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Directive 2011/61/EU European Union directive Text with EEA relevance Title Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive Made by European Parliament and Council of the European Union Made under Art. 53 Journal reference L 174, 1.7.2011, p. 1–73 History Date made 8 June 2011 Came into force 21 July 2011 Current legislation The Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive 2011/61/EU (or "AIFMD" for short) is an EU law on the financial regulation of hedge funds, private equity, real estate funds, and other "Alternative Investment Fund Managers" (AIFMs) in the European Union.
 The Directive requires all covered AIFMs to obtain authorisation, and make various disclosures as a condition of operation. It followed the global financial crisis. Before, the alternative investment industry had not been regulated at EU level. It was reported in May 2014 that only one-third of EU member states had successfully implemented the directive into law. As of 2014, the countries that had transposed AIFMD into law include Cyprus, the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, Luxembourg,Germany,France,Malta and Ireland.
 In December 2014, the European Commission issued a formal warning to countries including Spain, Latvia and Poland for not complying with AIFMD implementation. Background The AIFMD was prompted as part of a wider regulatory effort undertaken by G20 nations following the global market downturn of 2008. Provisions of the AIFMD include increasing transparency by AIFMs and assuring that national supervisors, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), and the European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB) have the information they need to monitor financial systems in the EU.
 The AIFMD also is intended to protect investors. On the need for the directive, an explanatory document from the European Commission stated that AIFMs had become "very significant actors in the European financial system, managing a large quantity of assets on behalf of pension funds and other investors; accounting for a significant proportion of trading activity in financial markets; and constituting an important source of counterparty risk for other market participants" and that they had "contributed to the build-up of leverage in the financial system, the consequences of which for the stability of financial markets became apparent when leverage in the hedge fund sector was rapidly unwound during the crisis".
 When the directive was approved by the European Parliament, José Manuel Barroso, then President of the European Commission, said "The adoption of the directive means that hedge funds and private equity will no longer operate in a regulatory void outside the scope of supervisors. The new regime brings transparency and security to the way these funds are managed and operate, which adds to the overall stability of our financial system.
" Contents Ch I, General provisions The scope of the application of the directive is defined. The directives apply to EU AIFMs which manage one or more AIFs irrespective of whether such AIFs are EU AIFs or non-EU AIFs; non-EU AIFMs which manage one or more EU AIFs; and non-EU AIFMs which market one or more AIFs in the Union irrespective of whether such AIFs are EU AIFs or non-EU AIFs. Specific entities that are exempt from the directives are also listed.
Ch II, Authorisation An AIFM must be authorised with the AIFM’s home state regulator for AIFMs that have assets under management in AIFs above the thresholds of: (1) 100 million EUR, if the AIF uses leverage; or (2) 500 million EUR, if the AIF does not use leverage. Ch III, Operating conditions for AIFMs The AIFMD's reporting regulations require each AIF to be named using a series of codes, including its national identification code, the Bank Identifier Code (BIC) and the Legal Entity Identifier code.
 AIFMs must select only brokers and counterparties that are subject to regulatory supervision, that are financially sound, and that have the necessary organizational structure to provide services to the AIFM or the AIF. All AIFMs must submit quarterly, semi-annual, or annual reports to their respective member state regulator with information about the AIFM and its AIFs as well as an annual report with information such as the fund's financial statements, activities, and information about the total amount of remuneration paid by the AIFM to its staff.
 Chs IV-V, Transparency requirements Special requirements apply to AIFMs using leverage. AIFMs are required to disclose the extent of the leverage employed within their funds, and prove that leverage in any fund has been limited to a reasonable amount. The scope of AIFMD requirements that apply to AIFMs are different, depending on whether the AIFM is engaged in portfolio or risk management activities within the EU or markets its funds to EU investors.
Each fund can only have one AIFM, though the AIFM can delegate certain functions to other entities. EU AIFMs became subject to all of the provisions of the AIFMD once it was implemented at the EU Member State level. Authorised fund managers located within the EU are permitted to market their EU funds to professional investors in any EU member state under what the AIFMD calls a passport. The reporting requirements of the AIFMD apply to all AIFMs who manage or market alternative funds within the EU.
 To fulfill the reporting requirements, AIFMs must file an Annex IV report within 30 days of the end of the applicable reporting period, which is determined by the amount of an AIFM's assets under management. Reporting periods range from quarterly to half-yearly to annually. The Annex IV report is a government regulatory document comprising 41 questions, analyzing a fund's investment portfolios, exposures, leverage ratios, liquidity and risk analysis.
 In chapter V, section 2, articles 26-30, additional obligations apply for AIFs acquiring controlling influence in non-listed companies. This is essentially directed at private equity firms, and partly aims to stop asset stripping. Article 26(5) defines "control" as holding over 50% of voting rights, including as a ‘club deal’. This was watered down from 30% in the AIFMD draft (formerly in article 26(1)(a)).
Article 27(1) states that funds have to notify investee companies and shareholders when they acquire control, and article 28(4) requires them to disclose the acquisition to stakeholder groups including employees or representatives via the investee’s board. Article 29 places an obligation on the central Private Equity management company (rather than an investee companies) to give information on operational and financial developments in firm’s annual reports.
Article 30 lists distribution requirements, which are intended to prevent asset stripping in the first 24 months from acquiring control). Chs VI-VIII, Marketing and the AIFMD passport For the purposes of the directive, marketing is defined as any offering or placement (sale) of an AIF at the initiative of the AIFM, or on behalf of the AIFM, to investors domiciled in the EU. Member state laws and rules determine whether a fund is engaged in marketing for purposes of the directive.
 EU funds managed by EU managers may be marketed across the EU under the AIFMD passport, provided the manager complies with all of the requirements of the directive. EU or non-EU funds managed by non-EU managers may currently be marketed within the EU only under national private placement regimes, as non-EU managers cannot obtain the marketing passport. Likewise, non-EU funds managed by EU managers may only be marketed under the private placement regimes.
Funds marketed under national private placement regimes are subject to compliance with certain provisions of the AIFMD related to reporting, regulatory cooperation agreements, and the jurisdiction of the fund and the manager not being listed as a "non-cooperative country and territory" by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF). Non-EU AIFMD Passports In 2015, an analyst for EurActiv.com, a European news and policy website, expressed concern that the directive puts non-EU funds at a disadvantage.
 In 2015, the European Securities and Markets Authority initiated a consultation to discuss issuing new rules to allow EU AIFMs to market their non-EU AIFs under the AIFMD passport, and likewise for non-EU managers to market their funds under the AIFMD passport. In July 2016 AIFM concluded that there were no fundamental obstacles to issuing AIFMD passports to Canada, Guernsey, Japan, Jersey and Switzerland, seven other non-EU countries are also under consideration.
 Implementation The directive came into force on July 21, 2011. On November 16, 2011, ESMA issued technical advice to the European Commission (EC) on possible implementation measures for the AIFMD. On December 19, 2012, the EC added a series of new regulations to supplement the AIFMD text. EU member states were required to write the AIFMD into national law by no later than July 22, 2013.
 As of July 2014, not every EU member state had transposed the AIFMD into national law. Some, but not all, member states provided for a one-year transition period, beginning July 22, 2013, before AIFMs would become subject to the AIFMD requirements. The directive has so far been supplemented by three Level II Regulations: Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 231/2013 on exemptions, general operating conditions, depositaries, leverage, transparency and supervision; Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 447/2013 on opt-in AIFMs; Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 448/2013 on the procedure for establishing the member state of reference for non-EU fund managers.
The European Securities and Markets Authority has also issued a number of guidelines to national competent authorities including on key concepts of AIFMD and remuneration. Principality of Liechtenstein (01 April 2013) Since 1 April 2013, the FMA Liechtenstein accepts applications for authorization of AIFMs and AIFs as well as other persons and entities requiring authorization under the AIFM Act.
 On 30 September 2016, the EEA Joint Committee, whose decisions result in the inclusion of new EU law in the EEA Agreement, decided to incorporate the first package of legal acts relating to the European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs). Malta (27 June 2013) On 27 June 2013 (the measures were released on 25 June 2013) Malta became the first EU Member State to complete the transposition of the requirements of the Directive into national law.
 The Maltese legislator and the Malta Financial Services Authority transposed the requirements of the Directive by means of a series of regulations issued under the Investment Services Act (Cap. 370, Laws of Malta) and a number of new MFSA rulebooks. = EU-Passport Luxembourg (12 July 2013) In Luxembourg, the AIFM directive was transposed into national law on 12 July 2013. According to the 2013 law an entity – in order to become an AIFM – will have to submit an application to, and obtain authorization from, the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier (CSSF).
The application must include information on the directors of the AIFM, its shareholders, and the alternative investment funds (AIF), which it intends to manage and demonstrate how the entity will comply with the requirements of the AIFM Law. France (27 July 2013) The AIFM directive was transposed into France's national law on 27 July 2013. Reception In a study conducted by Multifonds in June 2014, 72% of respondents from the EU and Canada said they expected non-EU managers to set up European operations in order to take advantage of AIFMD.
 In a 2014 study conducted by Preqin, 71% of American fund managers said they believed the AIFMD would have a negative effect on the industry. Fund managers from within the EU, Asia and the rest of the world excluding the United States reported in 2014 and 2015 that the AIFMD was costing them more than they had expected it to. Criticism of the costs of the legislation comes partly from industry lobbyists.
 According to a study conducted by Deloitte, most of the UK-based asset managers think that the AIFM Directive could reduce the competitiveness of the EU's alternative investment funds industry because of the compliance the regulations impose on the industry. In addition, these managers from the hedge fund, private equity and real estate sectors believe that the directive will reduce the number of non-EU managers operating within the EU.
The AIFMD passed after contentious negotiations, especially between UK and French authorities, and because of its third-country provisions, which attracted considerable interest and engagement from U.S. authorities. See also v t e Investment law sources Institutions for Occupational Retirement Directive 2003 Undertakings for Collective Investment Directive 2009 Markets in Financial Instruments Directive 2004 Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive 2011 Solvency II Directive 2009 See EU law EU law Markets in Financial Instruments Directive 2004/39/EC Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities Directives 2001/107/EC and 2001/108/EC Notes ^ a b c d e f g "Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (AIFMD)".
Financial Conduct Authority. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2015. ^ a b Dave Waller. "The long and winding road". BusinessLife.co. Retrieved 15 December 2014. ^ Astrid B. Boening (2012). The EU as a Global Player. Fundación Univ. San Pablo. p. 36. Retrieved 20 April 2015. ^ a b Monica Gagna (15 December 2014). "Industry grapples with regulatory changes". Financial Times Advisor. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
^ Bill Prew (23 May 2014). "AIFMD update: only a third of EU states have implemented rules". Investment Europe. Retrieved 21 July 2015. ^ Sophie Baker (28 January 2013). "Countries lag on AIFMD implementation". Financial News. Retrieved 21 July 2015. ^ Becky Pritchard (3 March 2014). "AIFMD rules put Germany on the sidelines". Financial News. Retrieved 21 July 2015. ^ "Germany, France 'gold-plating' AIFMD rules, says survey".
FTSE Global Markets. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2015. ^ Donnacha O'Connor (27 June 2014). "Ireland – Status of the AIFMD implemention". Hedgeweek. Retrieved 21 July 2015. ^ Neil Robson (8 December 2014). "AIFM Directive – Latvia, Poland and Spain Warned by European Commission for Failing to Fully Implement New Investment Fund Rules". The National Law Review. Retrieved 21 July 2015. ^ Astrid B.
Boening (2012). The EU as a Global Player. Fundación Univ. San Pablo. p. 36. Retrieved 20 April 2015. ^ G20/OECD High-Level Principles of Long Term Investing Financing by Institutional Investors (PDF) (Report). Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. September 2013. ^ "COMMISSION DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) supplementing Directive 2011/61/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to exemptions, general operating conditions, depositaries, leverage, transparency and supervision" (PDF).
European Commission. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2015. ^ "Directive 2004/39/EC of the European Parliament and of the council". European Commission. 21 April 2004. Retrieved 16 April 2015. ^ Ivy Schmerken (30 July 2014). "Hedge Funds Face Compliance Hurdles of AIFMD". Wallstreet and Tech. Retrieved 15 December 2014. ^ a b Jonathan Boyd (1 October 2013). "ESMA clarifies final guidelines on reporting obligations under AIFMD".
Investment Europe. Retrieved 20 April 2015. ^ Niamh Moloney (2014). EU Securities and Financial Markets Regulation. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 20 April 2015. ^ "Directive on Alternative Investment Fund Managers ('AIFMD'): Frequently Asked Questions". 11 November 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2015. ^ "European Commission statement at the occasion of the European Parliament vote on the directive on hedge funds and private equity".
11 November 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2015. ^ "Official Journal L 174/2011". eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-07-23. ^ Neil Robson (24 October 2014). "AIFM Directive for US Private Fund Managers". The National Law Review. Retrieved 20 April 2015. ^ a b c d The European Commission (19 December 2012). Regulations (Report). Official Journal of the European Union. Retrieved 17 December 2014. ^ a b "Consultation paper: guidelines on reporting obligations under Article 3 and Article 4 of the AIFMD" (PDF).
European Securities and Market Authority. 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2015. ^ "Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive: AIFMs managing leveraged AIFs" (PDF). Financial Services Commission. 2013: 3–5. Retrieved 13 January 2015. ^ a b William Younge (30 July 2013). "AIFMD's Impact on Non-EU Managers of Non-EU Alternative Investment Funds". Mondaq Business Briefing. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
^ "SEI introduces AIFMD Annex IV reporting solution". HedgeWeek. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014. ^ Becca Lipman. "This is Why AIFMD Annex IV Reports Demand More Attention". Wallstreet & Technology. Retrieved 18 December 2014. ^ CME Group (7 July 2014). "2014 Q2 Webinar Programme". COOConnect. Retrieved 19 December 2014. ^ "AIFM Directive for US Private Fund Managers". The National Law Review.
24 October 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2015. ^ a b David Lawrence (8 April 2014). "AIFMD: Time to Back Up on Reverse Solicitation". FIN Alternatives. Retrieved 11 February 2015. ^ Tim Clipstone (27 June 2014). "The British Virgin Islands – AIFMD one year on". HedgeWeek. Retrieved 11 February 2015. ^ Michelle Moran (30 March 2015). "AIFMD offers passport to European markets". Financial Times Advisor.
Retrieved 21 July 2015. ^ a b c "Why competition is vital to Europe's investors". EurActiv.com. 15 January 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015. ^ a b Saul Griffith (21 July 2014). "The AIFMD Deadline Tomorrow: Is The Industry Ready?". ValueWalk. Retrieved 11 February 2015. ^ "Uncertainty over extent to which AIFMD passport will be afforded to non-EU managers". COO Connect. 16 Feb 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
^ "Call for evidence on AIFMD passport and third country AIFMs". ESMA. Retrieved 15 July 2015. ^ "EXTENSION OF FUNDS PASSPORT TO 12 NON-EU COUNTRIES". ESMA. ^ a b "UCITS V — an update". The Lawyer. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014. ^ European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) (16 November 2011). ESMA's technical advice to the European Commission on possible implementing measures of the Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (PDF) (Report).
Retrieved 17 December 2014. ^ Jonathan Boyd (31 May 2013). "ESMA approves Guernsey AIFMD cooperation agreement". Investment Europe. Retrieved 19 December 2014. ^ Tim Clipstone (27 June 2014). "The British Virgin Islands – AIFMD one year on". Hedgeweek. Retrieved 18 December 2014. ^ "Half of managers yet to apply for AIFMD authorisation, survey finds". COOConnect.com. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
^ AIFMDTransposition (PDF) (Report). KPMG. 22 July 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2014. ^ "European Commission Publishes AIFMD Level 2 Implementing Regulation". ganadoadvocates.com. ^ "ESMA publishes final guidelines on Key Concepts of AIFMD". ganadoadvocates.com. ^ "ESMA publishes final guidelines on AIFM remuneration". ganadoadvocates.com. ^ https://www.fma-li.li/en/intermediaries/securities-division/alternative-investment-fund-managers-under-the-aifm-act/authorization.
html ^ http://www.regierung.li/news1.aspx?id=115237&nid=7292 ^ "Malta publishes final AIFMD implementing measures: Malta is open for AIFMD business". ganadoadvocates.com. ^ MFSA Statement on the AIFMD. Retrieved on 27 June 2013. ^ "Laws, regulations and other texts". CSSF. Retrieved 6 October 2014. ^ "AIFMD". Luxembourg Fund Partners. Retrieved 6 October 2014. ^ "La directive AIFM est en vigueur en France".
AMF. ^ Fishburn Hedges (10 September 2012). "Two thirds of fund admin industry believes AIFMD will be a catalyst for the convergence of long-only and hedge funds". Media Centre. Multifonds. Retrieved 11 February 2015. ^ Ivy Schmerken (17 July 2014). "Hedge Fund Readiness for AIFMD Is Lacking as Deadline Approaches". Wall Street & Tech. Retrieved 9 June 2015. ^ Simon Jessop (21 July 2014). "Foreign hedge funds could lose as Europe tightens rules".
Reuters. Retrieved 9 June 2015. ^ Vittorio Hernandez (11 August 2014). "Minority of Infrastructure and Real Estate Fund Managers Believe AIFMD Has Positive Impact". International Business Times. Retrieved 9 June 2015. ^ Nishant Kumar (16 February 2015). "European hedge funds close at record pace as higher costs, poor returns bite". Reuters. Retrieved 9 June 2015. ^ Sandra Kilhof (15 November 2014).
"AIFMD compliance falls behind". World Finance: The Voice of the Market. Retrieved 9 June 2015. ^ "AIFMD". Deloitte Luxembourg. ^ Prabhakar, Rahul (1 June 2013). "Varieties of Regulation: How States Pursue and Set International Financial Standards". Oxford University GEG. SSRN 2383445 . External links The text of the directive: "Directive 2011/61/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2011 on Alternative Investment Fund Managers and amending Directives 2003/41/EC and 2009/65/EC and Regulations (EC) No 1060/2009 and (EU) No 1095/2010".
Retrieved 15 April 2015. The main page on alternative investments at the European Union Web site: "Alternative investments". Retrieved 15 April 2015. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alternative_Investment_Fund_Managers_Directive_2011&oldid=795465689"
Various Crucial Art Concepts have advanced complete distinct eras, along with the modifying artists' perceptions of processing, analyzing, and responding to various artwork forms. Their creative expressions happen to be explored by their development, efficiency, and participation in arts. Each individual historical period has given novel contribution of historical and cultural contexts for producing the key Arts Fundamentals from the applicable interval. Visual Arts help artists assimilate the important thing Arts Principles of Symmetry, Colour, Sample, Contrast as well as the distinctions amongst one or even more features within the composition. The true secret Artwork Concepts of Visual Arts help comprehend and distinguish involving the scale for example, Symmetry & Asymmetry, Positive & Negative Space, Light & Dark, Solid & Transparent, and Large & Small.See Also: Healing Arts Center Athens
Artwork plays a vibrant role inside the personal life of your individual as well as while in the social and economic development with the nation. The study of Visible arts encourages personal development and also the awareness of both our cultural heritage and also the role of art from the society. The learner acquires personal knowledge, skills and competencies through activities in Visual arts. When one studies Visible arts, he/she would come to appreciate or comprehend that artwork is an integral part of everyday life.
This month a Jeff Koons sculpture of a shiny, giant balloon dog is coming up for auction at Christie’s New York, carrying an eye-popping pre-sale estimate: $35m-$55m. It is one of five such pieces, each a different colour, that the artist made (or rather, had made) in stainless steel over six years, from 1994 to 2000. Each of the other four is already in a high-profile collection. While the artist and his galleries guard prices carefully, these collectors probably paid under $6m for the costly mutts when they first bought them.
The autumn sales also include a $25m-$35m Picasso, and not one but two works by the highest priced sculptor in the world, Alberto Giacometti. A bust of the artist’s brother Diego is looking for up to $50m and a painting, also of Diego, has the same target. Compare these with the current records for Giacometti: $14.6m for a Diego portrait head in 2002, and the same amount for a painting of the artist’s final muse, a prostitute called Caroline, made in 2008.
With these rip-roaring price increases, it is easy to imagine that art is a good, even a fantastic place to park your money, particularly at a time when other forms of investment are producing virtually no returns. And indeed art is increasingly being treated as an alternative asset class, with banks, financial institutions and advisors taking a closer and closer interest in how to get a piece of the action.
But appearances can be deceptive, and art is by no means always a good investment. At the top end of the market, yes, there are huge profits to be made. However for those who can only afford to buy in the lower price ranges, it can be a terrible place to put your money.Trophy huntersAt this point it is worth noting that the art market is not a single ‘block’ that always performs the same way – like gold – but a series of mini-markets that can behave very differently.
While 20th- and 21st-Century art is much in demand today, other sectors are far less prized: for instance run-of-the-mill Victorian painting, English watercolours and almost anything Japanese are definitely out of favour. Even within a single artist’s work, there can be variations: for example, André Derain’s brightly coloured Fauve period is highly sought after but all his other works are far less valuable.
The colossal prices in the market today are given for a small number of top names being chased by a group of billionaires who are determinedly trophy-hunting. And they only want certain works: Picassos from the time of the artist’s affair with Marie-Thérèse Walter, for instance, or a Warhol Jackie, or a Basquiat with a large, central gesticulating figure. The top works also have a starry provenance, coming from great collections, which further narrows the market.
These are ‘big-number items’, only available to the mega-wealthy, and in fact statistically they skew the entire market, disguising a weaker situation lower down the scale.It is important to realise that not everything goes up. Let’s take, for example, a pretty painting of Nice by the French artist Raoul Dufy. One being offered for sale this month is estimated at up to $350,000, but a comparable version sold in 2009 for over $460,000.
In the contemporary sector, works by Damien Hirst have lost some 30% of their value, dropping back to their 2005/6 levels at auction, although his gallery White Cube recently claimed he still sells well. An assemblage of pots by the Indian artist Subodh Gupta made £601,250 in 2008, but a comparable piece made just £265,250 in 2012 according to the art data site Artprice.com.On the other hand, if you can catch a young artist on the way up, you can make a killing: works by the currently hot-hot-hot Colombian artist Oscar Murillo have rocketed from about $3,000 just two years ago in his gallery, to almost $400,000 at auction this year.
The trick was to identify the Murillo from among all the other young hopefuls and give him a residency, as did the influential Florida collectors, the Rubells, last year, setting him on the path to fame and fortune.Better together?So why is investing in art not the sure-fire, get-rich-quick scheme it seems? Firstly, not everything goes up, as we have seen. Art is not a liquid investment, meaning that the owner of an artwork may not be able to sell it immediately, unlike say, stocks and shares.
For the more major works, he or she would have to wait for a suitable auction or get a dealer to look for a buyer. Associated costs can be high: auction fees can add another 25% to the price, and the owner has to store, conserve and insure it. Art offers no income, unlike, say, property. Fashion is fickle, so in the contemporary art market today’s hot artist might quickly be seen as old hat. And art is not ‘fungible’, meaning that you can’t sell just a bit.
With shares, you can hedge your bets by selling half your holding: but you can’t chop your Banksy in two.As part of the interest in art as an alternative asset class, a number of art funds have been created this century. These vehicles pool money from investors and buy works with the promise that at the end of a designated period they are sold and any profits shared.The first dates back to 1904, when a group of art lovers bought paintings by the likes of Picasso and Matisse and resold them ten years later, quadrupling their investment.
In the highly inflationary 1970s, British Rail put 2.5% of its pension fund in art, buying almost 2,500 works, from manuscripts to modern painting. When the railway liquidated the fund in 1999, results were highly variable: some of the art had performed poorly, while other parts did well. Overall the returns were in line with the Standard & Poor’s Index, but no better.Funds reappeared on the agenda during the art market boom of 2004-2008, but about half disappeared after the financial crisis, and there have been a number of disasters as well.
The auctioneer Simon de Pury and investor Robert Tomei are thought to have lost millions of dollars in their Libra Fund (neither wanted to comment on this); a number of Indian art funds, put together in the heady days of the boom in Indian art and supposed to pay out in about 2009, have still not been able to reimburse their investors.So investing in art isn’t for the faint-hearted, nor for those who want something safe, and indeed financial advisors generally recommend putting no more than 5% - 10% of a portfolio into alternative assets such as art.
A recent study by three economists throws further doubt on its money-making potential. They tracked the sale and resale of over 20,500 works of art between 1972 and 2010, and found that, using a technical tool called the Sharpe Ratio, the rate of return for art is just 0.04, rather than the 0.24 that had been previously been found. US equities perform better – their Sharpe Ratio over the same period stands at 0.
30.All this doesn’t mean one shouldn’t buy art, but one should buy it for the right reasons. If you buy art that you love, then you will still be happy to have it and live with it – even if it never makes you into an overnight billionaire.If you would like to comment on this story or anything else you have seen on BBC Culture, head over to our Facebook page or message us on Twitter.
Title: Art As An Alternative Investment