is that it generates a lot of team spirit and co-ordination among the young children. Langra Sher This game is very popular among the village kids of punjab.In this game players draw a circle and one player have to reside in a circle on his one leg only and by keeping the balance on his one leg he has to touch other players while residing in a circle.If the player in a circle is successful in touching another player then that player comes in circle and becomes “Langra Sher”.
Gulli DandaThis is basically a game for the boys and is the simplest version of modern cricket. It is played with a wooden stick and 'gulli' (another small wooden piece pointed at both the ends.) Two teams divide themselves, one throws the gulli and the other team uses the danda- (stick) to strike it. There are various other games that are played with Gulli Danda. Akkar-BakkarAkkar bakkar bombai boassee nabay pooray saosao kalota teetar motachal madaree paysa khota.
. Khote Di KhteyaiBhaboo Nasi Nasi Ayi Please write to us at email@example.com if you have more knowledge about the rural games for kids which new generation is forgetting in the age of video games.
Title: Art Forms Of Punjab