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Anton Chekhov, in full Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, (born January 29 [January 17, Old Style], 1860, Taganrog, Russia—died July 14/15 [July 1/2], 1904, Badenweiler, Germany), Russian playwright and master of the modern short story. He was a literary artist of laconic precision who probed below the surface of life, laying bare the secret motives of his characters. Chekhov’s best plays and short stories lack complex plots and neat solutions.
Concentrating on apparent trivialities, they create a special kind of atmosphere, sometimes termed haunting or lyrical. Chekhov described the Russian life of his time using a deceptively simple technique devoid of obtrusive literary devices, and he is regarded as the outstanding representative of the late 19th-century Russian realist school. Boyhood and youth Chekhov’s father was a struggling grocer and pious martinet who had been born a serf.
He compelled his son to serve in his shop, also conscripting him into a church choir, which he himself conducted. Despite the kindness of his mother, childhood remained a painful memory to Chekhov, although it later proved to be a vivid and absorbing experience that he often invoked in his works. After briefly attending a local school for Greek boys, Chekhov entered the town gimnaziya (high school), where he remained for 10 years.
There he received the best standard education then available—thorough but unimaginative and based on the Greek and Latin classics. During his last three years at school Chekhov lived alone and supported himself by coaching younger boys; his father, having gone bankrupt, had moved with the rest of his family to Moscow to make a fresh start. In the autumn of 1879 Chekhov joined his family in Moscow, which was to be his main base until 1892.
He at once enrolled in the university’s medical faculty, graduating in 1884 as a doctor. By that time he was already the economic mainstay of his family, for his father could obtain only poorly paid employment. As unofficial head of the family Anton showed great reserves of responsibility and energy, cheerfully supporting his mother and the younger children through his freelance earnings as a journalist and writer of comic sketches—work that he combined with arduous medical studies and a busy social life.
Chekhov began his writing career as the author of anecdotes for humorous journals, signing his early work pseudonymously. By 1888 he had become widely popular with a “lowbrow” public and had already produced a body of work more voluminous than all his later writings put together. And he had, in the process, turned the short comic sketch of about 1,000 words into a minor art form. He had also experimented in serious writing, providing studies of human misery and despair strangely at variance with the frenzied facetiousness of his comic work.
Gradually that serious vein absorbed him and soon predominated over the comic. Literary maturity Chekhov’s literary progress during his early 20s may be charted by the first appearance of his work in a sequence of publications in the capital, St. Petersburg, each successive vehicle being more serious and respected than its predecessor. Finally, in 1888, Chekhov published his first work in a leading literary review, Severny vestnik (“Northern Herald”).
With the work in question—a long story entitled Steppe—he at last turned his back on comic fiction. “Steppe,” an autobiographical work describing a journey in the Ukraine as seen through the eyes of a child, is the first among more than 50 stories published in a variety of journals and selections between 1888 and his death in 1904. It is on that corpus of later stories, but also on his mature dramas of the same period, that Chekhov’s main reputation rests.
Although the year 1888 first saw Chekhov concentrating almost exclusively on short stories that were serious in conception, humour—now underlying—nearly always remained an important ingredient. There was also a concentration on quality at the expense of quantity, the number of publications dropping suddenly from over a hundred items a year in the peak years 1886 and 1887 to only 10 short stories in 1888.
Besides Steppe, Chekhov also wrote several profoundly tragic studies at that time, the most notable of which was A Dreary Story (1889), a penetrating study into the mind of an elderly and dying professor of medicine. The ingenuity and insight displayed in that tour de force was especially remarkable, coming from an author so young. The play Ivanov (1887–89) culminates in the suicide of a young man nearer to the author’s own age.
Together with A Dreary Story, that belongs to a group among Chekhov’s works that have been called clinical studies. They explore the experiences of the mentally or physically ill in a spirit that reminds one that the author was himself a qualified—and remained a sporadically practicing—doctor. By the late 1880s many critics had begun to reprimand Chekhov, now that he was sufficiently well known to attract their attention, for holding no firm political and social views and for failing to endow his works with a sense of direction.
Such expectations irked Chekhov, who was unpolitical and philosophically uncommitted. In early 1890 he suddenly sought relief from the irritations of urban intellectual life by undertaking a one-man sociological expedition to a remote island, Sakhalin. Situated nearly 6,000 miles (9,650 km) east of Moscow, on the other side of Siberia, it was notorious as an imperial Russian penal settlement. Chekhov’s journey there was a long and hazardous ordeal by carriage and riverboat.
After arriving unscathed, studying local conditions, and conducting a census of the islanders, he returned to publish his findings as a research thesis, which attained an honoured place in the annals of Russian penology: The Island of Sakhalin (1893–94). Chekhov paid his first visit to western Europe in the company of A.S. Suvorin, a wealthy newspaper proprietor and the publisher of much of Chekhov’s own work.
Their long and close friendship caused Chekhov some unpopularity, owing to the politically reactionary character of Suvorin’s newspaper, Novoye vremya (“New Time”). Eventually Chekhov broke with Suvorin over the attitude taken by the paper toward the notorious Alfred Dreyfus affair in France, with Chekhov championing Dreyfus. During the years just before and after his Sakhalin expedition, Chekhov had continued his experiments as a dramatist.
His Wood Demon (1888–89) is a long-winded and ineptly facetious four-act play, which somehow, by a miracle of art, became converted—largely by cutting—into Dyadya Vanya (Uncle Vanya), one of his greatest stage masterpieces. The conversion—to a superb study of aimlessness in a rural manor house—took place some time between 1890 and 1896; the play was published in 1897. Other dramatic efforts of the period include several of the uproarious one-act farces known as vaudevilles: Medved (The Bear), Predlozheniye (The Proposal), Svadba (The Wedding), Yubiley (The Anniversary), and others.
Melikhovo period: 1892–98 After helping, both as doctor and as medical administrator, to relieve the disastrous famine of 1891–92 in Russia, Chekhov bought a country estate in the village of Melikhovo, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Moscow. That was his main residence for about six years, providing a home for his aging parents, as also for his sister Mariya, who acted as his housekeeper and remained unmarried in order to look after her brother.
The Melikhovo period was the most creatively effective of Chekhov’s life so far as short stories were concerned, for it was during those six years that he wrote The Butterfly, Neighbours (1892), An Anonymous Story (1893), The Black Monk (1894), Murder, and Ariadne (1895), among many other masterpieces. Village life now became a leading theme in his work, most notably in Peasants (1897). Undistinguished by plot, the short sequence of brilliant sketches created more stir in Russia than any other single work of Chekhov’s, partly owing to his rejection of the convention whereby writers commonly presented the Russian peasantry in sentimentalized and debrutalized form.
Continuing to provide many portraits of the intelligentsia, Chekhov also described the commercial and factory-owning world in such stories as A Woman’s Kingdom, (1894) and Three Years (1895). As has often been recognized, Chekhov’s work provides a panoramic study of the Russia of his day, and one so accurate that it could even be used as a sociological source. In some of his stories of the Melikhovo period, Chekhov attacked by implication the teachings of Leo Tolstoy, the well-known novelist and thinker, and Chekhov’s revered elder contemporary.
Himself once (in the late 1880s) a tentative disciple of the Tolstoyan simple life, and also of nonresistance to evil as advocated by Tolstoy, Chekhov had now rejected those doctrines. He illustrated his new view in one particularly outstanding story: Ward Number Six (1892). Here an elderly doctor shows himself nonresistant to evil by refraining from remedying the appalling conditions in the mental ward of which he has charge—only to be incarcerated as a patient himself through the intrigues of a subordinate.
In My Life (1896) the young hero, son of a provincial architect, insists on defying middle-class convention by becoming a house painter, a cultivation of the Tolstoyan simple life that Chekhov portrays as misconceived. In a later trio of linked stories, The Man in a Case, Gooseberries, and About Love (1898), Chekhov further develops the same theme, showing various figures who similarly fail to realize their full potentialities.
As those pleas in favour of personal freedom illustrate, Chekhov’s stories frequently contain some kind of submerged moral, though he never worked out a comprehensive ethical or philosophical doctrine. Chayka (The Seagull) is Chekhov’s only dramatic work dating with certainty from the Melikhovo period. First performed in St. Petersburg on October 17, 1896 (Old Style), the four-act drama, misnamed a comedy, was badly received; indeed, it was almost hissed off the stage.
Chekhov was greatly distressed and left the auditorium during the second act, having suffered one of the most traumatic experiences of his life and vowing never to write for the stage again. Two years later, however, the play was revived by the newly created Moscow Art Theatre, enjoying considerable success and helping to reestablish Chekhov as a dramatist. The Seagull is a study of the clash between the older and younger generations as it affects two actresses and two writers, some of the details having been suggested by episodes in the lives of Chekhov’s friends.
Yalta period: 1899–1904 In March 1897 Chekhov had suffered a lung hemorrhage caused by tuberculosis, symptoms of which had become apparent considerably earlier. Now forced to acknowledge himself a semi-invalid, Chekhov sold his Melikhovo estate and built a villa in Yalta, the Crimean coastal resort. From then on he spent most of his winters there or on the French Riviera, cut off from the intellectual life of Moscow and St.
Petersburg. That was all the more galling since his plays were beginning to attract serious attention. Moreover, Chekhov had become attracted by a young actress, Olga Knipper, who was appearing in his plays, and whom he eventually married in 1901; the marriage probably marked the only profound love affair of his life. But since Knipper continued to pursue her acting career, husband and wife lived apart during most of the winter months, and there were no children of the marriage.
Never a successful financial manager, Chekhov attempted to regularize his literary affairs in 1899 by selling the copyright of all his existing works, excluding plays, to the publisher A.F. Marx for 75,000 rubles, an unduly low sum. In 1899–1901 Marx issued the first comprehensive edition of Chekhov’s works, in 10 volumes, after the author had himself rejected many of his juvenilia. Even so, that publication, reprinted in 1903 with supplementary material, was unsatisfactory in many ways.
Chekhov’s Yalta period saw a decline in the production of short stories and a greater emphasis on drama. His two last plays—Tri sestry (Three Sisters), first performed in 1901, and Vishnyovy sad (The Cherry Orchard), first performed in 1904—were both written for the Moscow Art Theatre. But much as Chekhov owed to the theatre’s two founders, Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko and Konstanin Stanislavsky, he remained dissatisfied with such rehearsals and performances of his plays as he was able to witness.
Repeatedly insisting that his mature drama was comedy rather than tragedy, Chekhov grew distressed when producers insisted on a heavy treatment, overemphasizing the—admittedly frequent—occasions on which the characters inveigh against the boredom and futility of their lives. Despite Stanislavsky’s reputation as an innovator who had brought a natural, nondeclamatory style to the hitherto overhistrionic Russian stage, his productions were never natural and nondeclamatory enough for Chekhov, who wished his work to be acted with the lightest possible touch.
And though Chekhov’s mature plays have since become established in repertoires all over the world, it remains doubtful whether his craving for the light touch has been satisfied except on the rarest of occasions. Yet oversolemnity can be the ruin of Three Sisters, for example—the play in which Chekhov so sensitively portrays the longings of a trio of provincial young women. Insisting that his The Cherry Orchard was “a comedy, in places even a farce,” Chekhov offered in that last play a poignant picture of the Russian landowning class in decline, portraying characters who remain comic despite their very poignancy.
The play was first performed in Moscow on January 17, 1904 (Old Style), and less than six months later Chekhov died of tuberculosis. Britannica Classic: Houghton, Norris: The Cherry OrchardTheatre director Norris Houghton considering the challenges of staging Anton Chekhov's Vishnyovy sad (1904; The Cherry Orchard); from a film by Encyclopædia Britannica Educational Corporation, 1967.Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Though already celebrated by the Russian literary public at the time of his death, Chekhov did not become internationally famous until the years after World War I, by which time the translations of Constance Garnett (into English) and of others had helped to publicize his work. Yet his elusive, superficially guileless style of writing—in which what is left unsaid often seems so much more important than what is said—has defied effective analysis by literary critics, as well as effective imitation by creative writers.
It was not until 40 years after his death, with the issue of the 20-volume Polnoye sobraniye sochineny i pisem A.P. Chekhova (“Complete Works and Letters of A.P. Chekhov”) of 1944–51, that Chekhov was at last presented in Russian on a level of scholarship worthy—though with certain reservations—of his achievement. Eight volumes of that edition contain his correspondence, amounting to several thousand letters.
Outstandingly witty and lively, they belie the legend—commonly believed during the author’s lifetime—that he was hopelessly pessimistic in outlook. As samples of the Russian epistolary art, Chekhov’s letters have been rated second only to Aleksandr Pushkin’s by the literary historian D.S. Mirsky. Although Chekhov is chiefly known for his plays, his stories—and particularly those that were written after 1888—represent, according to some critics, an even more significant and creative literary achievement.
Ronald Francis Hingley The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica
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"Chekhov" redirects here. For other uses, see Chekhov (disambiguation). This name uses Eastern Slavic naming customs; the patronymic is Pavlovich and the family name is Chekhov. Anton Chekhov Born Anton Pavlovich Chekhov29 January 1860Taganrog, Russian Empire Died 15 July 1904 (aged 44)Badenweiler, German Empire Resting place Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow Occupation Physician, short story writer, playwright Nationality Russian Alma mater First Moscow State Medical University Notable awards Pushkin Prize Spouse Olga Knipper Signature Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: Анто́н Па́влович Че́хов, pronounced [ɐnˈton ˈpavɫəvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕɛxəf]; 29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian playwright and short story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history.
His career as a playwright produced four classics and his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics. Along with Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg, Chekhov is often referred to as one of the three seminal figures in the birth of early modernism in the theatre. Chekhov practiced as a medical doctor throughout most of his literary career: "Medicine is my lawful wife", he once said, "and literature is my mistress.
" Chekhov renounced the theatre after the reception of The Seagull in 1896, but the play was revived to acclaim in 1898 by Konstantin Stanislavski's Moscow Art Theatre, which subsequently also produced Chekhov's Uncle Vanya and premiered his last two plays, Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard. These four works present a challenge to the acting ensemble as well as to audiences, because in place of conventional action Chekhov offers a "theatre of mood" and a "submerged life in the text".
 Chekhov had at first written stories only for financial gain, but as his artistic ambition grew, he made formal innovations which have influenced the evolution of the modern short story. He made no apologies for the difficulties this posed to readers, insisting that the role of an artist was to ask questions, not to answer them. Biography Childhood Birth house of Anton Chekhov in Taganrog, Russia Young Chekhov in 1882 The Taganrog Boys Gymnasium in the late 19th century.
The cross on top is no longer present Portrait of young Chekhov in country clothes Young Chekhov (left) with brother Nikolai in 1882 Chekhov family and friends in 1890 (Top row, left to right) Ivan, Alexander, Father; (second row) unknown friend, Lika Mizinova, Masha, Mother, Seryozha Kiselev; (bottom row) Misha, Anton Chekhov's classic look: pince-nez, hat and bow-tie Melikhovo, now a museum Anton Chekhov in 1893 Osip Braz: "Portrait of Anton Chekhov" Chekhov with Leo Tolstoy at Yalta, 1900 Chekhov and Olga, 1901, on their honeymoon Anton Chekhov was born on the feast day of St.
Anthony the Great (17 January Old Style) 29 January 1860, the third of six surviving children, in Taganrog, a port on the Sea of Azov in southern Russia. His father, Pavel Yegorovich Chekhov, the son of a former serf and his Ukrainian wife, were from the village Vilkhovatka near Kobeliaky (Poltava Region in modern-day Ukraine) and ran a grocery store. A director of the parish choir, devout Orthodox Christian, and physically abusive father, Pavel Chekhov has been seen by some historians as the model for his son's many portraits of hypocrisy.
 Chekhov's mother, Yevgeniya (Morozova), was an excellent storyteller who entertained the children with tales of her travels with her cloth-merchant father all over Russia. "Our talents we got from our father," Chekhov remembered, "but our soul from our mother." In adulthood, Chekhov criticised his brother Alexander's treatment of his wife and children by reminding him of Pavel's tyranny: "Let me ask you to recall that it was despotism and lying that ruined your mother's youth.
Despotism and lying so mutilated our childhood that it's sickening and frightening to think about it. Remember the horror and disgust we felt in those times when Father threw a tantrum at dinner over too much salt in the soup and called Mother a fool." Chekhov attended the Greek School in Taganrog and the Taganrog Gymnasium (since renamed the Chekhov Gymnasium), where he was kept down for a year at fifteen for failing an examination in Ancient Greek.
 He sang at the Greek Orthodox monastery in Taganrog and in his father's choirs. In a letter of 1892, he used the word "suffering" to describe his childhood and recalled: When my brothers and I used to stand in the middle of the church and sing the trio "May my prayer be exalted", or "The Archangel's Voice", everyone looked at us with emotion and envied our parents, but we at that moment felt like little convicts.
 He later became an atheist. In 1876, Chekhov's father was declared bankrupt after overextending his finances building a new house, having been cheated by a contractor called Mironov. To avoid debtor's prison he fled to Moscow, where his two eldest sons, Alexander and Nikolay, were attending university. The family lived in poverty in Moscow, Chekhov's mother physically and emotionally broken by the experience.
 Chekhov was left behind to sell the family's possessions and finish his education. Chekhov remained in Taganrog for three more years, boarding with a man called Selivanov who, like Lopakhin in The Cherry Orchard, had bailed out the family for the price of their house. Chekhov had to pay for his own education, which he managed by private tutoring, catching and selling goldfinches, and selling short sketches to the newspapers, among other jobs.
 He sent every ruble he could spare to his family in Moscow, along with humorous letters to cheer them up. During this time, he read widely and analytically, including the works of Cervantes, Turgenev, Goncharov, and Schopenhauer, and wrote a full-length comic drama, Fatherless, which his brother Alexander dismissed as "an inexcusable though innocent fabrication." Chekhov also enjoyed a series of love affairs, one with the wife of a teacher.
 In 1879, Chekhov completed his schooling and joined his family in Moscow, having gained admission to the medical school at I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. Early writings Chekhov now assumed responsibility for the whole family. To support them and to pay his tuition fees, he wrote daily short, humorous sketches and vignettes of contemporary Russian life, many under pseudonyms such as "Antosha Chekhonte" (Антоша Чехонте) and "Man without a Spleen" (Человек без селезенки).
His prodigious output gradually earned him a reputation as a satirical chronicler of Russian street life, and by 1882 he was writing for Oskolki (Fragments), owned by Nikolai Leykin, one of the leading publishers of the time. Chekhov's tone at this stage was harsher than that familiar from his mature fiction. In 1884, Chekhov qualified as a physician, which he considered his principal profession though he made little money from it and treated the poor free of charge.
 In 1884 and 1885, Chekhov found himself coughing blood, and in 1886 the attacks worsened, but he would not admit his tuberculosis to his family or his friends. He confessed to Leykin, "I am afraid to submit myself to be sounded by my colleagues." He continued writing for weekly periodicals, earning enough money to move the family into progressively better accommodations. Early in 1886 he was invited to write for one of the most popular papers in St.
Petersburg, Novoye Vremya (New Times), owned and edited by the millionaire magnate Alexey Suvorin, who paid a rate per line double Leykin's and allowed Chekhov three times the space. Suvorin was to become a lifelong friend, perhaps Chekhov's closest. Before long, Chekhov was attracting literary as well as popular attention. The sixty-four-year-old Dmitry Grigorovich, a celebrated Russian writer of the day, wrote to Chekhov after reading his short story "The Huntsman" that "You have real talent, a talent that places you in the front rank among writers in the new generation.
" He went on to advise Chekhov to slow down, write less, and concentrate on literary quality. Chekhov replied that the letter had struck him "like a thunderbolt" and confessed, "I have written my stories the way reporters write up their notes about fires – mechanically, half-consciously, caring nothing about either the reader or myself."" The admission may have done Chekhov a disservice, since early manuscripts reveal that he often wrote with extreme care, continually revising.
 Grigorovich's advice nevertheless inspired a more serious, artistic ambition in the twenty-six-year-old. In 1888, with a little string-pulling by Grigorovich, the short story collection At Dusk (V Sumerkakh) won Chekhov the coveted Pushkin Prize "for the best literary production distinguished by high artistic worth." Turning points In 1887, exhausted from overwork and ill health, Chekhov took a trip to Ukraine, which reawakened him to the beauty of the steppe.
 On his return, he began the novella-length short story "The Steppe," which he called "something rather odd and much too original," and which was eventually published in Severny Vestnik (The Northern Herald). In a narrative that drifts with the thought processes of the characters, Chekhov evokes a chaise journey across the steppe through the eyes of a young boy sent to live away from home, and his companions, a priest and a merchant.
"The Steppe" has been called a "dictionary of Chekhov's poetics", and it represented a significant advance for Chekhov, exhibiting much of the quality of his mature fiction and winning him publication in a literary journal rather than a newspaper. In autumn 1887, a theatre manager named Korsh commissioned Chekhov to write a play, the result being Ivanov, written in a fortnight and produced that November.
 Though Chekhov found the experience "sickening" and painted a comic portrait of the chaotic production in a letter to his brother Alexander, the play was a hit and was praised, to Chekhov's bemusement, as a work of originality. Although Chekhov did not fully realise it at the time, Chekhov's plays, such as The Seagull (written in 1895), Uncle Vanya (written in 1897), The Three Sisters (written in 1900), and The Cherry Orchard (written in 1903) served as a revolutionary backbone to what is common sense to the medium of acting to this day: an effort to recreate and express the "realism" of how people truly act and speak with each other and translating it to the stage to manifest the human condition as accurately as possible in hopes to make the audience reflect upon their own definition of what it means to be human, warts and all.
This philosophy of approaching the art of acting has stood not only steadfast, but as the cornerstone of acting for much of the 20th century to this day. Mikhail Chekhov considered Ivanov a key moment in his brother's intellectual development and literary career. From this period comes an observation of Chekhov's that has become known as Chekhov's gun, a dramatic principle that requires that every element in a narrative be necessary and irreplaceable, and that everything else be removed.
 Remove everything that has no relevance to the story. If you say in the first chapter that there is a rifle hanging on the wall, in the second or third chapter it absolutely must go off. If it's not going to be fired, it shouldn't be hanging there. — Anton Chekhov The death of Chekhov's brother Nikolay from tuberculosis in 1889 influenced A Dreary Story, finished that September, about a man who confronts the end of a life that he realises has been without purpose.
 Mikhail Chekhov, who recorded his brother's depression and restlessness after Nikolay's death, was researching prisons at the time as part of his law studies, and Anton Chekhov, in a search for purpose in his own life, himself soon became obsessed with the issue of prison reform. Sakhalin In 1890, Chekhov undertook an arduous journey by train, horse-drawn carriage, and river steamer to the Russian Far East and the katorga, or penal colony, on Sakhalin Island, north of Japan, where he spent three months interviewing thousands of convicts and settlers for a census.
The letters Chekhov wrote during the two-and-a-half-month journey to Sakhalin are considered to be among his best. His remarks to his sister about Tomsk were to become notorious. Anton Chekhov museum in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky, Russia. It is the house where he stayed in Sakhalin during 1890 Tomsk is a very dull town. To judge from the drunkards whose acquaintance I have made, and from the intellectual people who have come to the hotel to pay their respects to me, the inhabitants are very dull, too.
 The inhabitants of Tomsk later retaliated by erecting a mocking statue of Chekhov. Anton Chekhov monument in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky, Russia Chekhov witnessed much on Sakhalin that shocked and angered him, including floggings, embezzlement of supplies, and forced prostitution of women. He wrote, "There were times I felt that I saw before me the extreme limits of man's degradation." He was particularly moved by the plight of the children living in the penal colony with their parents.
For example: On the Amur steamer going to Sakhalin, there was a convict who had murdered his wife and wore fetters on his legs. His daughter, a little girl of six, was with him. I noticed wherever the convict moved the little girl scrambled after him, holding on to his fetters. At night the child slept with the convicts and soldiers all in a heap together. Chekhov later concluded that charity was not the answer, but that the government had a duty to finance humane treatment of the convicts.
His findings were published in 1893 and 1894 as Ostrov Sakhalin (The Island of Sakhalin), a work of social science, not literature, that is worthy and informative rather than brilliant. Chekhov found literary expression for the "Hell of Sakhalin" in his long short story "The Murder," the last section of which is set on Sakhalin, where the murderer Yakov loads coal in the night while longing for home.
Chekhov's writing on Sakhalin is the subject of brief comment and analysis in Haruki Murakami's novel 1Q84. It is also the subject of a poem by the Nobel Prize winner Seamus Heaney, "Chekhov on Sakhalin" (collected in the volume Station Island). Melikhovo In 1892, Chekhov bought the small country estate of Melikhovo, about forty miles south of Moscow, where he lived with his family until 1899.
"It's nice to be a lord," he joked to his friend Ivan Leontyev (who wrote humorous pieces under the pseudonym Shcheglov), but he took his responsibilities as a landlord seriously and soon made himself useful to the local peasants. As well as organising relief for victims of the famine and cholera outbreaks of 1892, he went on to build three schools, a fire station, and a clinic, and to donate his medical services to peasants for miles around, despite frequent recurrences of his tuberculosis.
 Mikhail Chekhov, a member of the household at Melikhovo, described the extent of his brother's medical commitments: From the first day that Chekhov moved to Melikhovo, the sick began flocking to him from twenty miles around. They came on foot or were brought in carts, and often he was fetched to patients at a distance. Sometimes from early in the morning peasant women and children were standing before his door waiting.
 Chekhov's expenditure on drugs was considerable, but the greatest cost was making journeys of several hours to visit the sick, which reduced his time for writing. However, Chekhov's work as a doctor enriched his writing by bringing him into intimate contact with all sections of Russian society: for example, he witnessed at first hand the peasants' unhealthy and cramped living conditions, which he recalled in his short story "Peasants".
Chekhov visited the upper classes as well, recording in his notebook: "Aristocrats? The same ugly bodies and physical uncleanliness, the same toothless old age and disgusting death, as with market-women." In 1894, Chekhov began writing his play The Seagull in a lodge he had built in the orchard at Melikhovo. In the two years since he had moved to the estate, he had refurbished the house, taken up agriculture and horticulture, tended the orchard and the pond, and planted many trees, which, according to Mikhail, he "looked after .
.. as though they were his children. Like Colonel Vershinin in his Three Sisters, as he looked at them he dreamed of what they would be like in three or four hundred years." The first night of The Seagull, at the Alexandrinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg on 17 October 1896, was a fiasco, as the play was booed by the audience, stinging Chekhov into renouncing the theatre. But the play so impressed the theatre director Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko that he convinced his colleague Konstantin Stanislavski to direct a new production for the innovative Moscow Art Theatre in 1898.
 Stanislavski's attention to psychological realism and ensemble playing coaxed the buried subtleties from the text, and restored Chekhov's interest in playwriting. The Art Theatre commissioned more plays from Chekhov and the following year staged Uncle Vanya, which Chekhov had completed in 1896. Yalta In March 1897, Chekhov suffered a major haemorrhage of the lungs while on a visit to Moscow.
With great difficulty he was persuaded to enter a clinic, where the doctors diagnosed tuberculosis on the upper part of his lungs and ordered a change in his manner of life. After his father's death in 1898, Chekhov bought a plot of land on the outskirts of Yalta and built a villa, into which he moved with his mother and sister the following year. Though he planted trees and flowers, kept dogs and tame cranes, and received guests such as Leo Tolstoy and Maxim Gorky, Chekhov was always relieved to leave his "hot Siberia" for Moscow or travels abroad.
He vowed to move to Taganrog as soon as a water supply was installed there. In Yalta he completed two more plays for the Art Theatre, composing with greater difficulty than in the days when he "wrote serenely, the way I eat pancakes now". He took a year each over Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard. On 25 May 1901, Chekhov married Olga Knipper quietly, owing to his horror of weddings.
She was a former protegée and sometime lover of Nemirovich-Danchenko whom he had first met at rehearsals for The Seagull. Up to that point, Chekhov, known as "Russia's most elusive literary bachelor," had preferred passing liaisons and visits to brothels over commitment. He had once written to Suvorin: By all means I will be married if you wish it. But on these conditions: everything must be as it has been hitherto — that is, she must live in Moscow while I live in the country, and I will come and see her .
.. I promise to be an excellent husband, but give me a wife who, like the moon, won't appear in my sky every day. The letter proved prophetic of Chekhov's marital arrangements with Olga: he lived largely at Yalta, she in Moscow, pursuing her acting career. In 1902, Olga suffered a miscarriage; and Donald Rayfield has offered evidence, based on the couple's letters, that conception may have occurred when Chekhov and Olga were apart, although Russian scholars have rejected that claim.
 The literary legacy of this long-distance marriage is a correspondence that preserves gems of theatre history, including shared complaints about Stanislavski's directing methods and Chekhov's advice to Olga about performing in his plays. In Yalta, Chekhov wrote one of his most famous stories,The Lady with the Dog (also translated from the Russian as "Lady with Lapdog"), which depicts what at first seems a casual liaison between a cynical married man and an unhappy married woman who meet while vacationing in Yalta.
Neither expects anything lasting from the encounter. Unexpectedly though, they gradually fall deeply in love and end up risking scandal and the security of their family lives. The story masterfully captures their feelings for each other, the inner transformation undergone by the disillusioned male protagonist as a result of falling deeply in love, and their inability to resolve the matter by either letting go of their families or of each other.
 Death By May 1904, Chekhov was terminally ill with tuberculosis. Mikhail Chekhov recalled that "everyone who saw him secretly thought the end was not far off, but the nearer [he] was to the end, the less he seemed to realise it." On 3 June, he set off with Olga for the German spa town of Badenweiler in the Black Forest, from where he wrote outwardly jovial letters to his sister Masha, describing the food and surroundings, and assuring her and his mother that he was getting better.
In his last letter, he complained about the way German women dressed. Chekhov's death has become one of "the great set pieces of literary history," retold, embroidered, and fictionalised many times since, notably in the short story "Errand" by Raymond Carver. In 1908, Olga wrote this account of her husband's last moments: Anton sat up unusually straight and said loudly and clearly (although he knew almost no German): Ich sterbe ("I'm dying").
The doctor calmed him, took a syringe, gave him an injection of camphor, and ordered champagne. Anton took a full glass, examined it, smiled at me and said: "It's a long time since I drank champagne." He drained it and lay quietly on his left side, and I just had time to run to him and lean across the bed and call to him, but he had stopped breathing and was sleeping peacefully as a child ... Chekhov's body was transported to Moscow in a refrigerated railway car meant for oysters, a detail that offended Gorky.
 Some of the thousands of mourners followed the funeral procession of a General Keller by mistake, to the accompaniment of a military band. Chekhov was buried next to his father at the Novodevichy Cemetery. Legacy A few months before he died, Chekhov told the writer Ivan Bunin that he thought people might go on reading his writings for seven years. "Why seven?" asked Bunin. "Well, seven and a half," Chekhov replied.
"That's not bad. I've got six years to live." Chekhov biographies Chekhov's posthumous reputation greatly exceeded his expectations. The ovations for the play The Cherry Orchard in the year of his death served to demonstrate the Russian public's acclaim for the writer, which placed him second in literary celebrity only to Tolstoy, who outlived him by six years. Tolstoy was an early admirer of Chekhov's short stories and had a series that he deemed "first quality" and "second quality" bound into a book.
In the first category were: Children, The Chorus Girl, A Play, Home, Misery, The Runaway, In Court, Vanka, Ladies, A Malefactor, The Boys, Darkness, Sleepy, The Helpmate, and The Darling"; in the second: A Transgression, Sorrow, The Witch, Verochka, In a Strange Land, The Cook's Wedding, A Tedious Business, An Upheaval, Oh! The Public!, The Mask, A Woman's Luck, Nerves, The Wedding, A Defenseless Creature, and Peasant Wives.
 In Chekhov's lifetime, British and Irish critics generally did not find his work pleasing; E. J. Dillon thought "the effect on the reader of Chekhov's tales was repulsion at the gallery of human waste represented by his fickle, spineless, drifting people" and R. E. C. Long said "Chekhov's characters were repugnant, and that Chekhov reveled in stripping the last rags of dignity from the human soul".
 After his death, Chekhov was reappraised. Constance Garnett's translations won him an English-language readership and the admiration of writers such as James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, and Katherine Mansfield, whose story "The Child Who Was Tired" is similar to Chekhov's "Sleepy". The Russian critic D. S. Mirsky, who lived in England, explained Chekhov's popularity in that country by his "unusually complete rejection of what we may call the heroic values.
" In Russia itself, Chekhov's drama fell out of fashion after the revolution, but it was later incorporated into the Soviet canon. The character of Lopakhin, for example, was reinvented as a hero of the new order, rising from a modest background so as eventually to possess the gentry's estates. One of the first non-Russians to praise Chekhov's plays was George Bernard Shaw, who subtitled his Heartbreak House "A Fantasia in the Russian Manner on English Themes," and pointed out similarities between the predicament of the British landed class and that of their Russian counterparts as depicted by Chekhov: "the same nice people, the same utter futility.
" In the United States, Chekhov's reputation began its rise slightly later, partly through the influence of Stanislavski's system of acting, with its notion of subtext: "Chekhov often expressed his thought not in speeches," wrote Stanislavski, "but in pauses or between the lines or in replies consisting of a single word ... the characters often feel and think things not expressed in the lines they speak.
" The Group Theatre, in particular, developed the subtextual approach to drama, influencing generations of American playwrights, screenwriters, and actors, including Clifford Odets, Elia Kazan and, in particular, Lee Strasberg. In turn, Strasberg's Actors Studio and the "Method" acting approach influenced many actors, including Marlon Brando and Robert De Niro, though by then the Chekhov tradition may have been distorted by a preoccupation with realism.
 In 1981, the playwright Tennessee Williams adapted The Seagull as The Notebook of Trigorin. One of Anton's nephews, Michael Chekhov would also contribute heavily to modern theatre, particularly through his unique acting methods which developed Stanislavski's ideas further. Despite Chekhov's reputation as a playwright, William Boyd asserts that his short stories represent the greater achievement.
Raymond Carver, who wrote the short story "Errand" about Chekhov's death, believed that Chekhov was the greatest of all short story writers: Chekhov's stories are as wonderful (and necessary) now as when they first appeared. It is not only the immense number of stories he wrote—for few, if any, writers have ever done more—it is the awesome frequency with which he produced masterpieces, stories that shrive us as well as delight and move us, that lay bare our emotions in ways only true art can accomplish.
 Ernest Hemingway, another writer influenced by Chekhov, was more grudging: "Chekhov wrote about six good stories. But he was an amateur writer." And Vladimir Nabokov criticised Chekhov's "medley of dreadful prosaisms, ready-made epithets, repetitions." But he also declared The Lady with the Dog "one of the greatest stories ever written" in its depiction of a problematic relationship, and described Chekhov as writing "the way one person relates to another the most important things in his life, slowly and yet without a break, in a slightly subdued voice.
" For the writer William Boyd, Chekhov's historical accomplishment was to abandon what William Gerhardie called the "event plot" for something more "blurred, interrupted, mauled or otherwise tampered with by life." Virginia Woolf mused on the unique quality of a Chekhov story in The Common Reader (1925): But is it the end, we ask? We have rather the feeling that we have overrun our signals; or it is as if a tune had stopped short without the expected chords to close it.
These stories are inconclusive, we say, and proceed to frame a criticism based upon the assumption that stories ought to conclude in a way that we recognise. In so doing we raise the question of our own fitness as readers. Where the tune is familiar and the end emphatic—lovers united, villains discomfited, intrigues exposed—as it is in most Victorian fiction, we can scarcely go wrong, but where the tune is unfamiliar and the end a note of interrogation or merely the information that they went on talking, as it is in Tchekov, we need a very daring and alert sense of literature to make us hear the tune, and in particular those last notes which complete the harmony.
 While a Professor of Comparative Literature at Princeton University, Michael Goldman presented his view on defining the elusive quality of Chekhov's comedies stating: "Having learned that Chekhov is comic ... Chekhov is comic in a very special, paradoxical way. His plays depend, as comedy does, on the vitality of the actors to make pleasurable what would otherwise be painfully awkward – inappropriate speeches, missed connections, faux pas, stumbles, childishness – but as part of a deeper pathos; the stumbles are not pratfalls but an energized, graceful dissolution of purpose.
" Alan Twigg, the chief editor and publisher of the Canadian book review magazine BC Bookworld wrote, One can argue Anton Chekhov is the second-most popular writer on the planet. Only Shakespeare outranks Chekhov in terms of movie adaptations of their work, according to the movie database IMDb. ... We generally know less about Chekhov than we know about mysterious Shakespeare. Chekhov has also influenced the work of Japanese playwrights including Shimizu Kunio, Yōji Sakate, and Ai Nagai.
Critics have noted similarities in how Chekhov and Shimizu use a mixture of light humor as well as an intense depictions of longing. Sakate adapted several of Chekhov's plays and transformed them in the general style of nō. Nagai also adapted Chekhov's plays, including Three Sisters, and transformed his dramatic style into Nagai's style of satirical realism while emphasising the social issues depicted on the play.
 Chekhov's works have been adapted for the screen, including Sidney Lumet's Sea Gull and Louis Malle's Vanya on 42nd Street. Laurence Olivier's last film as director was an adaptation of the Three Sisters (UK 1970). It was released in the US in 1974. His work has also served as inspiration or been referenced in numerous films. In Andrei Tarkovsky's 1975 film The Mirror, characters discuss his short story "Ward No.
6". Woody Allen has been influenced by Chekhov and reference to his works are present in many of his films including Love and Death (1975), Interiors (1978) and Hannah and Her Sisters (1986). Plays by Chekhov are also referenced in François Truffaut's 1980 drama film The Last Metro, which is set in a theatre. A portion of a stage production of Three Sisters appears in the 2014 drama film Still Alice.
See also Ann Dunnigan, English-language translator Anton Chekhov bibliography Jean-Claude van Itallie, English-language translator Maria Chekhova References ^ Old Style date 17 January. ^ Old Style date 2 July. ^ "Greatest short story writer who ever lived." Raymond Carver (in Rosamund Bartlett's introduction to About Love and Other Stories, XX); "Quite probably. the best short-story writer ever.
" A Chekhov Lexicon, by William Boyd, The Guardian, 3 July 2004. Retrieved 16 February 2007. ^ "Stories ... which are among the supreme achievements in prose narrative." Vodka miniatures, belching and angry cats, George Steiner's review of The Undiscovered Chekhov, in The Observer, 13 May 2001. Retrieved 16 February 2007. ^ Harold Bloom, Genius: A Study of One Hundred Exemplary Authors. ^ Letter to Alexei Suvorin, 11 September 1888.
Letters of Anton Chekhov. ^ "Actors climb up Chekhov like a mountain, roped together, sharing the glory if they ever make it to the summit". Actor Ian McKellen, quoted in Miles, 9. ^ "Chekhov's art demands a theatre of mood." Vsevolod Meyerhold, quoted in Allen, 13; "A richer submerged life in the text is characteristic of a more profound drama of realism, one which depends less on the externals of presentation.
" Styan, 84. ^ "Chekhov is said to be the father of the modern short story". Malcolm 2004, p. 87; "He brought something new into literature." James Joyce, in Arthur Power, Conversations with James Joyce, Usborne Publishing Ltd, 1974, ISBN 978-0-86000-006-8, 57; "Tchehov's breach with the classical tradition is the most significant event in modern literature", John Middleton Murry, in Athenaeum, 8 April 1922, cited in Bartlett's introduction to About Love.
^ "You are right in demanding that an artist should take an intelligent attitude to his work, but you confuse two things: solving a problem and stating a problem correctly. It is only the second that is obligatory for the artist." Letter to Suvorin, 27 October 1888. Letters of Anton Chekhov. ^ Rayfield 1997, pp. 3–4: Egor Mikhailovich Chekhov and Efrosinia Emelianovna ^ a b Wood 2000, p. 78 ^ Payne, XVII.
^ Simmons 1970, p. 18. ^ Chekhov and Taganrog, Taganrog city website. ^ a b c d e f From the biographical sketch, adapted from a memoir by Chekhov's brother Mihail, which prefaces Constance Garnett's translation of Chekhov's letters, 1920. ^ Letter to brother Alexander, 2 January 1889, in Malcolm 2004, p. 102. ^ Another insight into Chekhov's childhood came in a letter to his publisher and friend Alexei Suvorin: "From my childhood I have believed in progress, and I could not help believing in it since the difference between the time when I used to be thrashed and when they gave up thrashing me was tremendous.
" Letter to Suvorin, 27 March 1894. Letters of Anton Chekhov. ^ Bartlett, 4–5. ^ a b Letter to I.L. Shcheglov, 9 March 1892. Letters of Anton Chekhov. ^ Tabachnikova, Olga (2010). Anton Chekhov Through the Eyes of Russian Thinkers: Vasilii Rozanov, Dmitrii Merezhkovskii and Lev Shestov. Anthem Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-84331-841-5. For Rozanov, Chekhov represents a concluding stage of classical Russian literature at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, caused by the fading of the thousand-year-old Christian tradition that had sustained much of this literature.
On the one hand, Rozanov regards Chekhov's positivism and atheism as his shortcomings, naming them among the reasons for Chekhov's popularity in society. ^ Chekhov, Anton Pavlovich (1997). Karlinsky, Simon; Heim, Michael Henry, eds. Anton Chekhov's Life and Thought: Selected Letters and Commentary. Northwestern University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8101-1460-9. While Anton did not turn into the kind of militant atheist that his older brother Alexander eventually became, there is no doubt that he was a non-believer in the last decades of his life.
^ Richard Pevear (2009). Selected Stories of Anton Chekhov. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. xxii. ISBN 978-0-307-56828-1. According to Leonid Grossman, "In his revelation of those evangelical elements, the atheist Chekhov is unquestionably one of the most Christian poets of world literature." ^ Rayfield 1997, p. 31. ^ Letter to cousin Mihail, 10 May 1877. Letters of Anton Chekhov. ^ Malcolm 2004, p.
25. ^ a b c Payne, XX. ^ Letter to brother Mihail, 1 July 1876. Letters of Anton Chekhov. ^ Simmons 1970, p. 26. ^ Simmons 1970, p. 33. ^ Rayfield 1997, p. 69. ^ Wood 2000, p. 79. ^ Rayfield 1997, p. 91. ^ "There is in these miniatures an arresting potion of cruelty ... The wonderfully compassionate Chekhov was yet to mature." "Vodka Miniatures, Belching and Angry Cats", George Steiner's review of The Undiscovered Chekhov in The Observer, 13 May 2001.
Retrieved 16 February 2007. ^ Willis, Louis (27 January 2013). "Chekhov's Crime Stories". Literary and Genre. Knoxville: SleuthSayers. ^ a b Malcolm 2004, p. 26. ^ Letter to N.A.Leykin, 6 April 1886. Letters of Anton Chekhov. ^ Rayfield 1997, p. 128. ^ Rayfield 1997, pp. 448–50 ^ In many ways, the right-wing Suvorin, whom Lenin later called "The running dog of the Tzar" (Payne, XXXV), was Chekhov's opposite; "Chekhov had to function like Suvorin's kidney, extracting the businessman's poisons.
"Wood 2000, p. 79 ^ The Huntsman.. Retrieved 16 February 2007. ^ Malcolm 2004, pp. 32–3. ^ Payne, XXIV. ^ Simmons 1970, p. 160. ^ "There is a scent of the steppe and one hears the birds sing. I see my old friends the ravens flying over the steppe." Letter to sister Masha, 2 April 1887. Letters of Anton Chekhov. ^ Letter to Grigorovich, 12 January 1888. Quoted by Malcolm 2004, p. 137. ^ "'The Steppe,' as Michael Finke suggests, is 'a sort of dictionary of Chekhov's poetics,' a kind of sample case of the concealed literary weapons Chekhov would deploy in his work to come.
" Malcolm 2004, p. 147. ^ From the biographical sketch, adapted from a memoir by Chekhov's brother Mikhail, which prefaces Constance Garnett's translation of Chekhov's letters, 1920. ^ Letter to brother Alexander, 20 November 1887. Letters of Anton Chekhov. ^ Petr Mikhaĭlovich Bit︠s︡illi (1983), Chekhov's Art: A Stylistic Analysis, Ardis, p. x ^ Daniel S. Burt (2008), The Literature 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Novelists, Playwrights, and Poets of All Time, Infobase Publishing ^ a b Valentine T.
Bill (1987), Chekhov: The Silent Voice of Freedom, Philosophical Library ^ S. Shchukin, Memoirs (1911) ^ "A Dreary Story.". Retrieved 16 February 2007. ^ Simmons 1970, pp. 186–91. ^ Malcolm 2004, p. 129. ^ Simmons 1970, p. 223. ^ Rayfield 1997, p. 224. ^ Letter to sister, Masha, 20 May 1890. Letters of Anton Chekhov. ^ Wood 2000, p. 85. ^ Rayfield 1997, p. 230. ^ Letter to A.F.Koni, 16 January 1891.
Letters of Anton Chekhov. ^ Malcolm 2004, p. 125. ^ Simmons 1970, p. 229: Such is the general critical view of the work, but Simmons calls it a "valuable and intensely human document." ^ "The Murder". Retrieved 16 February 2007. ^ Murakami, Haruki. 1Q84. Alfred A. Knopf: New York, 2011. ^ Heaney, Seamus. Station Island Farrar Straus Giroux: New York, 1985. ^ Payne, XXXI. ^ From the biographical sketch, adapted from a memoir by Chekhov's brother Mikhail, which prefaces Constance Garnett's translation of Chekhov's letters, 1920.
^ From the biographical sketch, adapted from a memoir by Chekhov's brother Mihail, which prefaces Constance Garnett's translation of Chekhov's letters, 1920. ^ Note-Book.. Retrieved 16 February 2007. ^ Rayfield 1997, pp. 394–8. ^ Benedetti, Stanislavski: An Introduction, 25. ^ Chekhov and the Art Theatre, in Stanislavski's words, were united in a common desire "to achieve artistic simplicity and truth on the stage.
" Allen, 11. ^ Rayfield 1997, pp. 390–1 ^ Letter to Suvorin, 1 April 1897. Letters of Anton Chekhov. ^ Olga Knipper, "Memoir", in Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress, 37, 270. ^ Bartlett, 2. ^ Malcolm 2004, pp. 170–71. ^ "I have a horror of weddings, the congratulations and the champagne, standing around, glass in hand with an endless grin on your face." Letter to Olga Knipper, 19 April 1901.
^ Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress, 125. ^ Rayfield 1997, p. 500 ^ Harvey Pitcher in Chekhov's Leading Lady, quoted in Malcolm 2004, p. 59. ^ "Chekhov had the temperament of a philanderer. Sexually, he preferred brothels or swift liaisons."Wood 2000, p. 78 ^ Letter to Suvorin, 23 March 1895. Letters of Anton Chekhov. ^ Rayfield 1997, pp. 556–57 ^ There was certainly tension between the couple after the miscarriage, though Simmons 1970, p.
569, and Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress, 241, put this down to Chekhov's mother and sister blaming the miscarriage on Olga's late-night socialising with her actor friends. ^ Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress: The Love Letters of Olga Knipper and Anton Chekhov. ^ Chekhov, Anton. "Lady with lapdog". Short Stories. ^ Rosamund, Bartlett (2 February 2010). "The House That Chekhov Built". London Evening Standard.
p. 31. ^ Greenberg, Yael. "The Presentation of the Unconscious in Chekhov's Lady With Lapdog." Modern Language Review 86.1 (1991): 126–130. Academic Search Premier. Web. 3 November 2011. ^ "Overview: 'The Lady with the Dog'." Characters in 20th-Century Literature. Laurie Lanzen Harris. Detroit: Gale Research, 1990. Literature Resource Center. Web. 3 November 2011. ^ Letter to sister Masha, 28 June 1904.
Letters of Anton Chekhov. ^ Malcolm 2004, p. 62. ^ Olga Knipper, Memoir, in Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress, 284. ^ "Banality revenged itself upon him by a nasty prank, for it saw that his corpse, the corpse of a poet, was put into a railway truck 'For the Conveyance of Oysters'." Maxim Gorky in Reminiscences of Anton Chekhov.. Retrieved 16 February 2007. ^ Chekhov's Funeral. M. Marcus.The Antioch Review, 1995 ^ Malcolm 2004, p.
91; Alexander Kuprin in Reminiscences of Anton Chekhov. Retrieved 16 February 2007 ^ "Novodevichy Cemetery". Passport Magazine. April 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2013. ^ Payne, XXXVI. ^ Simmons 1970, p. 595. ^ Meister, Charles W. (1953). "Chekhov's Reception in England and America". American Slavic and East European Review. 12 (1): 109–121. doi:10.2307/3004259. JSTOR 3004259. ^ William H. New (1999).
Reading Mansfield and Metaphors of Reform. McGill-Queen's Press. pp. 15–17. ISBN 978-0-7735-1791-2. ^ Wood 2000, p. 77. ^ Allen, 88. ^ "They won't allow a play which is seen to lament the lost estates of the gentry." Letter of Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, quoted by Anatoly Smeliansky in "Chekhov at the Moscow Art Theatre", from The Cambridge Companion to Chekhov, 31–2. ^ Anna Obraztsova in "Bernard Shaw's Dialogue with Chekhov", from Miles, 43–4.
^ Reynolds, Elizabeth (ed), Stanislavski's Legacy, Theatre Arts Books, 1987, ISBN 978-0-87830-127-0, 81, 83. ^ "It was Chekhov who first deliberately wrote dialogue in which the mainstream of emotional action ran underneath the surface. It was he who articulated the notion that human beings hardly ever speak in explicit terms among each other about their deepest emotions, that the great, tragic, climactic moments are often happening beneath outwardly trivial conversation.
" Martin Esslin, from Text and Subtext in Shavian Drama, in 1922: Shaw and the last Hundred Years, ed. Bernard. F. Dukore, Penn State Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-271-01324-4, 200. ^ "Lee Strasberg became in my opinion a victim of the traditional idea of Chekhovian theatre ... [he left] no room for Chekhov's imagery." Georgii Tostonogov on Strasberg's production of Three Sisters in The Drama Review (winter 1968), quoted by Styan, 121.
^ "The plays lack the seamless authority of the fiction: there are great characters, wonderful scenes, tremendous passages, moments of acute melancholy and sagacity, but the parts appear greater than the whole." A Chekhov Lexicon, by William Boyd, The Guardian, 3 July 2004. Retrieved 16 February 2007. ^ Bartlett, "From Russia, with Love", The Guardian, 15 July 2004. Retrieved 17 February 2007. ^ Letter from Ernest Hemingway to Archibald MacLeish, 1925 (from Selected Letters, p.
179), in Ernest Hemingway on Writing, Ed Larry W. Phillips, Touchstone, (1984) 1999, ISBN 978-0-684-18119-6, 101. ^ Wood 2000, p. 82. ^ From Vladimir Nabokov's Lectures on Russian Literature, quoted by Francine Prose in Learning from Chekhov, 231. ^ "For the first time in literature the fluidity and randomness of life was made the form of the fiction. Before Chekhov, the event-plot drove all fictions.
" William Boyd, referring to the novelist William Gerhardie's analysis in Anton Chekhov: A Critical Study, 1923. "A Chekhov Lexicon" by William Boyd, The Guardian, 3 July 2004. Retrieved 16 February 2007. ^ Woolf, Virginia, The Common Reader: First Series, Annotated Edition, Harvest/HBJ Book, 2002, ISBN 0-15-602778-X, 172. ^ Michael Goldman, The Actor's Freedom: Towards a Theory of Drama, p72. ^ Sekirin, Peter (2011).
Memories of Chekhov: Accounts of the Writer from His Family, Friends and Contemporaries. Foreword by Alan Twigg. Jefferson, NC: MacFarland Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7864-5871-4. ^ Rimer, J. Japanese Theatre and the International Stage. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. pp. 299–311. ISBN 90-04-12011-4. ^ a b Clayton, J. Douglas. Adapting Chekhov: The Text and Its Mutations. Routledge.
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Pitcher, Harvey, Chekhov's Leading Lady: Portrait of the Actress Olga Knipper, J Murray, 1979, ISBN 978-0-7195-3681-6 Prose, Francine, Learning from Chekhov, in Writers on Writing, ed. Robert Pack and Jay Parini, UPNE, 1991, ISBN 978-0-87451-560-2 Rayfield, Donald (1997). Anton Chekhov: A Life. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 9780805057478. OCLC 654644946, 229213309. Sekirin, Peter. "Memories of Chekhov: Accounts of the Writer from His Family, Friends and Contemporaries," MacFarland Publishers, 2011, ISBN 978-0-7864-5871-4 Simmons, Ernest Joseph (1970) .
Chekhov: A Biography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226758053. OCLC 682992. Speirs, L. Tolstoy and Chekhov. Cambridge, England: University Press, (1971), ISBN 0521079500 Stanislavski, Constantin, My Life in Art, Methuen Drama, 1980 edition, ISBN 978-0-413-46200-8 Styan, John Louis, Modern Drama in Theory and Practice, Cambridge University Press, 1981, ISBN 978-0-521-29628-1 Wood, James (2000) .
"What Chekhov Meant by Life". The Broken Estate: Essays in Literature and Belief. New York, NY: Modern Library. ISBN 9780804151900. OCLC 863217943. Zeiger, Arthur, The Plays of Anton Chekhov, Claxton House, Inc., New York, NY, 1945. Tufarulo, G, M., La Luna è morta e lo specchio infranto. Miti letterari del Novecento, vol.1- G. Laterza, Bari, 2009– ISBN 978-88-8231-491-0. External links Find more aboutAnton Chekhovat Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Listen to this article (info/dl) This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Anton Chekhov" dated 2012-07-26, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.
(Audio help) More spoken articles Biographical Anton Chekhov at Encyclopædia Britannica Petri Liukkonen. "Anton Chekhov". Books and Writers Biography at The Literature Network "Chekhov's Legacy" by Cornel West at NPR, 2004 The International competition of philological, culture and film studies works dedicated to Anton Chekhov's life and creative work (in Russian) Works Works by Anton Pavlovich Chekhov at Project Gutenberg.
All Constance Garnett's translations of the short stories and letters are available, plus the edition of the Note-book translated by S. S. Koteliansky and Leonard Woolf – see the "References" section for print publication details of all of these. Site also has translations of all the plays. Works by or about Anton Chekhov at Internet Archive Works by Anton Chekhov at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) 201 Stories by Anton Chekhov, translated by Constance Garnett presented in chronological order of Russian publication with annotations.
Антон Павлович Чехов. Указатель Texts of Chekhov's works in the original Russian, listed in chronological order, and also alphabetically by title. Retrieved June 2013. (in Russian) Антон Павлович Чехов Texts of Chekhov's works in the original Russian. Retrieved 16 February 2007. (in Russian) Works by Anton Chekhov at Open Library Plays, Three Sisters by Anton Chekhov.
v t e Works by Anton Chekhov Plays Platonov (1881) On the Harmful Effects of Tobacco (1886, 1902) Swansong (1887) Ivanov (1887) The Bear (1888) A Tragedian in Spite of Himself (1889) The Wedding (1889) Tatiana Repina (1889) The Wood Demon (1889) A Marriage Proposal (1890) The Festivities (1891) The Seagull (1896) Uncle Vanya (1897) Three Sisters (1901) The Cherry Orchard (1904) Novel The Shooting Party (1884) Novellas The Steppe (1888) A Dreary Story (1889) The Duel (1891) The Story of an Unknown Man (1893) Three Years (1895) My Life (1896) Peasants (1897) Short stories "An Enigmatic Nature" (1883) "The Death of a Government Clerk" (1883) "Fat and Thin" (1883) "The Complaints Book" (1884) "Surgery" (1884) "The Chameleon (1884) "Oysters" (1884) "A Living Chronology" (1885) "Small Fry" (1885) "The Fish" (1885) "A Horsey Name" (1885) "The Huntsman" (1885) "A Malefactor" (1885) "Sergeant Prishibeyev" (1885) "Children" (1886) "A Gentleman Friend" (1886) "Agafya" (1886) "Anyuta" (1886) "Easter Eve" (1886) "Grisha" (1886) "Misery" (1886) "The Chorus Girl" (1886) "Ivan Matveyich" (1886) "The Witch" (1886) "The Requiem" (1886) "Mire" (1886) "Vanka" (1886) "At Home (1887) "The Siren" (1887) "Boys" (1887) "Kashtanka" (1887) "A Story Without a Title" (1888) "Sleepy" (1888) "The Bet" (1889) "Gusev" (1890) "Peasant Wives" (1891) "The Grasshopper" (1892) "In Exile" (1892) "Ward No.
6" (1892) "The Black Monk" (1894) "Rothschild's Violin" (1894) "The Student" (1894) "The Teacher of Literature" (1894) "Anna on the Neck" (1895) "Whitebrow" (1895) "Ariadne" (1895) "The House with the Mezzanine" (1895) "The Petcheneg" (1897) "In the Cart" (1897) "The Man in the Case" (1898) "Gooseberries" (1898) "About Love" (1898) "Ionych" (1898) "A Doctor's Visit" (1898) "On Official Duty" (1899) "The Darling" (1899) "The Lady with the Dog" (1899) "In The Ravine" (1899) "The Bishop" (1902) "Betrothed" (1903) Related articles Chekhov's gun Osip Dymov Fragments Wild Honey v t e Anton Chekhov's Uncle Vanya (1899) Films Uncle Vanya (1957) Uncle Vanya (1963) Uncle Vanya (1970 Russian) Vanya on 42nd Street (1994) Country Life (1994) August (1996) Other Sonya's Story September Cold Souls v t e Anton Chekhov's Three Sisters Films The Three Sisters (1966) The Three Sisters (1970) Three Sisters (1970) Three Sisters (1994) The Sisters (2005) v t e Anton Chekhov's The Seagull (1896) Films The Sea Gull (1968) The Seagull (1972) Little Lili (2003) Plays Moscow Art Theatre production (1898) The Notebook of Trigorin (1981) Other 1959 Australian TV Play The Seagull (1974 opera) Related Birds of Paradise v t e Anton Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard (1904) Films The Cherry Orchard (1973) The Cherry Orchard (1999) Pomegranate Orchard (2017) Opera Der Kirschgarten Story within a Story Sakura no Sono Henry's Crime Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 95216565 LCCN: n79130807 ISNI: 0000 0001 2103 1904 GND: 118638289 SELIBR: 201439 SUDOC: 027156397 BNF: cb11926133z (data) BIBSYS: 90733091 MusicBrainz: ecf035ed-ecd5-478e-a76e-0b524f0a7dc1 NLA: 36321458 NDL: 00435837 NKC: jn19990210160 ICCU: IT\ICCU\CFIV\006477 RLS: 000082167 BNE: XX907635 IATH: w6f491df Retrieved from "https://en.
Title: A Work Of Art By Anton Chekhov