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Development of Performance Art The immediate stimulus for Performance art was the series of theatrical Happenings staged by Allan Kaprow and others in New York in the late 1950s. Then in 1961, Yves Klein (1928-62) presented three nude models covered in his trademark blue paint, who rolled around on sheets of white paper. He was also famous for his "jumps into the void". For more details, see Yves Klein's Postmodernist art (1956-62).
In the early 1960s several other American conceptual artists such as Robert Morris (b.1931) Bruce Nauman (b.1941) and Dennis Oppenheim began to include "Performance" in their repertoires. In Germany, Performance was known as Actionism, influenced in part by the 1950 photographs taken by Hans Namuth of the Abstract Expressionist artist Jackson Pollock (1915-56) at work in his studio performing his "action painting", although strictly speaking the term Actionism relates to the Vienna based group Wiener Aktionismus founded in 1962.
Leading members of Aktionismus were Gunter Brus (b.1938), Hermann Nitsch (b.1938) and Rudolph Schwarzkogler, whose Performances (Aktionen and Demonstrationen) - supposedly designed to highlight Man's violent nature - incorporated shocking exhibitions of self-torture and pseudo-religious rituals. The strident nature of the group's philosophy of art was also reflected in actions by the Viennese artist Arnulf Rainer.
More powerful during the 1960s, were the events and happenings staged by the Fluxus movement, founded by the Lithuanian-American art theorist George Maciunas (1931-78), which began in Germany, before spreading across Europe and establishing itself in New York. One of the best-known members of Fluxus was the German artist Joseph Beuys (1921-86) - German Professor of Sculpture at the Dusseldorf Academy of Arts - whose works included the extraordinary performance entitled: "How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare" (1965).
Fluxus-style festivals of contemporary art - all of which involved Performance art - were staged in several European capitals, as well as New York. In Britain, notable Performance artists included Stuart Brisley (b.1933), as well as Gilbert Proesch (b.1943) and George Passmore (b.1942) - more popularly known as Gilbert and George - a duo who teamed up in 1969 at St Martins School of Art in London, and became known as 'living sculptures'.
The idea was to turn themselves into sculpture, thus erasing their separate identities for the sake of art. To that end, they became interchangeable cyphers and even dropped their surnames. They painted their faces, dressed in identical clothes, and staged 'one-man' shows during which they mimed to the popular tune 'Underneath the Arches'. After travelling around British art schools, they toured the Continent, America, Japan, Australia, and China, enlarging their range of 'living sculpture' with a distinctly 'British' tone, in the process.
Their subject matter encompassed inner-city decay, Margaret Thatcher-worship, anti-Royalism and more, typically presented in a strident manner, and accompanied by a wide range of visual art products including postcard sculptures, films, videos and installations. The ultimate Performance, said the art critics, but is it art? The most recent contemporary art movements associated with "performance", include: Body art (Marina Abramovich), mime (Marcel Marceau), including "living statues" and Feminist art (Carolee Schneermann).
Other Performance Artists Other top contemporary artists who have included Performance in their repertoire include: Yayoi Kusama (b.1929) the controversial Japanese artist noted for her happenings and phallic images; Joan Jonas (b.1936), known for her performance videos; Helio Oiticica (1937-80) the Brazilian experimental artist, founder of Grupo Neoconcreto; Rebecca Horn (b.1944) known for her thought-provoking installations; and the body artists Marina Abramovich (b.
1946); and Chris Burden (b.1946). Other performers include: Laurie Anderson, Eric Bogosian, Chong Ping, Martha Clark, Ethyl Eichelberger, Karen Finley, Richard Foreman, Dan Graham, Holly Hughes, Suzanne Lacy, Tim Miller, Meredith Monk, Linda Montano, Yoko Ono, Rachel Rosenthal, and Carolee Schneermann. Another innovative artist is the musician and artist Korean-American Nam June Paik (1932-2006), who started out in performance art before working with video, and thereafter installations.
Like several contemporary art movements, Performance is acted out for it's own sake and according to its own priorities. Sometimes resembling a circus act, at times amusing, offensive - even repulsive, it challenges conventional ethics and (above all) our notion of what art is, or should be. TO SEARCH FOR A PARTICULAR MOVEMENT,BROWSE OUR A-Z of ART MOVEMENTS
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Title: Art And Performance Academy